Abstract

We demonstrate a diode-pumped femtosecond-laser-inscribed Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser, Q-switched by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) near 1029 nm. We used saturable absorber mirrors (SAMs) fabricated by depositing SWCNTs on three different output couplers. Best performance of the 9.3-mm-long ultra-compact Q-switched waveguide laser is obtained with an output coupling transmission of 20%. In this case, a maximum average output power of 60 mW with a corresponding pulse energy of 37.7 nJ and a pulse duration of 88 ns at 1.59-MHz repetition rate were achieved. The highest pulse energy of 39.2 nJ and the shortest pulse duration of 78 ns were obtained with 30% and 10% output couplers, respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (7)

Y. Tan, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, S. Sun, and F. Chen, “Guided continuous-wave and graphene-based Q-switched lasers in carbon ion irradiated Nd:YAG ceramic channel waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3572–3577 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, C. Cheng, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Nd:YAG waveguide laser Q-switched by evanescent-field interaction with graphene,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9101–9106 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Choudhary, S. Dhingra, B. D’Urso, T. L. Parsonage, K. A. Sloyan, R. W. Eason, and D. P. Shepherd, “Q-switched operation of a pulsed-laser-deposited Yb:Y2O3 waveguide using graphene as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4325–4328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tan, Y. Yao, J. R. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Self-Q-switched waveguide laser based on femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:Cr:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5289–5292 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Calmano and S. Müller, “Crystalline Waveguide Lasers in the Visible and Near-Infrared Spectral Range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1602213 (2014).

Y. Jia, Y. Tan, C. Cheng, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, and F. Chen, “Efficient lasing in continuous wave and graphene Q-switched regimes from Nd:YAG ridge waveguides produced by combination of swift heavy ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 22(11), 12900–12908 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Choi, J. W. Kim, M. H. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, B. H. Hong, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Carbon nanostructure-based saturable absorber mirror for diode-pumped 500-MHz femtosecond Yb:KLu(WO4)2 laser,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15626–15631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (2)

2011 (6)

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, A.-G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Charlet, L. Bastard, and J. E. Broquin, “1 kW peak power passively Q-switched Nd3+-doped glass integrated waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 1987–1989 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Calmano, J. Siebenmorgen, A. G. Paschke, C. Fiebig, K. Paschke, G. Erbert, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Diode-pumped high power operation of a femtosecond laser inscribed Yb:YAG waveguide laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 428–433 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Aviles-Espinosa, G. Filippidis, C. Hamilton, G. Malcolm, K. J. Weingarten, T. Südmeyer, Y. Barbarin, U. Keller, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Compact ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: targeting GFP based nonlinear applications in living organisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 739–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

Aguiló, M.

Akhmadaliev, S.

Aravazhi, S.

Artigas, D.

Aviles-Espinosa, R.

Bain, F. M.

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Barbarin, Y.

Bastard, L.

Beach, R. J.

Beecher, S. J.

Bennett, W. J.

Billeh, Y. N.

Bolaños, W.

Borca, C. N.

Broquin, J. E.

Brown, C. T. A.

Brown, G.

Buma, T.

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

Carvajal, J. J.

Charlet, B.

Chen, F.

Cheng, C.

Cho, W. B.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorber for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. Y.

Choudhary, A.

D’Urso, B.

Davis, K. M.

Dhingra, S.

Díaz, F.

Dudley, J. M.

Eason, R. W.

Erbert, G.

Ferrari, A. C.

Fiebig, C.

Filippidis, G.

Fredrich-Thornton, S. T.

T. Calmano, A.-G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

Guretsky, S. A.

Hamilton, C.

Hasan, T.

Hirao, K.

Hong, B. H.

Huber, G.

Jaque, D.

Jia, Y.

Kalanda, N. A.

Kannan, P.

Kar, A. K.

Keller, U.

Kim, C.

Kim, G.-H.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. W.

Kim, K.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorber for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

Kisel, V. E.

Kobayashi, Y.

Kolesova, I. M.

Kränkel, C.

Krupke, W. F.

Kuleshov, N. V.

Kundermann, S.

Kurilchick, S. V.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lecomte, S.

Lee, S.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorber for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lidorikis, E.

Lifante, G.

Liu, M.

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Lu, Q.

Luginets, A. M.

Macdonald, J. R.

Mackenzie, J. I.

Malcolm, G.

Mary, R.

Mateos, X.

McMahon, J. M.

Meissner, H. E.

Meissner, O. R.

Milana, S.

Mitchell, S. C.

Miura, K.

Morris, J. A.

Müller, S.

T. Calmano and S. Müller, “Crystalline Waveguide Lasers in the Visible and Near-Infrared Spectral Range,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1602213 (2014).

T. Calmano, A. G. Paschke, S. Müller, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Curved Yb:YAG waveguide lasers, fabricated by femtosecond laser inscription,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25501–25508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murugan, G. S.

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohara, S.

Panyutin, V. L.

Parsonage, T. L.

Paschke, A. G.

Paschke, A.-G.

T. Calmano, A.-G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paschke, K.

Pekarek, S.

Petermann, K.

Petrov, V.

Pollnau, M.

Pollock, C. R.

Popa, D.

Rivier, S.

Rodenas, A.

Romanyuk, Y. E.

Rotermund, F.

Santos, S. I. C. O.

Schmidt, A.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorber for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

Sibbett, W.

Siebenmorgen, J.

Sloyan, K. A.

Steinmeyer, G.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorber for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, S.

Sun, Z.

Szela, J. W.

Tan, Y.

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R. R.

Torrisi, F.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weingarten, K. J.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Yagi, H.

T. Calmano, A.-G. Paschke, J. Siebenmorgen, S. T. Fredrich-Thornton, H. Yagi, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Characterization of an Yb:YAG ceramic waveguide laser, fabricated by the direct femtosecond-laser writing technique,” Appl. Phys. B 103(1), 1–4 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.-W.

Yao, Y.

Yeom, D.-I.

Yim, J. H.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorber for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Zhang, H.

Y. Tan, Y. Yao, J. R. Macdonald, A. K. Kar, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and F. Chen, “Self-Q-switched waveguide laser based on femtosecond laser inscribed Nd:Cr:YVO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5289–5292 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-laser graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorber for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Experimental setup of Q-switched Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser with SWCNT-coated output coupler. L: aspheric lens with f = 6.24 mm, λ/2 plate: half-wave plate, isolator: Faraday isolator, polarizer: Glen-Taylor polarizer, M: bending mirror, L1: aspheric lens with f = 18.4 mm, OC: 10%, 20% or 30% output coupler, L2: convex lens with f = 11 mm. Insets; Microscope images of (b) cross-section of the femtosecond-laser-inscribed two 28-μm-separated tracks and (c) top-view of the Yb:YAG channel waveguide. (d) Photograph of the laser setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 CW laser operation of an Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser in different configurations: (a) output power characteristics from the waveguide end-facets as resonant cavity (blue squares) and the waveguide with a high-reflection end mirror (red dots) and (b) output power characteristics with three different output coupler transmissions (10%, 20% and 30%).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser Q-switched by SWCNT-coated OCs: (a) average output power characteristics and (b) repetition rates for three different output couplers. (c) Pulse width and (d) pulse energy as function of incident pump power for 20% OC
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser Q-switched with SWCNT-coated 20% OC: (a) laser spectrum, beam profile (lower inset) and pulse shape (upper inset), and (b) measured pulse train in different time-spans of 20 μs and 10 s.

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