Abstract

Photonic technologies will be at the heart of future terrestrial planet hunting interferometers. In particular the mid-infrared spectral region between 3.5 – 4.2 μm is the ideal window for hunting for young extra-solar planets, since the planet is still hot from its formation and thus offers a favorable contrast with respect to the parent star compared to other spectral regions. This paper demonstrates two basic photonic building blocks of such an instrument, namely single-mode waveguides with propagation losses as low as 0.29±0.03 dB/cm at a wavelength of 4 μm as well as directional couplers with a constant splitting ratio across a broad wavelength band of 500 nm. The devices are based on depressed cladding waveguides inscribed into ZBLAN glass using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. This demonstration is the first stepping stone towards the realization of a high transmission mid-infrared nulling interferometer.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (2)

2012 (8)

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in soft glasses: a comparative study of athermal and thermal processing regimes for guided wave optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, and T. M. Monro, “2.1 μm waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser direct-writing in Ho3+, Tm3+:ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 996–998 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 27503–27509 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. K. Kar, and R. R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Kraus and M. J. Ireland, “LkCa 15: a young exoplanet caught at formation?” Astrophys. J. 745, 5 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Martin, A. Booth, K. Liewer, N. Raouf, F. Loya, and H. Tang, “High performance testbed for four-beam infrared interferometric nulling and exoplanet detection,” Appl. Opt. 51, 3907–3921 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 15212–15220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, A. K. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19, 5698–5705 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1587–1589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

L. Labadie and O. Wallner, “Mid-infrared guided optics: a perspective for astronomical instruments,” Opt. Express 17, 1947–1962 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-K. Hsiao, K. A. Winick, J. D. Monnier, and J.-P. Berger, “An infrared integrated optic astronomical beam combiner for stellar interferometry at 3–4 μm,” Opt. Express 17, 18489–18500 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Hu and C. R. Menyuk, “Understanding leaky modes: slab waveguide revisited,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 58–106 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an Integrated Optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–850 (2004).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 2, 683–700 (1993).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

J. M. Parker, “Fluoride Glasses,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 19, 21–41 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

K. Goel and W. Chang, “Extinction ratio degradation due to asymmetry in zero-gap directional coupling and crossing channel switches,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 2216–2223 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, and P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature 320, 595–597 (1986).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, “Detecting nonsolar planets by spinning infrared interferometer,” Nature 274, 780–781 (1978).
[Crossref]

Absil, O.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Allen, P. J.

Ams, M.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in soft glasses: a comparative study of athermal and thermal processing regimes for guided wave optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1587–1589 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anheier, N. C.

Arezki, B.

Arnold, C. B.

Arriola, A.

Atanackovic, P.

Augereau, J.-C.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baldwin, J. E.

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, and P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature 320, 595–597 (1986).
[Crossref]

Barillot, M.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an Integrated Optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–850 (2004).
[Crossref]

Benisty, M.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berger, J.-P.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Hsiao, K. A. Winick, J. D. Monnier, and J.-P. Berger, “An infrared integrated optic astronomical beam combiner for stellar interferometry at 3–4 μm,” Opt. Express 17, 18489–18500 (2009).
[Crossref]

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Blind, N.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bonfils, X.

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A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21, 2978–2986 (2013).
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M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
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V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an Integrated Optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–850 (2004).
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M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 27503–27509 (2012).
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S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, and T. M. Monro, “2.1 μm waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser direct-writing in Ho3+, Tm3+:ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 996–998 (2012).
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S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in soft glasses: a comparative study of athermal and thermal processing regimes for guided wave optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1587–1589 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in soft glasses: a comparative study of athermal and thermal processing regimes for guided wave optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rochat, S.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ródenas, A.

Rojas, C.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roussel, F.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Roux, A.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schanen-Duport, I.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an Integrated Optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–850 (2004).
[Crossref]

Snyder, A.

A. Snyder and J. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Springer, 1983), chap. 23.

Sodnik, Z.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an Integrated Optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–850 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stadler, E.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stefl, S.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stewart, P.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoian, R.

Tang, H.

Tatulli, E.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomson, R. R.

Tittelbach, G.

G. Tittelbach, B. Richter, and W. Karthe, “Comparison of three transmission methods for integrated optical waveguide propagation loss measurement,” Pure Appl. Opt. J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 2, 683–700 (1993).
[Crossref]

Traub, W.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
[Crossref]

Troles, J.

Tsay, C.

Tuthill, P. G.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21, 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ventura, N.

J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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Wallner, O.

Warner, P. J.

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, and P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature 320, 595–597 (1986).
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Weber, V.

V. Weber, M. Barillot, P. Haguenauer, P. Y. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, P. R. Labeye, L. Pujol, and Z. Sodnik, “Nulling interferometer based on an Integrated Optics combiner,” Proc. SPIE 5491, 842–850 (2004).
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Williams, R. J.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in soft glasses: a comparative study of athermal and thermal processing regimes for guided wave optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
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Winick, K. A.

Withford, M. J.

S. Gross, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond laser induced structural changes in fluorozirconate glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 574–583 (2013).
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A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21, 2978–2986 (2013).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, A. Fuerbach, H. E. Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, and M. J. Withford, “Versatile large-mode-area femtosecond laser-written Tm:ZBLAN glass chip lasers,” Opt. Express 20, 27503–27509 (2012).
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S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, and T. M. Monro, “2.1 μm waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser direct-writing in Ho3+, Tm3+:ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 996–998 (2012).
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S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser inscription in soft glasses: a comparative study of athermal and thermal processing regimes for guided wave optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glas. Sci. 3, 332–348 (2012).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1587–1589 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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J.-B. Le Bouquin, J.-P. Berger, B. Lazareff, G. Zins, P. Haguenauer, L. Jocou, P. Kern, R. Millan-Gabet, W. Traub, O. Absil, J.-C. Augereau, M. Benisty, N. Blind, X. Bonfils, P. Bourget, A. Delboulbe, P. Feautrier, M. Germain, P. Gitton, D. Gillier, M. Kiekebusch, J. Kluska, J. Knudstrup, P. Labeye, J.-L. Lizon, J.-L. Monin, Y. Magnard, F. Malbet, D. Maurel, F. Ménard, M. Micallef, L. Michaud, G. Montagnier, S. Morel, T. Moulin, K. Perraut, D. Popovic, P. Rabou, S. Rochat, C. Rojas, F. Roussel, A. Roux, E. Stadler, S. Stefl, E. Tatulli, and N. Ventura, “PIONIER: a 4-telescope visitor instrument at VLTI,” Astron. Astrophys. 535, A67 (2011).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19, 15212–15220 (2011).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Gross, M. Ams, D. G. Lancaster, T. M. Monro, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Femtosecond direct-write überstructure waveguide Bragg gratings in ZBLAN,” Opt. Lett. 37, 3999–4001 (2012).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm3+:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1587–1589 (2011).
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D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, and T. M. Monro, “2.1 μm waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser direct-writing in Ho3+, Tm3+:ZBLAN glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 996–998 (2012).
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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

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Other (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Sketch of the setup used to characterize the waveguide samples based on thermal radiation emitted by a soldering iron, that is reimaged onto the waveguides using several plano-convex (pcx) CaF2 lenses. The inset in the top left shows the a photo of the optical setup in the MIR, whereas the inset in the top right is the black-body curve for an object with 475 °C surface temperature. The shaded area corresponds to the transmission band of the used bandpass filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Waveguide transmission as a function of the injected focal ratio and the corresponding numerical aperture for 3 different waveguides. All waveguides show identical focal ratios of F/# = 12 ± 1 or the equivalent numerical apertures of NA = 0.042 ± 0.004. The blue bar indicates the numerical aperture NA = 0.046 ± 0.007 of the waveguides as determined by comparing the experimentally measured to the computed mode-field diameters using a step-index profile.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured propagation losses as function of the waveguide core diameter and width of the surrounding cladding. (b) Computed intrinsic confinement losses of the depressed cladding geometry due to leakage through the finite cladding. The losses are plotted as a function of core diameter and cladding width for an index contrast of Δn = −9 × 10−4, which is the upper limit for the experimentally determined index contrast. (c) Transmission of the lowest loss waveguide (47 μm core diameter and 59 μm cladding width) as a function of the sample length. The linear fit corresponds to a propagation loss (PL) of 0.29±0.03 dB/cm. The inset shows the corresponding near-field profile of the waveguide.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Sketch of the depressed cladding directional coupler with transmission differential interference contrast microscope images taken at different positions of the device. The scale bar in the images corresponds to 50 μm. The red dashed circles marks defects created by hard on/off switching of the laser. On the right-hand side an image of the coupler’s end-face is shown. Stress-fractures are apparent at the edges of the cladding, however without affecting the waveguide performance. The inscription laser was incident from the top.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Splitting ratio of the depressed cladding directional coupler prototype across a wavelength band from 3.75 to 4.25 μm.

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