Abstract

Constructing flexible regular-shaped range-intensity profiles by the convolution of illuminator laser pulse and sensor gate pulse is crucial for 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging. However, ns-scale rectangular-shaped laser pulse with tunable pulse width is difficult to be obtained, especially for pulsed solid-stated lasers. In this paper we propose a multi-pulse time delay integration (MPTDI) method to reshape range-intensity profiles (RIP) free from the above limitation of pulsed lasers. An equivalent laser pulse temporal shaping model is established to evaluate and optimize the MPTDI method. By using MPTDI, the RIP shape and depth of viewing can both be flexibly changed as desired. Here typical triangular and trapezoidal RIPs are established for 3D imaging under triangular and trapezoidal range-intensity correlation algorithms. In addition, a prototype experiment is demonstrated to prove the feasibility of MPTDI.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3146–3148 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-32-21-3146 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4705–4710 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-43-24-4705 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 116001 (2005), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1101840 .
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Xinwei, L. Youfu, and Z. Yan, “Triangular-range-intensity profile spatial-correlation method for 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52(30), 7399–7406 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-30-7399 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Laurenzis and E. Bacher, “Image coding for three-dimensional range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50(21), 3824–3828 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-50-21-3824 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. X. Zhang and H. Yan, “Three-dimensional active imaging with maximum depth range,” Appl. Opt. 50(12), 1682–1686 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-50-12-1682 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .
  8. http://www.obzerv.com/products/ .
  9. I. M. Baker, S. S. Duncan, and J. W. Copley, “A low-noise laser-gated imaging system for long-range target identification,” Proc. SPIE 5406, 133–144 (2004), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=843582 .
    [Crossref]
  10. O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
    [Crossref]
  11. O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, T. Chevalier, and O. Gustafsson, “Active and passive short-wave infrared and near-infrared imaging for horizontal and slant paths close to ground,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4763–4778 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-20-4763 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
    [Crossref]
  13. O. Steinvall and T. Chevalier, “Range accuracy and resolution for laser radars,” Proc. SPIE 5988, 598808 (2005), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=880859 .
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45(3), 034301 (2006), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1076565 .
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

2014 (2)

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45(3), 034301 (2006), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1076565 .
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

O. Steinvall and T. Chevalier, “Range accuracy and resolution for laser radars,” Proc. SPIE 5988, 598808 (2005), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=880859 .
[Crossref]

J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 116001 (2005), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1101840 .
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

I. M. Baker, S. S. Duncan, and J. W. Copley, “A low-noise laser-gated imaging system for long-range target identification,” Proc. SPIE 5406, 133–144 (2004), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=843582 .
[Crossref]

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4705–4710 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-43-24-4705 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson, P.

P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45(3), 034301 (2006), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1076565 .
[Crossref]

Axelsson, M.

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
[Crossref]

Bacher, E.

Baker, I. M.

I. M. Baker, S. S. Duncan, and J. W. Copley, “A low-noise laser-gated imaging system for long-range target identification,” Proc. SPIE 5406, 133–144 (2004), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=843582 .
[Crossref]

Busck, J.

J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 116001 (2005), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1101840 .
[Crossref]

J. Busck and H. Heiselberg, “Gated viewing and high-accuracy three-dimensional laser radar,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4705–4710 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-43-24-4705 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chevalier, T.

Christnacher, F.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
[Crossref]

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3146–3148 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-32-21-3146 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Copley, J. W.

I. M. Baker, S. S. Duncan, and J. W. Copley, “A low-noise laser-gated imaging system for long-range target identification,” Proc. SPIE 5406, 133–144 (2004), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=843582 .
[Crossref]

Duncan, S. S.

I. M. Baker, S. S. Duncan, and J. W. Copley, “A low-noise laser-gated imaging system for long-range target identification,” Proc. SPIE 5406, 133–144 (2004), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=843582 .
[Crossref]

Elmqvist, M.

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, T. Chevalier, and O. Gustafsson, “Active and passive short-wave infrared and near-infrared imaging for horizontal and slant paths close to ground,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4763–4778 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-20-4763 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
[Crossref]

Gustafsson, O.

Heiselberg, H.

Karlsson, K.

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
[Crossref]

Larsson, H.

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
[Crossref]

Laurenzis, M.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
[Crossref]

M. Laurenzis and E. Bacher, “Image coding for three-dimensional range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 50(21), 3824–3828 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-50-21-3824 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3146–3148 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-32-21-3146 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutz, Y.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
[Crossref]

Matwyschuk, A.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
[Crossref]

Metzger, N.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

Monnin, D.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

M. Laurenzis, F. Christnacher, and D. Monnin, “Long-range three-dimensional active imaging with superresolution depth mapping,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3146–3148 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?uri=ol-32-21-3146 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poyet, J.-M.

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
[Crossref]

Schertzer, S.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

Schmitt, G.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

Scholtz, T.

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

Songtao, F.

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

Steinvall, O.

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, T. Chevalier, and O. Gustafsson, “Active and passive short-wave infrared and near-infrared imaging for horizontal and slant paths close to ground,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4763–4778 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-20-4763 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
[Crossref]

O. Steinvall and T. Chevalier, “Range accuracy and resolution for laser radars,” Proc. SPIE 5988, 598808 (2005), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=880859 .
[Crossref]

Wei, C.

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

Xiaoquan, L.

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

Xinwei, W.

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

W. Xinwei, L. Youfu, and Z. Yan, “Triangular-range-intensity profile spatial-correlation method for 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52(30), 7399–7406 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-30-7399 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

Yan, Z.

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

W. Xinwei, L. Youfu, and Z. Yan, “Triangular-range-intensity profile spatial-correlation method for 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52(30), 7399–7406 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-30-7399 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yinan, C.

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

Youfu, L.

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

W. Xinwei, L. Youfu, and Z. Yan, “Triangular-range-intensity profile spatial-correlation method for 3D super-resolution range-gated imaging,” Appl. Opt. 52(30), 7399–7406 (2013), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-52-30-7399 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Opt. Eng. (3)

M. Laurenzis, Y. Lutz, F. Christnacher, A. Matwyschuk, and J.-M. Poyet, “Homogeneous and speckle-free laser illumination for range-gated imaging and active polarimetry,” Opt. Eng. 51(6), 061302 (2012), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1306311 .
[Crossref]

P. Andersson, “Long-range three-dimensional imaging using range-gated laser radar images,” Opt. Eng. 45(3), 034301 (2006), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1076565 .
[Crossref]

J. Busck, “Underwater 3-D optical imaging with a gated viewing laser radar,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 116001 (2005), http://opticalengineering.spiedigitallibrary.org/article.aspx?articleid=1101840 .
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

W. Xinwei, C. Yinan, C. Wei, L. Xiaoquan, F. Songtao, Z. Yan, and L. Youfu, “Three-dimensional range-gated flash lidar for land surface remote sensing,” Proc. SPIE 9260, 9260L (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1935278 .

O. Steinvall and T. Chevalier, “Range accuracy and resolution for laser radars,” Proc. SPIE 5988, 598808 (2005), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=880859 .
[Crossref]

I. M. Baker, S. S. Duncan, and J. W. Copley, “A low-noise laser-gated imaging system for long-range target identification,” Proc. SPIE 5406, 133–144 (2004), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=843582 .
[Crossref]

O. Steinvall, M. Elmqvist, K. Karlsson, H. Larsson, and M. Axelsson, “Laser imaging of small surface vessels and people at sea,” Proc. SPIE 7684, 768417 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1344799 .
[Crossref]

F. Christnacher, M. Laurenzis, D. Monnin, G. Schmitt, N. Metzger, S. Schertzer, and T. Scholtz, “3D laser gated viewing from a moving submarine platform,” Proc. SPIE 9250, 9250F (2014), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1917267 .

Other (1)

http://www.obzerv.com/products/ .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Depth scanning of 3D SRGI for large depth of viewing. (a) Target scene. (b) Scanning under the triangular algorithm. (c) Scanning under the trapezoidal algorithm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Multi-pulse time delay integration method. (a) Principle. (b) Time sequence. (c) Integrated RIP.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Equivalent output laser pulse by integrating M input laser pulses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Output laser pulse profiles under different uniformity coefficients. (a) Output laser pulse profiles integrated by Gaussian input laser pulses. (b) Output laser pulse profiles integrated by quasi-Gaussian input laser pulses.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Output laser pulse profiles under different input laser pulse widths.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Range-intensity correlation algorithms for 3D SRGI. (a) Trapezoidal algorithm. (b) Triangular algorithm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Establishment of Trapezoidal RIPs. (a) RIPs under Gaussian input laser pulses. (b) RIPs under quasi-Gaussian input laser pulses. (c) Gaussian gray ratio. (d) Quasi-Gaussian gray ratio.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Establishment of Triangular RIPs. (a) RIPs under Gaussian input laser pulses. (b) RIPs under quasi-Gaussian input laser pulses. (c) Gaussian gray ratio. (d) Quasi-Gaussian gray ratio.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Gray ratio at u = 1.(a) Gray ratio under the trapezoidal algorithm. (b) Gray ratio under the triangular algorithm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Triangular RIPs under different input laser pulse widths.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Experimental results of triangular 3D SRGI under MPTDI. (a) Target type-B gate image. (b) Target 3D image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Profile properties of output laser pulses under different uniformity coefficients

Tables Icon

Table 2 Profile properties of output laser pulses under different input laser pulse widths

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(r)=N i=1 M E sub.i (r)
E sub.i (r)= 0 P(t2r/c)G(t τ i )dt
R= τc 2
t G = t g
t L = t l +(M1)δt
E(r)=N i=1 M 0 P(t2r/c)G(t τ i )dt =N 0 P(t2r/c)[ i=1 M G(t τ i ) ]dt =N 0 [ i=1 M P(t(Mi)δt2r/c) ]G(tτ)dt =N 0 P output (t2r/c)G(tτ)dt
P output (t)= i=1 M P(t(Mi)δt)
ξ=US
U= P valley P peak
S= t top t bottom
u= δt t l
t L =(Muu+1) t l

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