Abstract

This paper introduces a new concept, namely passive optical interconnect at top of the rack in the datacenter networks, and investigates several architectures, which use only passive optical components to interconnect different servers. In such a manner, the proposed schemes are able to offer higher bandwidth and significantly improve energy efficiency compared to their electronic counterpart that is based on commodity switches. The proposed passive optical interconnect schemes are experimentally demonstrated in order to validate the transmission performance. Besides, an assessment in terms of energy consumption and cost has also been carried out, which shows our proposed concept can significantly outperform the conventional commodity switches on energy efficiency while keeping the cost in the similar level.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(7), 644–647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON Stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, J. Meng, S. Guo, L. Wang, and J. J. He, “Simple and compact V-cavity semiconductor laser with 50×100 GHz wavelength tuning,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13564–13571 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2009 (3)

J. Chen, B. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Joint bandwidth scheduling to support differentiated services and multiple service providers in 1G and 10G EPONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(4), 343–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Kant, “Data center evolution: a tutorial on state of the art, issues, and challenges,” Comput. Netw. 53(17), 2939–2965 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now?” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. Chen, J. Chen, and S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(4), 653–660 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74–80 (2002).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

Akella, A.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of Data Centers in the Wild,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 267–280.

Akella, V.

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aleksic, S.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

Astfalk, G.

G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now?” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bauwelinck, J.

Bazzaz, H. H.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

Benson, T.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of Data Centers in the Wild,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 267–280.

Bernier, E.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Bi, M.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(7), 644–647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boardman, J.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Casoni, M.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekhar, S.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y.

Chen, B.

J. Chen, B. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Joint bandwidth scheduling to support differentiated services and multiple service providers in 1G and 10G EPONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(4), 343–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, J. Chen, and S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(4), 653–660 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, B. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Joint bandwidth scheduling to support differentiated services and multiple service providers in 1G and 10G EPONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(4), 343–351 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, J. Chen, and S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(4), 653–660 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Gong, Y. Lu, X. Hong, S. He, and J. Chen, “Passive optical interconnects at top of the rack for data center networks,” in 2014 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, (2014), pp. 78–83.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coldren, L. A.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Colle, D.

Effenberger, F.

Fainman, Y.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

Farrington, N.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

Fiorani, M.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ford, J.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Forencich, A.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Freund, J. M.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fu, H. Y.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Geary, J. M.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Geng, D.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Glogovsky, K.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, Y. Lu, X. Hong, S. He, and J. Chen, “Passive optical interconnects at top of the rack for data center networks,” in 2014 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, (2014), pp. 78–83.

Goodwill, D.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Graves, A.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Green Jr, P.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grenko, J.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guo, S.

Harm, D.

M. Wang, L. Jun, D. L. Stefano, D. Harm, and C. Nicola, “Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2013), pp. 1266–1268.
[Crossref]

He, J. J.

He, S.

B. Chen, J. Chen, and S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(4), 653–660 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Gong, Y. Lu, X. Hong, S. He, and J. Chen, “Passive optical interconnects at top of the rack for data center networks,” in 2014 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, (2014), pp. 78–83.

Hong, X.

Y. Gong, Y. Lu, X. Hong, S. He, and J. Chen, “Passive optical interconnects at top of the rack for data center networks,” in 2014 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, (2014), pp. 78–83.

Hu, W.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(7), 644–647 (2013).
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Hugues-salas, E.

Y. Shu, G. Zervas, Y. Yan, S. Peng, S. Yan, E. Hugues-salas, and D. Simeonidou, “Programmable optical packet/circuit switched data centre interconnects: traffic modeling and evaluation,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Johnson, K. M.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
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Jun, L.

M. Wang, L. Jun, D. L. Stefano, D. Harm, and C. Nicola, “Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2013), pp. 1266–1268.
[Crossref]

Kachris, C.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kant, K.

K. Kant, “Data center evolution: a tutorial on state of the art, issues, and challenges,” Comput. Netw. 53(17), 2939–2965 (2009).
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Kercher, T.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
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Ketelsen, L.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
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Kramer, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74–80 (2002).
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Lambert, S.

Lannoo, B.

Lentz, C.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lewis, J. G.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
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Li, S.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Li, Z.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(7), 644–647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Y. Gong, Y. Lu, X. Hong, S. He, and J. Chen, “Passive optical interconnects at top of the rack for data center networks,” in 2014 International Conference on Optical Network Design and Modeling, (2014), pp. 78–83.

Luo, Y.

Ma, H.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Ma, Y.

Maltz, D.

T. Benson, A. Akella, and D. Maltz, “Network traffic characteristics of Data Centers in the Wild,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 267–280.

Mason, B.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mehrvar, H.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Meng, J.

Miller, C. M.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Moeneclaey, B.

Monroe, D.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morrison, J. F.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, B.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74–80 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nicola, C.

M. Wang, L. Jun, D. L. Stefano, D. Harm, and C. Nicola, “Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2013), pp. 1266–1268.
[Crossref]

Nitta, C. J.

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Olshansky, R.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ougazzaden, A.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Papen, G.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

Peng, G.

Peng, S.

Y. Shu, G. Zervas, Y. Yan, S. Peng, S. Yan, E. Hugues-salas, and D. Simeonidou, “Programmable optical packet/circuit switched data centre interconnects: traffic modeling and evaluation,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Pesavento, G.

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74–80 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peticolas, L.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pickavet, M.

Porter, G.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

Proietti, R.

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Przybylek, G.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
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Qian, Y.

Qiu, X. Z.

Rader, M.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Radhakrishnan, S.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

Ramachandran, K.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ramaswami, R.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, L.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shu, Y.

Y. Shu, G. Zervas, Y. Yan, S. Peng, S. Yan, E. Hugues-salas, and D. Simeonidou, “Programmable optical packet/circuit switched data centre interconnects: traffic modeling and evaluation,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2014), pp. 1–3.
[Crossref]

Simeonidou, D.

Y. Shu, G. Zervas, Y. Yan, S. Peng, S. Yan, E. Hugues-salas, and D. Simeonidou, “Programmable optical packet/circuit switched data centre interconnects: traffic modeling and evaluation,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2014), pp. 1–3.
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Singh, A.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
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Singla, A.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
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Sirenko, A.

B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

Smith, E. H.

P. Green Jr, L. A. Coldren, K. M. Johnson, J. G. Lewis, C. M. Miller, J. F. Morrison, R. Olshansky, R. Ramaswami, and E. H. Smith, “All-optical packet-switched metropolitan-area network proposal,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11(5), 754–763 (1993).
[Crossref]

Stefano, D. L.

M. Wang, L. Jun, D. L. Stefano, D. Harm, and C. Nicola, “Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2013), pp. 1266–1268.
[Crossref]

Sub- ramanya, V.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

Sun, P.-C.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
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Vahdat, A.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Sub- ramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: a hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceeding of ACM SIGCOMM, (2010), pp. 339–350.

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Vandewege, J.

Verbrugghe, J.

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B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
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Wang, D.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Wang, L.

Wang, M.

M. Wang, L. Jun, D. L. Stefano, D. Harm, and C. Nicola, “Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system,” in 39th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2013), pp. 1266–1268.
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Wei, W.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(7), 644–647 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wen, X.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
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Wosinska, L.

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
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M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
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J. Chen, B. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Joint bandwidth scheduling to support differentiated services and multiple service providers in 1G and 10G EPONs,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1(4), 343–351 (2009).
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Xu, L.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, S.

Y. Shu, G. Zervas, Y. Yan, S. Peng, S. Yan, E. Hugues-salas, and D. Simeonidou, “Programmable optical packet/circuit switched data centre interconnects: traffic modeling and evaluation,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2014), pp. 1–3.
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Yan, X.

Yan, Y.

Y. Shu, G. Zervas, Y. Yan, S. Peng, S. Yan, E. Hugues-salas, and D. Simeonidou, “Programmable optical packet/circuit switched data centre interconnects: traffic modeling and evaluation,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2014), pp. 1–3.
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Yang, X.

H. Ma, X. Yang, H. Mehrvar, Y. Wang, S. Li, A. Graves, D. Wang, H. Y. Fu, D. Geng, D. Goodwill, and E. Bernier, “Hybrid photonic ethernet switch for datacenters,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (2014), M3E.6.

Ye, X.

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yi, L.

L. Yi, Z. Li, M. Bi, W. Wei, and W. Hu, “Symmetric 40-Gb/s TWDM-PON with 39-dB power budget,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(7), 644–647 (2013).
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Yin, X.

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
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Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
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Y. Shu, G. Zervas, Y. Yan, S. Peng, S. Yan, E. Hugues-salas, and D. Simeonidou, “Programmable optical packet/circuit switched data centre interconnects: traffic modeling and evaluation,” in 40th European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, (2014), pp. 1–3.
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Zhang, S.

Zhang, Y.

K. Chen, A. Singla, A. Singh, K. Ramachandran, L. Xu, Y. Zhang, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: an optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 22(2), 498–511 (2014).
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G. Astfalk, “Why optical data communications and why now?” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 95(4), 933–940 (2009).
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K. Kant, “Data center evolution: a tutorial on state of the art, issues, and challenges,” Comput. Netw. 53(17), 2939–2965 (2009).
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B. Mason, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Ougazzaden, C. Lentz, J. M. Geary, L. L. Buhl, L. Peticolas, K. Glogovsky, J. M. Freund, L. Reynolds, G. Przybylek, F. Walters, A. Sirenko, J. Boardman, T. Kercher, M. Rader, J. Grenko, D. Monroe, and L. Ketelsen, “Photonic integrated receiver for 40 Gbit/s transmission,” Electron. Lett. 38(20), 1196–1197 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorani, S. Aleksic, M. Casoni, L. Wosinska, and J. Chen, “Energy-efficient elastic optical interconnect architecture for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(9), 1531–1534 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

G. Kramer, B. Mukherjee, and G. Pesavento, “IPACT: A dynamic protocol for an ethernet PON (EPON),” IEEE Commun. Mag. 40(2), 74–80 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. (1)

C. Kachris and I. Tomkos, “A survey on optical interconnects for data centers,” IEEE Commun. Surv. Tut. 14(4), 1021–1036 (2012).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (2)

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: an AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
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B. Chen, J. Chen, and S. He, “Efficient and fine scheduling algorithm for bandwidth allocation in ethernet passive optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 12(4), 653–660 (2006).
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IEEE Photonic Tech. L. (2)

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P.-C. Sun, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonic Tech. L. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Passive optical interconnects at top of the rack: (a) Scheme I with a single receiver at each server, (b) Scheme II with two receivers at each server and (c) Scheme III with wavelength tunable filter at each server.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The structure of the datacenter network using Scheme I at ToR
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of experimental setup (bit rate = 10Gb/s). The inset optical eye-diagrams and spectrum diagrams show the results measured at different points.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Results of BER vs. received optical power (ROP) in different tested cases and electrical eye-diagrams at (b) BER = 10−9, (c) BER = 10−3 for the case of 1-channel working and at (d) BER = 10−9, (e) BER = 10−3 for the case of 3-channel working.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Results of power consumption: (a) as a function of the number of servers within the rack with bit rate of 10 Gb/s and (b) as a function of bit rate for a rack with 48 servers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Results of cost: (a) as a function of the number of servers within the rack with bit rate of 10 Gb/s and (b) as a function of bit rate for a rack with 48 servers.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Sensitivity analysis of cost assessment (a) with different numbers of servers per rack at data rate of 10Gb/s and (b) at different data rates per server with 48 servers per rack

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Optical Link Loss of Intra-Rack Communications

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Table 2 Optical Link Loss of Inter-rack Communications

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Table 3 : Input Data for Power Consumption and Cost

Metrics