Abstract

Transmittance and conductivity are the key requirements for transparent electrodes. Many optoelectronic applications require additional features such as mechanical flexibility and cost-efficient fabrication at low temperatures. Here we demonstrate a simple method to fabricate high performance transparent electrodes that is based on perforation of thin silver layers using picosecond laser pulses. Transparent electrodes have been characterized optically and electrically in order to determine the influence of specific surface coverage. Special attention was paid to maintaining sufficient conductivity in the metal-free areas. As a result, transmittance of a much higher bandwidth was achieved as compared to unpatterned metal films. Transparent electrodes have been fabricated on glass and plastic foil, as well as wafer-based silicon heterojunction solar cells, demonstrating their applicability for most relevant cases.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
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  4. L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. S.-B. Kang and H.-K. Kim, “Highly flexible and transparent InSnO/Ag nanowire/InSnO hybrid electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 559, 31–35 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  11. M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
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  12. C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. R. Sahu and J.-L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 208–211 (2007).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. Kim, H. W. Cho, K. Hong, J. H. Son, K. Kim, B. Koo, S. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Design of red, green, blue transparent electrodes for flexible optical devices,” Opt. Express 22(Suppl 5), A1257–A1269 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  20. H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. O. Madani Ghahfarokhi, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Enhanced passivation at amorphous/crystalline silicon interface and suppressed Schottky barrier by deposition of microcrystalline silicon emitter layer in silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 113901 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  28. K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  30. P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

S.-B. Kang and H.-K. Kim, “Highly flexible and transparent InSnO/Ag nanowire/InSnO hybrid electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 559, 31–35 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Madani Ghahfarokhi, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Enhanced passivation at amorphous/crystalline silicon interface and suppressed Schottky barrier by deposition of microcrystalline silicon emitter layer in silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kim, H. W. Cho, K. Hong, J. H. Son, K. Kim, B. Koo, S. Kim, and J.-L. Lee, “Design of red, green, blue transparent electrodes for flexible optical devices,” Opt. Express 22(Suppl 5), A1257–A1269 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (4)

A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
[Crossref]

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit ultrathin metal transparent electrodes incorporating a conductive grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041109 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Cho, C. Yun, and S. Yoo, “Multilayer transparent electrode for organic light-emitting diodes: tuning its optical characteristics,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3404–3414 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. R. Sahu and J.-L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 208–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Bel Hadj Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2631 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

J. R. Sambles, “The resistivity of thin metal films - some critical remarks,” Thin Solid Films 106(4), 321–331 (1983).
[Crossref]

Agert, C.

M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Madani Ghahfarokhi, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Enhanced passivation at amorphous/crystalline silicon interface and suppressed Schottky barrier by deposition of microcrystalline silicon emitter layer in silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akinoglu, E. M.

A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alford, T. L.

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alvensleben, F.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bailat, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bailie, C. D.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ban, T.

R. Bel Hadj Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2631 (1998).
[Crossref]

Beiley, Z. M.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bel Hadj Tahar, R.

R. Bel Hadj Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2631 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bowring, A. R.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruder, I.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, J. J.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-Y.

J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaturvedi, N. X.

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. L.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit ultrathin metal transparent electrodes incorporating a conductive grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

Cho, H. W.

Christoforo, M. G.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Connor, S. T.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Mello, J. C.

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, B.

T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Droz, C.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Edwards, A.

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellmer, K.

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
[Crossref]

Faist, M.

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, S. Y.

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Formica, N.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fröbel, M.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, T.

T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garnett, E. C.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gather, M. C.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geißendörfer, S.

M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, D. S.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit ultrathin metal transparent electrodes incorporating a conductive grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Giersig, M.

A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Greyson Christoforo, M.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guillén, C.

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, H.

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

Herrero, J.

C. Guillén and J. Herrero, “TCO/metal/TCO structures for energy and flexible electronics,” Thin Solid Films 520(1), 1–17 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, S.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, K.

Hsu, P.-C.

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, L.

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.-L.

D. R. Sahu and J.-L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 208–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

Islam, W.

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izyumskaya, N.

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, M.-G.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.-B.

S.-B. Kang and H.-K. Kim, “Highly flexible and transparent InSnO/Ag nanowire/InSnO hybrid electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 559, 31–35 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-K.

S.-B. Kang and H.-K. Kim, “Highly flexible and transparent InSnO/Ag nanowire/InSnO hybrid electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 559, 31–35 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

Kim, M.-S.

M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Kobayashi, M. S.

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, D.

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koo, B.

Kroll, U.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lam, D.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-K.

T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-L.

Leem, D.-S.

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitz, K.-H.

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leu, P. W.

T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.-Z.

J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Logeeswaran Vj, N. P.

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madani Ghahfarokhi, O.

O. Madani Ghahfarokhi, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Enhanced passivation at amorphous/crystalline silicon interface and suppressed Schottky barrier by deposition of microcrystalline silicon emitter layer in silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mahmood, F.

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Margulis, G. Y.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, J.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Momma, C.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[Crossref]

Morfa, A. J.

A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mulvaney, P.

A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Narasimhan, V. K.

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ohya, Y.

R. Bel Hadj Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2631 (1998).
[Crossref]

Otto, A.

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peumans, P.

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pruneri, V.

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit ultrathin metal transparent electrodes incorporating a conductive grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041109 (2010).
[Crossref]

Redlingshöfer, B.

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reg, Y.

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ryoung Lee, H.

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahu, D. R.

D. R. Sahu and J.-L. Huang, “The properties of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films before and after annealing in the different atmosphere,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 208–211 (2007).
[Crossref]

Salleo, A.

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sambles, J. R.

J. R. Sambles, “The resistivity of thin metal films - some critical remarks,” Thin Solid Films 106(4), 321–331 (1983).
[Crossref]

Schade, H.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M.

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schubert, S.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schwab, T.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shah, A. V.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

Spinelli, P.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subbiah, J.

A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, Y.

R. Bel Hadj Tahar, T. Ban, Y. Ohya, and Y. Takahashi, “Tin doped indium oxide thin films: electrical properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(5), 2631 (1998).
[Crossref]

Theodore, N. D.

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
[Crossref]

Theuring, M.

M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomschke, M.

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
[Crossref]

Vallat-Sauvain, E.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

van de Groep, J.

J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanecek, M.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Vehse, M.

M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
[Crossref]

von Maydell, K.

M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Madani Ghahfarokhi, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Enhanced passivation at amorphous/crystalline silicon interface and suppressed Schottky barrier by deposition of microcrystalline silicon emitter layer in silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 113901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang,

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, X.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. S.

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, P.

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wyrsch, N.

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xie, W.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yip, H.-L.

J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.

Yu, J.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yun, C.

Zhang, L.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zou, J.

J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
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ACS Nano (1)

L. Hu, H. S. Kim, J. Y. Lee, P. Peumans, and Y. Cui, “Scalable coating and properties of transparent, flexible, silver nanowire electrodes,” ACS Nano 4(5), 2955–2963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Energ. Mater. (1)

G. Y. Margulis, M. G. Christoforo, D. Lam, Z. M. Beiley, A. R. Bowring, C. D. Bailie, A. Salleo, and M. D. McGehee, “Spray deposition of silver nanowire electrodes for semitransparent solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells,” Adv. Energ. Mater. 3(12), 1657–1663 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

D.-S. Leem, A. Edwards, M. Faist, J. Nelson, D. D. C. Bradley, and J. C. de Mello, “Efficient organic solar cells with solution-processed silver nanowire electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(38), 4371–4375 (2011).
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M.-G. Kang, M.-S. Kim, J. Kim, and L. J. Guo, “Organic solar cells using nanoimprinted transparent metal electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 20(23), 4408–4413 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Zou, C.-Z. Li, C.-Y. Chang, H.-L. Yip, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Interfacial engineering of ultrathin metal film transparent electrode for flexible organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3618–3623 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

T. Schwab, S. Schubert, S. Hofmann, M. Fröbel, C. Fuchs, M. Thomschke, L. Müller-Meskamp, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Highly efficient color stable inverted white top-emitting OLEDs with ultra-thin wetting layer top electrodes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 707–713 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit ultrathin metal transparent electrodes incorporating a conductive grid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041109 (2010).
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O. Madani Ghahfarokhi, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Enhanced passivation at amorphous/crystalline silicon interface and suppressed Schottky barrier by deposition of microcrystalline silicon emitter layer in silicon heterojunction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(11), 113901 (2014).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 63(2), 109–115 (1996).
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EPJ Photovoltaics (1)

M. Theuring, S. Geißendörfer, M. Vehse, K. von Maydell, and C. Agert, “Thin metal layer as transparent electrode in n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cells,” EPJ Photovoltaics 5, 55205 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Han, N. D. Theodore, and T. L. Alford, “Improved conductivity and mechanism of carrier transport in zinc oxide with embedded silver layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(1), 013708 (2008).
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A. J. Morfa, E. M. Akinoglu, J. Subbiah, M. Giersig, and P. Mulvaney, “Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(5), 054502 (2013).
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J. Mater. Chem. C (1)

S. Liu, W. Liu, J. Yu, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Wen, Y. Yin, and W. Xie, “Silver/germanium/silver: an effective transparent electrode for flexible organic light-emitting devices,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(5), 835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

T. Gao, B. Wang, B. Ding, J.-K. Lee, and P. W. Leu, “Uniform and ordered copper nanomeshes by microsphere lithography for transparent electrodes,” Nano Lett. 14(4), 2105–2110 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Logeeswaran Vj, M. S. Kobayashi, W. Islam, P. Wu, N. X. Chaturvedi, S. Y. Fang, Wang, and R. S. Williams, “Ultrasmooth silver thin films deposited with a germanium nucleation layer,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 178–182 (2009).
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J. van de Groep, P. Spinelli, and A. Polman, “Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3138–3144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

P.-C. Hsu, S. Wang, H. Wu, V. K. Narasimhan, D. Kong, H. Ryoung Lee, and Y. Cui, “Performance enhancement of metal nanowire transparent conducting electrodes by mesoscale metal wires,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

E. C. Garnett, W. Cai, J. J. Cha, F. Mahmood, S. T. Connor, M. Greyson Christoforo, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, and M. L. Brongersma, “Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions,” Nat. Mater. 11(3), 241–249 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

K. Ellmer, “Past achievements and future challenges in the development of optically transparent electrodes,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 809–817 (2012).
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Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Procedia (1)

K.-H. Leitz, B. Redlingshöfer, Y. Reg, A. Otto, and M. Schmidt, “Metal ablation with short and ultrashort laser pulses,” Phys. Procedia 12, 230–238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (1)

A. V. Shah, H. Schade, M. Vanecek, J. Meier, E. Vallat-Sauvain, N. Wyrsch, U. Kroll, C. Droz, and J. Bailat, “Thin-film silicon solar cell technology,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 12(23), 113–142 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. S. Ghosh, T. L. Chen, N. Formica, J. Hwang, I. Bruder, and V. Pruneri, “High figure-of-merit Ag/Al:ZnO nano-thick transparent electrodes for indium-free flexible photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 338–343 (2012).
[Crossref]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

H. Liu, V. Avrutin, N. Izyumskaya, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “Transparent conducting oxides for electrode applications in light emitting and absorbing devices,” Superlattices Microstruct. 48(5), 458–484 (2010).
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Thin Solid Films (4)

S.-B. Kang and H.-K. Kim, “Highly flexible and transparent InSnO/Ag nanowire/InSnO hybrid electrodes,” Thin Solid Films 559, 31–35 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Sketch of the metal layer laser perforation. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of Ag layer exposed to ns laser pulse (i) and to ps laser pulse (ii), respectively (scale bar: 1 µm). (c) Optical microscope image of perforated Ag layers using laser powers of 0.31 W (i), 0.74 W (ii), 1.32 W (iii) and 2.08 W (iv) (scale bar: 50 µm). (d) Photographs of laser perforated Ag layers on glass (i) and plastic substrate (ii).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmittance measurements (solid lines) of perforated Ag layers on glass (a) and on plastic foil (b). Dashed lines represent the transmission calculated with Eq. (2) using transmittance data of the 100% and 0% coverage samples. The inset table lists the laser power, the metal coverage and the measured sheet resistance RSQ of the corresponding samples. (c) Simulated and measured sheet resistance for perforated Ag layer. The inset figure shows the simulation domain. (d) Series resistance induced power loss for a solar cell of circular shape with rim contact for different cell radii as a function of the sheet resistance, calculated using Eq. (4) with JMPP = 40 mA/cm2 and VMPP = 0.6 V.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sketch (a) and transmittance measurements (b) of a perforated Ag layer encapsulated in an AZO layer with a total thickness of 70 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Sketch (a) and external quantum efficiency (b) of amorphous silicon solar cells, fabricated on transparent electrodes based on unperforated and perforated Ag layers and 70 nm encapsulation layers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sketch (a) and external quantum efficiency measurements (b) from silicon heterojunction solar cells, furnished with AZO (70 nm) / perforated Ag layer and ITO (70 nm) transparent electrodes.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Coverage=1 A Holes A Total =1 2π r H 2 3 d P 2
T Coverage =Coverage T 100% +(1Coverage) T 0% .
P Loss = 0 r H (Jπ r 2 ) 2 R S dr 2πr
LossRatio= P Loss P MPP = R S J MPP r H 2 8 V MPP

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