Abstract

Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate (BGG) glass has emerged as a promising 2.0 μm laser material offering excellent optical property. Unfortunately, low anti-crystallization ability and high OH- content of the glass have hindered the fabrication of high-quality optical fibers. In this paper, La2O3 and Y2O3 were added into BGG glass to enhance the glass anti-crystallization ability. Additionally, the optimized Reaction Atmosphere Procedure (RAP) was utilized to minimize OH- content. Continuous Tm3+ doped BGG glass single-mode (SM) fibers were successfully obtained by the rod-in-tube technique for the first time to our best knowledge. A 140 mW all-fiber laser at 1.95 μm was demonstrated using a 9.7-cm-long as-drawn Tm3+ doped BGG glass SM fiber upon excitation of a home-made 1568 nm fiber laser.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  32. K. F. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. L. Hu, P. W. Kuan, D. P. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
  35. D. P. Shepherd, D. J. Brinck, J. Wang, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, G. Kakarantzas, and P. D. Townsend, “1.9-microm operation of a Tm:lead germanate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(13), 954–956 (1994).
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2014 (5)

T. Wei, F. Z. Chen, Y. Tian, and S. Q. Xu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission and energy transfer mechanism in Er3+ doped Y2O3 and Nb2O5 modified germanate glasses,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 133, 663–669 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, K. F. Li, C. L. Yu, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(5), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. F. Huang, J. M. Cheng, X. Q. Liu, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ho3+/Er3+ doped fluoride glass sensitized by Ce3+ pumped by 1550 nm LD for efficient 2.0 μm laser applications,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20924–20935 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, W. C. Wang, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission from Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in Nd3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ triply doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(13), 133506 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

Y. Tian, R. R. Xu, L. Y. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Xu, L. Xu, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Structural origin and laser performance of thulium-doped germanate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(49), 14163–14167 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite-based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm pumped by laser diode from Er3+/Pr3+-codoped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1173–1175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

J. F. Wu, Z. D. Yao, J. Zong, and S. B. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11687–11693 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. H. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. F. Yang, Q. Y. Zhang, S. Y. Zhao, Z. D. Deng, Z. M. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Dehydration of Er3+-doped phosphate glasses using reactive agent bubble flow method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(8), 827–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Liao, H. Sun, L. Wen, Y. Fang, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of alkali and alkaline earth fluoride introduction on thermal stability and structure of fluorophosphates glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98(1), 154–158 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

X. Feng, S. Tannabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

J. M. Jewell, P. L. Higby, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 (R= Y, Al, La, and Gd) glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(3), 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. G. Jordan and A. Jha, “A review of the role of DSC analysis in the design of fluorozirconate glasses for fibre optic applications,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 42(4), 759–770 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. P. Shepherd, D. J. Brinck, J. Wang, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, G. Kakarantzas, and P. D. Townsend, “1.9-microm operation of a Tm:lead germanate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(13), 954–956 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient and tunable operation of two colour Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 671–673 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

K. Chida, F. Hanawa, and M. Nakahara, “Fabrication of OH- free multimode fiber by vapor phase axial deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(11), 1883–1889 (1982).
[Crossref]

Adam, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, I. D.

S. S. Bayya, G. D. Chin, J. S. Sanghera, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Germanate glass as a window for high energy laser systems,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11687–11693 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Jewell, P. L. Higby, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 (R= Y, Al, La, and Gd) glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(3), 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

Agger, S.

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. H. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bayya, S. S.

Benson, T. M.

Brinck, D. J.

Brown, C. T.

Bruns, D. L.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Cai, M. Z.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Calvez, S.

Chen, D. P.

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, K. F. Li, C. L. Yu, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(5), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. F. Huang, J. M. Cheng, X. Q. Liu, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ho3+/Er3+ doped fluoride glass sensitized by Ce3+ pumped by 1550 nm LD for efficient 2.0 μm laser applications,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20924–20935 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. L. Hu, P. W. Kuan, D. P. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F. Z.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wei, F. Z. Chen, Y. Tian, and S. Q. Xu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission and energy transfer mechanism in Er3+ doped Y2O3 and Nb2O5 modified germanate glasses,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 133, 663–669 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J. M.

Chida, K.

K. Chida, F. Hanawa, and M. Nakahara, “Fabrication of OH- free multimode fiber by vapor phase axial deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(11), 1883–1889 (1982).
[Crossref]

Chin, G. D.

Davey, S. T.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient and tunable operation of two colour Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 671–673 (1992).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

Deng, Z. D.

G. F. Yang, Q. Y. Zhang, S. Y. Zhao, Z. D. Deng, Z. M. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Dehydration of Er3+-doped phosphate glasses using reactive agent bubble flow method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(8), 827–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

DeYoung, R. J.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Doualan, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fan, X. K.

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.

M. Liao, H. Sun, L. Wen, Y. Fang, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of alkali and alkaline earth fluoride introduction on thermal stability and structure of fluorophosphates glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98(1), 154–158 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Tannabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

Fusari, F.

Geng, J.

Geng, J. H.

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. H. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Girard, S.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gupta, J. A.

Haldeman, A.

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite-based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hale, C. P.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hanada, T.

X. Feng, S. Tannabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hanawa, F.

K. Chida, F. Hanawa, and M. Nakahara, “Fabrication of OH- free multimode fiber by vapor phase axial deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(11), 1883–1889 (1982).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

D. P. Shepherd, D. J. Brinck, J. Wang, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, G. Kakarantzas, and P. D. Townsend, “1.9-microm operation of a Tm:lead germanate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(13), 954–956 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Hannon, S. M.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Haquin, H.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Henderson, S. W.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Higby, P. L.

J. M. Jewell, P. L. Higby, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 (R= Y, Al, La, and Gd) glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(3), 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. L. Higby and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of barium gallium germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163(3), 303–308 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hu, L. L.

X. Wang, K. F. Li, C. L. Yu, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(5), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. F. Huang, J. M. Cheng, X. Q. Liu, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ho3+/Er3+ doped fluoride glass sensitized by Ce3+ pumped by 1550 nm LD for efficient 2.0 μm laser applications,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20924–20935 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. L. Hu, P. W. Kuan, D. P. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, R. R. Xu, L. Y. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm pumped by laser diode from Er3+/Pr3+-codoped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1173–1175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Xu, L. Xu, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Structural origin and laser performance of thulium-doped germanate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(49), 14163–14167 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Li, G. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Watt-level ~2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4136–4138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liao, H. Sun, L. Wen, Y. Fang, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of alkali and alkaline earth fluoride introduction on thermal stability and structure of fluorophosphates glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98(1), 154–158 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, F. F.

Jackson, J.

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite-based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jauncey, I. M.

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jewell, J. M.

J. M. Jewell, P. L. Higby, and I. D. Aggarwal, “Properties of BaO-R2O3-Ga2O3-GeO2 (R= Y, Al, La, and Gd) glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77(3), 697–700 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jha, A.

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, G. Jose, S. Calvez, A. Jha, M. D. Dawson, J. A. Gupta, W. Sibbett, and C. T. Brown, “Femtosecond mode-locked Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ doped 2 μm glass lasers,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22090–22098 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Jordan and A. Jha, “A review of the role of DSC analysis in the design of fluorozirconate glasses for fibre optic applications,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 42(4), 759–770 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

Jiang, S. B.

J. F. Wu, Z. D. Yao, J. Zong, and S. B. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. H. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z. H.

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, W. C. Wang, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission from Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in Nd3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ triply doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(13), 133506 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. F. Yang, Q. Y. Zhang, S. Y. Zhao, Z. D. Deng, Z. M. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Dehydration of Er3+-doped phosphate glasses using reactive agent bubble flow method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(8), 827–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jing, X. F.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, W. G.

W. G. Jordan and A. Jha, “A review of the role of DSC analysis in the design of fluorozirconate glasses for fibre optic applications,” J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 42(4), 759–770 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jose, G.

Kakarantzas, G.

Kuan, P. W.

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. L. Hu, P. W. Kuan, D. P. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lauto, A.

S. D. Jackson and A. Lauto, “Diode-pumped fiber lasers: a new clinical tool?” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(3), 184–190 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K. F.

X. Wang, K. F. Li, C. L. Yu, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(5), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. L. Hu, P. W. Kuan, D. P. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Li, G. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Watt-level ~2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped tungsten tellurite glass double-cladding fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4136–4138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, M.

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, W. T.

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, M.

M. Liao, H. Sun, L. Wen, Y. Fang, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of alkali and alkaline earth fluoride introduction on thermal stability and structure of fluorophosphates glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98(1), 154–158 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. Q.

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. F. Huang, J. M. Cheng, X. Q. Liu, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ho3+/Er3+ doped fluoride glass sensitized by Ce3+ pumped by 1550 nm LD for efficient 2.0 μm laser applications,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20924–20935 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, T.

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 mum laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. H. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Magee, J. R.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

Massera, J.

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite-based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Montagne, J.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nakahara, M.

K. Chida, F. Hanawa, and M. Nakahara, “Fabrication of OH- free multimode fiber by vapor phase axial deposition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(11), 1883–1889 (1982).
[Crossref]

Peng, M. Y.

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, W. C. Wang, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission from Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in Nd3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ triply doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(13), 133506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Percival, R. M.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient and tunable operation of two colour Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 671–673 (1992).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Perry, I. R.

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Petit, L.

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite-based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. H. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Povlsen, J. H.

Reichle, D. J.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richardson, K.

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite-based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rivero-Baleine, C.

J. Massera, A. Haldeman, J. Jackson, C. Rivero-Baleine, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Processing of tellurite-based glass with low OH content,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(1), 130–136 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J. S.

Seddon, A. B.

Shen, S. X.

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, W. C. Wang, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission from Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in Nd3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ triply doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(13), 133506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D. P.

Sibbett, W.

Smart, R. G.

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sujecki, S.

Sun, H.

M. Liao, H. Sun, L. Wen, Y. Fang, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of alkali and alkaline earth fluoride introduction on thermal stability and structure of fluorophosphates glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98(1), 154–158 (2006).
[Crossref]

Suni, P. J.

S. W. Henderson, P. J. Suni, C. P. Hale, S. M. Hannon, J. R. Magee, D. L. Bruns, and E. H. Yuen, “Coherent laser radar at 2 μm using solid-state lasers,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 31(1), 4–15 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Szebesta, D.

R. M. Percival, D. Szebesta, and S. T. Davey, “Highly efficient and tunable operation of two colour Tm-doped fluoride fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28(7), 671–673 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tang, Z.

Tannabe, S.

X. Feng, S. Tannabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

T. Wei, F. Z. Chen, Y. Tian, and S. Q. Xu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission and energy transfer mechanism in Er3+ doped Y2O3 and Nb2O5 modified germanate glasses,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 133, 663–669 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, R. R. Xu, L. Y. Zhang, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Observation of 2.7 μm emission from diode-pumped Er3+/Pr3+-codoped fluorophosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 109–111 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm pumped by laser diode from Er3+/Pr3+-codoped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1173–1175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Townsend, J. E.

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

Tropper, A. C.

D. P. Shepherd, D. J. Brinck, J. Wang, A. C. Tropper, D. C. Hanna, G. Kakarantzas, and P. D. Townsend, “1.9-microm operation of a Tm:lead germanate glass waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 19(13), 954–956 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Hanna, I. M. Jauncey, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, P. J. Suni, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Continuous-wave oscillation of a monomode thulium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 24(19), 1222–1223 (1988).
[Crossref]

Varming, P.

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, R. J. DeYoung, and S. B. Jiang, “Tm: germanate fiber laser: tuning and Q-switching,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2–3), 299–304 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, F. C.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. F.

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, Q.

Wang, W. C.

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, W. C. Wang, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission from Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in Nd3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ triply doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(13), 133506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, K. F. Li, C. L. Yu, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(5), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Q. Liu, X. Wang, L. F. Wang, P. W. Kuan, M. Li, W. T. Li, X. K. Fan, K. F. Li, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Realization of 2 µm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125(6), 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. L. Hu, P. W. Kuan, D. P. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, T.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wei, F. Z. Chen, Y. Tian, and S. Q. Xu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission and energy transfer mechanism in Er3+ doped Y2O3 and Nb2O5 modified germanate glasses,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 133, 663–669 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wen, L.

M. Liao, H. Sun, L. Wen, Y. Fang, and L. L. Hu, “Effect of alkali and alkaline earth fluoride introduction on thermal stability and structure of fluorophosphates glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 98(1), 154–158 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. F.

J. F. Wu, Z. D. Yao, J. Zong, and S. B. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Wu, S. B. Jiang, T. Luo, J. H. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

R. R. Xu, L. Xu, L. L. Hu, and J. J. Zhang, “Structural origin and laser performance of thulium-doped germanate glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. A 115(49), 14163–14167 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, R. R.

Xu, S. Q.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Z. Chen, M. Z. Cai, J. J. Zhang, X. F. Jing, F. C. Wang, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci Rep 4, 6060 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wei, F. Z. Chen, Y. Tian, and S. Q. Xu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission and energy transfer mechanism in Er3+ doped Y2O3 and Nb2O5 modified germanate glasses,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 133, 663–669 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, G. F.

G. F. Yang, Q. Y. Zhang, S. Y. Zhao, Z. D. Deng, Z. M. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Dehydration of Er3+-doped phosphate glasses using reactive agent bubble flow method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(8), 827–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. M.

G. F. Yang, Q. Y. Zhang, S. Y. Zhao, Z. D. Deng, Z. M. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Dehydration of Er3+-doped phosphate glasses using reactive agent bubble flow method,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(8), 827–831 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yao, Z. D.

Yu, C. L.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 DSC curves of BGG-O and BGG-M glasses at a heating rate of 10 °C/min.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Electron micrographs of glass surfaces from core glass rods: (a) BGG-O core glass rod, (b) BGG-M core glass rod.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 XRD patters of heat-treated BGG-O core glass and BGG-M core glass.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Transmittance spectra of BGG-M-air and dehydrated BGG-M glasses. The inset compares the calculated OH- absorption coefficient, OH- concentration, along with the measured lifetime of Tm3+: 3F4 level for BGG-M-air and dehydrated BGG-M glasses.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a). Absorption spectrum of BGG-M glass in the wavelength region of 300-2200 nm. (b). Emission spectra of BGG-M-air, dehydrated BGG-M and BGG-O glasses pumped by an 808 nm LD.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Sketch of Tm3+ doped BGG glass fiber laser experimental setup; inset: the photomicrograph of Tm3+ doped BGG SM fiber cross section. (b) Fiber laser output power as a function of the absorbed pump power; inset: the spectrum of a 9.7-cm-long Tm3+ doped BGG SM glass fiber laser.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 DSC parameters, as well as thermal stability ΔT and S in various glass systems

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Table 2 Thermal properties, refractive indices and numerical apertures of the core and cladding glasses

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α OH = 1 L ln T 0 T
N OH ( ppm )= α OH M OH ερ × 10 6
σ a ( λ )= 2.303log( I 0 I ) Nl
σ e ( λ )= σ a ( λ ) Z l Z u exp[ E zl hc λ 1 kT ]

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