Abstract

A p-i-n structure with near-UV(n-UV) emitting InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well(MQW) structure stacked on a green unipolar InGaN/GaN MQW was epitaxially grown at the same sapphire substrate. Photon recycling green light-emitting diodes(LEDs) with vertical-conduction feature on silicon substrates were then fabricated by wafer bonding and laser lift-off techniques. The green InGaN/GaN QWs were pumped with n-UV light to reemit low-energy photons when the LEDs were electrically driven with a forward current. Efficiency droop is potentially insignificant compared with the direct green LEDs due to the increase of effective volume of active layer in the optically pumped green LEDs, i.e., light emitting no longer limited in the QWs nearest to the p-type region to cause severe Auger recombination and carrier overflow losses.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  3. H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Schiavon, M. Binder, A. Loeffler, and M. Peter, “Optically pumped GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the realization of efficient green light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113509 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. J.-K. Sheu, F.-B. Chen, S.-H. Wu, M.-L. Lee, P.-C. Chen, and Y.-H. Yeh, “Vertical InGaN-based green-band solar cells operating under high solar concentration up to 300 suns,” Opt. Express 22(S5), A1222–A1228 (2014).
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    [Crossref]
  7. U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).
  9. F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), L1358–L1360 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  15. E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. K. Yam and Z. Hassan, “InGaN: An overview of the growth kinetics, physical properties and emission mechanisms,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(1), 1–23 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diode (Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2006.), pp.88–90.

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, A. Loeffler, and M. Peter, “Optically pumped GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the realization of efficient green light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113509 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

2012 (2)

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

F. K. Yam and Z. Hassan, “InGaN: An overview of the growth kinetics, physical properties and emission mechanisms,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(1), 1–23 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), L1358–L1360 (1998).
[Crossref]

Asif Khan, M.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bellotti, E.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergbauer, W.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Binder, M.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, A. Loeffler, and M. Peter, “Optically pumped GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the realization of efficient green light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113509 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. M.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.-B.

Chen, P.-C.

Chi, G. C.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. W.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Drechsel, P.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fox, A. M.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Froehlich, S.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Galler, B.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gessmann, T.

Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Goano, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hahn, B.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hassan, Z.

F. K. Yam and Z. Hassan, “InGaN: An overview of the growth kinetics, physical properties and emission mechanisms,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(1), 1–23 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hung, W. C.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jou, M. J.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. H.

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuokstis, E.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lai, W. C.

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. S.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. L.

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, M.-L.

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. L.

Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. C.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[Crossref]

Loeffler, A.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, A. Loeffler, and M. Peter, “Optically pumped GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the realization of efficient green light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meneghini, M.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Monnard, R.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morkoc, H.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), L1358–L1360 (1998).
[Crossref]

Na, J. H.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), L1358–L1360 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ozgur, U.

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[Crossref]

Parbrook, P.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, Y. S.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Peter, M.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, A. Loeffler, and M. Peter, “Optically pumped GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the realization of efficient green light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113509 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

Rode, P.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sabathil, M.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schiavon, D.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, A. Loeffler, and M. Peter, “Optically pumped GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the realization of efficient green light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scholz, F.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shei, S. C.

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J.-K.

Shur, M. S.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Simin, G.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sone, C.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stauss, P.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Su, Q.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Su, Y. K.

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tahraoui, A.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Taylor, R. A.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C. M.

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

Verzellesi, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J.

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-H.

Xu, J.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yam, F. K.

F. K. Yam and Z. Hassan, “InGaN: An overview of the growth kinetics, physical properties and emission mechanisms,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(1), 1–23 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), L1358–L1360 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yeh, Y.-H.

Yi, S. N.

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, A. Loeffler, and M. Peter, “Optically pumped GaInN/GaN multiple quantum wells for the realization of efficient green light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(11), 113509 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Galler, P. Drechsel, R. Monnard, P. Rode, P. Stauss, S. Froehlich, W. Bergbauer, M. Binder, M. Sabathil, B. Hahn, and J. Wagner, “Influence of indium content and temperature on Auger-like recombination in InGaN quantum wells grown on (111) silicon substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(13), 131111 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Kuokstis, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, M. Asif Khan, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Two mechanisms of blueshift of edge emission in InGaN-based epilayers and multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 977 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. H. Na, R. A. Taylor, K. H. Lee, T. Wang, A. Tahraoui, P. Parbrook, A. M. Fox, S. N. Yi, Y. S. Park, J. W. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of carrier localization in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum wells on well thickness,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253120 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, and Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: Physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Li, T. Gessmann, E. F. Schubert, and J. K. Sheu, “Carrier dynamics in nitride-based light-emitting p-n junction diodes with two active regions emitting at different wavelengths,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2167–2172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, C. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, M. L. Lee, and C. H. Kuo, “Emission mechanism of mixed-color InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(4A), 2463–2466 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Mukai, M. Yamada, and S. Nakamura, “current and temperature dependences of electroluminescence of InGaN-Based UV/blue/green light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(2), L1358–L1360 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Status Solidi. (1)

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength‐dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single‐quantum‐well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi. B250(2), 283–290 (2013).

Proc. IEEE (1)

U. Ozgur, H. Liu, X. Li, X. Ni, and H. Morkoc, “GaN-based light-emitting diodes: efficiency at high injection levels,” Proc. IEEE 98(7), 1180–1196 (2010).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

J. K. Sheu, G. C. Chi, Y. K. Su, C. C. Liu, C. M. Chang, W. C. Hung, and M. J. Jou, “Luminescence of an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light-emitting diode,” Solid-State Electron. 44(6), 1055–1058 (2000).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

F. K. Yam and Z. Hassan, “InGaN: An overview of the growth kinetics, physical properties and emission mechanisms,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(1), 1–23 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diode (Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 2006.), pp.88–90.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a)Epitaxial layer structure of the PRLEDs grown on sapphire substrate (b)typical top-view image taken from the proposed vertical InGaN/GaN/Si PRLEDs. The inset shows a photograph of the green PRLED chip driven under a forward current of 20 mA(c)schematic layer structure of the InGaN/GaN/Si PRLEDs (d)schematic layer structure of the conventional vertical InGaN/GaN/Si green LEDs.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical I-V characteristics of the green PRLEDs and vertical direct-UVLEDs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Typical mapping diagram of PL peak wavelength at around 510 nm taken from the green PRLED wafers(b) representative PL spectrum taken from the green PRLED wafers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)Typical EL spectra of the green PRLEDs driven at various forward currents. The inset shows a photograph of the packaged green PRLED driven under a forward current of 200 mA (b) typical EL spectra taken from the direct-UV and direct-green LEDs driven at various forward currents(c) light conversion percentages from n-UV to green as a function of the driving current densities.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a)Typical output powers of the green PRLEDs and direct-green LEDs driven at different current densities (b) EQE as a function of injection currents for the direct-green LEDs, the green and n-UV peaks of the PRLEDs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a)Peak wavelength and (b)FWHM of EL spectra as a function of injection currents taken from the direct-green LEDs, the green and n-UV peaks of the PRLEDs (c) the FWHM as a function of temperatures taken from the green and n-UV peaks of the PRLEDs.

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