Abstract

Assessing the coverage of the color space of Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020 (Rec. 2020) has become increasingly important in the design of wide-gamut displays, and an appropriate metric for measuring the display gamut size is urgently needed. Display manufactures calculate the area ratios of their displays’ RGB triangles to a standard RGB triangle in the CIE 1931 xy or CIE 1976 uv′ chromaticity diagram to indicate the displays’ relative gamut size. However, they typically fail to mention which of the two diagrams the metric is based on. This paper shows that the ratios calculated in the two chromaticity diagrams are highly inconsistent, and that the Rec. 2020 area-coverage ratios for wide-gamut displays in the xy diagram are much more correlated to the Rec. 2020 volume-coverage ratios in some color-appearance spaces than the Rec. 2020 area-coverage ratios in the uv′ diagram. This paper recommends the use of the xy diagram for area-coverage ratio calculations for wide-gamut displays.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020-1, “Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange,” 2014.
  2. ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” 2002.
  3. K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. ITU-R Report BT.2246-3, “The present state of ultra-high definition television,” 2014.
  5. K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).
  6. Adobe Systems Inc., “Adobe RGB (1998) Color Image Encoding,” 2005.
  7. SMPTE RP 431-2:2011, “D-Cinema Quality — Reference Projector and Environment,” 2011.
  8. M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  9. CIE 159:2004, “A colour appearance model for colour management systems: CIECAM02,” 2004.
  10. K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19069–19077 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. L. MacAdam, “Visual sensitivities to color differences in daylight,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 32(5), 247–273 (1942).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Wyszecki and G. H. Fielder, “New color-matching ellipses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61(9), 1135–1152 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. P. Goldstein, “Non-MacAdam color discrimination ellipses,” Proc. SPIE 8487, 84870A (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Masaoka, R. S. Berns, M. D. Fairchild, and F. Moghareh Abed, “Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(2), 264–277 (2013).
    [PubMed]

2014 (2)

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19069–19077 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

P. Goldstein, “Non-MacAdam color discrimination ellipses,” Proc. SPIE 8487, 84870A (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

1942 (1)

Berns, R. S.

Fairchild, M. D.

Fielder, G. H.

Goldstein, P.

P. Goldstein, “Non-MacAdam color discrimination ellipses,” Proc. SPIE 8487, 84870A (2012).
[Crossref]

Kusakabe, Y.

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

MacAdam, D. L.

Masaoka, K.

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19069–19077 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka, R. S. Berns, M. D. Fairchild, and F. Moghareh Abed, “Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(2), 264–277 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moghareh Abed, F.

Nakasu, E.

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishida, Y.

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19069–19077 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M. R.

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

Soeno, T.

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

Sugawara, M.

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19069–19077 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wyszecki, G.

Yamashita, T.

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

ABU Tech. Rev. (1)

K. Masaoka, T. Soeno, Y. Kusakabe, T. Yamashita, Y. Nishida, and M. Sugawara, “UHDTV System colourimetry and technical development for its implementation,” ABU Tech. Rev. 257, 2–7 (2014).

Color Res. Appl. (1)

M. R. Pointer, “The gamut of real surface colour,” Color Res. Appl. 5(3), 145–155 (1980).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

K. Masaoka, Y. Nishida, M. Sugawara, and E. Nakasu, “Design of primaries for a wide-gamut television colorimetry,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 56(4), 452–457 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

P. Goldstein, “Non-MacAdam color discrimination ellipses,” Proc. SPIE 8487, 84870A (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

ITU-R Report BT.2246-3, “The present state of ultra-high definition television,” 2014.

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020-1, “Parameter values for ultra-high definition television systems for production and international programme exchange,” 2014.

ITU-R Recommendation BT.709-5, “Parameter values for the HDTV standards for production and international programme exchange,” 2002.

CIE 159:2004, “A colour appearance model for colour management systems: CIECAM02,” 2004.

Adobe Systems Inc., “Adobe RGB (1998) Color Image Encoding,” 2005.

SMPTE RP 431-2:2011, “D-Cinema Quality — Reference Projector and Environment,” 2011.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Chromaticities for Rec. 709, Adobe RGB, DCI-P3, and Rec. 2020 RGB primary sets, and Pointer’s colors under illuminant D65: (a) the CIE 1931 xy chromaticity diagram, and (b) the CIE 1976 uv′ chromaticity diagram.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Sampled RGB primaries to cover the Rec. 709 color space: (a) the uv′ diagram (with enlarged sections), and (b) the xy diagram.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Rec. 2020 area-coverage ratios for wide-gamut RGB primary sets: (a) comparison of the ratios calculated in the xy and uv′ diagrams. Each dot color corresponds to the balance of the saturation for the sampled RGB primary set (see text). The chromaticity triangles of RGB set 1 and RGB set 2 are shown in (b) the xy diagram, and (c) the uv′ diagram.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Loci representing the Rec. 2020 gamut at L* of 0.5, 3.5, …99.5 (instead of increments of 1 to avoid printing too many lines) and the RGB primaries: (a) CIELAB a*b*, (b) CIELUV u*v*, and (c) CIECAM02 aCbC.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Rec. 2020 area-coverage ratio and Rec. 2020 volume-coverage ratio: (a) xyL*a*b*, (b) xyL*u*v*, (c) xyJaCbC, (d) uv′ – L*a*b*, (d) uv′ – L*u*v*, and (f) uv′ – JaCbC.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Rec. 2020 area-coverage ratio and volume-coverage ratio of Pointer’s gamut: (a) xyL*a*b*, (b) xyL*u*v*, (c) xyJaCbC, (d) uv′ – L*a*b*, (d) uv′ – L*u*v*, and (f) uv′ –JaCbC.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Rec. 2020 area-coverage ratios, calculated separately for cyan, magenta, and yellow: (a) Rec. 709, (b) Adobe RGB, and (c) DCI-P3.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Chromaticity coordinates of Rec. 2020 RGB primaries and the corresponding wavelengths of monochromatic light.

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