Abstract

Topological insulators have been theoretically predicted as promising candidates for broadband photonics devices due to its large bulk band gap states in association with the spin-momentum-locked mass-less Dirac edge/surface states. Unlike the bulk counterpart, few-layer topological insulators possess some intrinsic optical advantages, such as low optical loss, low saturation intensity and high concentration of surface state. Herein, we use a solvothermal method to prepare few-layer Bi2Te3 flakes. By sandwiching few-layer Bi2Te3 flakes with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer, a novel light modulation device had been successfully fabricated with high chemical and thermal stabilities as well as excellent mechanical durability, originating from the contribution of PMMA acting as buffer layers that counteract excessive mechanical bending within the fragile Bi2Te3 flakes. The incorporation of the as-fabricated PMMA-TI-PMMA as saturable absorber, which could bear long-term mechanical loadings, into the fiber laser cavity generated the stable dissipative soliton mode-locking with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth up to 51.62 nm and tunable wavelength range of 22 nm. Our work provides a new way of fabricating PMMA-TI-PMMA sandwiched composite structure as saturable absorber with promising applications for laser operation.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (10)

Z. Yu, Y. Song, J. Tian, Z. Dou, H. Guoyu, K. Li, H. Li, and X. Zhang, “High-repetition-rate Q-switched fiber laser with high quality topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ film,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11508–11515 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 µm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, and K. M. Abramski, “Sub-130 fs mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13244–13249 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(6), 393–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yun and D. D. Han, “Bound state of dissipative solitons in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 313, 70–73 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

Y. D. Cui and X. M. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Torres-Torres, B. A. Can-Uc, R. Rangel-Rojo, L. Castañeda, R. Torres-Martínez, C. I. García-Gil, and A. V. Khomenko, “Optical Kerr phase shift in a nanostructured nickel-doped zinc oxide thin solid film,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21357–21364 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. S. Y. Ung, B. Weng, D. Abbott, S. T. Cundiff, and C. Fumeaux, “Inkjet printed conductive polymer-based beam-splitters for terahertz applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1242–1249 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (5)

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Y. Tam, “Dissipative vector solitons in a dispersionmanaged cavity fiber laser with net positive cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(2), 455–460 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lecaplain, B. Ortaç, and A. Hideur, “High-energy femtosecond pulses from a dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3731–3733 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

W. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, “Dissipative solitons in normal-dispersion fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 77(2), 023814 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, “Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19322–19329 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kobtsev, S. Kukarin, and Y. Fedotov, “Ultra-low repetition rate mode-locked fiber laser with high-energy pulses,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21936–21941 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

T. Schreiber, C. K. Nielsen, B. Ortac, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Microjoule-level all-polarization-maintaining femtosecond fiber source,” Opt. Lett. 31(5), 574–576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Li, W. J. Huang, and S. G. Sun, “A universal approach for the self-assembly of hydrophilic nanoparticles into ordered monolayer films at a toluene/water interface,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 45(16), 2537–2539 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys. 7, 217 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. E. Foos, R. M. Stroud, and A. D. Berry, “Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride,” Nano Lett. 1(12), 693–695 (2001).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

Abramski, K. M.

Apolonski, A.

V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Podivilov, A. Chernykh, S. Naumov, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, and A. Apolonski, “Approaching the microjoule frontier with femtosecond laser oscillators: theory and comparison with experiment,” New J. Phys. 7, 217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bansil, A.

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berry, A. D.

E. E. Foos, R. M. Stroud, and A. D. Berry, “Synthesis and characterization of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride,” Nano Lett. 1(12), 693–695 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boguslawski, J.

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cabasse, A.

A. Cabasse, B. Ortaç, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J. Limpert, “Dissipative solitons in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber with strong normal dispersion,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19322–19329 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cabasse, G. Martel, A. Hideur, and J.-L. Oudar, “High modulation depth SESAM for high power dissipative soliton in an Erbium-doped fiber laser,” in Proceedings of Lasers and Electro-Optics 2009 and the European Quantum Electronics Conference, 2009, pp. 1.
[Crossref]

Cai, Z. P.

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Can-Uc, B. A.

Castañeda, L.

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Y. Tam, “Dissipative vector solitons in a dispersionmanaged cavity fiber laser with net positive cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(2), 455–460 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, P. H.

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tarka, J.

J. Boguslawski, J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, J. Jagiello, W. Macherzynski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on liquid phase exfoliated Sb2Te3 topological insulator,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, J.

Tokumoto, M.

Torres-Martínez, R.

Torres-Torres, C.

Tünnermann, A.

Ung, B. S. Y.

Virally, S.

Wai, P. K. A.

L. X. Xu, G. L. Chen, C. Gu, A. T. Wang, H. Ming, and P. K. A. Wai, “Square shape spectrum in 1550 nm and 1060 nm bands in passive mode-locked fiber laser,” in Proceedings of 14th OptoEectronics and Communications Conference, 2009, pp. 3–4.

Wang, A. T.

L. X. Xu, G. L. Chen, C. Gu, A. T. Wang, H. Ming, and P. K. A. Wai, “Square shape spectrum in 1550 nm and 1060 nm bands in passive mode-locked fiber laser,” in Proceedings of 14th OptoEectronics and Communications Conference, 2009, pp. 3–4.

Wang, L. R.

Wang, P.

Wang, Y.

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. T.

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, S.

Wen, S. C.

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(6), 393–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weng, B.

Weng, J.

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

Wray, L.

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, M.

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(6), 393–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.

Wu, X.

Xia, Y.

D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H. Y.

Z. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “Topological-insulator passively Q-switched double-clad fiber laser at 2 μm wavelength,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 0902708 (2014).

Z. Q. Luo, Y. Z. Huang, J. Weng, H. H. Cheng, Z. Q. Lin, B. Xu, Z. P. Cai, and H. Y. Xu, “1.06 μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi₂Se₃ as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

Xu, L. X.

L. X. Xu, G. L. Chen, C. Gu, A. T. Wang, H. Ming, and P. K. A. Wai, “Square shape spectrum in 1550 nm and 1060 nm bands in passive mode-locked fiber laser,” in Proceedings of 14th OptoEectronics and Communications Conference, 2009, pp. 3–4.

Xu, W. C.

Yang, Q. H.

Yeom, D. I.

Yu, Z.

Yun, L.

L. Yun and D. D. Han, “Bound state of dissipative solitons in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 313, 70–73 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Yun, X. Liu, and D. Mao, “Observation of dual-wavelength dissipative solitons in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20992–20997 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).

M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(6), 393–396 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
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H. Zhang, S. Virally, Q. L. Bao, L. K. Ping, S. Massar, N. Godbout, and P. Kockaert, “Z-scan measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of graphene,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1856–1858 (2012).
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C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Y. Tam, “Dissipative vector solitons in a dispersionmanaged cavity fiber laser with net positive cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(2), 455–460 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. J.

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. C.

H. J. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, X. Q.

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C. J.

Y. Chen, C. J. Zhao, H. H. Huang, S. Q. Chen, P. H. Tang, Z. T. Wang, S. B. Lu, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(17), 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. T. Wang, S. C. Wen, and D. Y. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. M.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Y. Tam, “Dissipative vector solitons in a dispersionmanaged cavity fiber laser with net positive cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(2), 455–460 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X. W.

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[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, R. J. Knize, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Graphene mode locked, wavelength-tunable, dissipative soliton fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 111112 (2010).
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H. Zhang, Q. L. Bao, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and K. Loh, “Large energy soliton erbium-doped fiber laser with a graphene-polymer composite mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141103 (2009).
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M. Wu, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, and S. C. Wen, “Nanosecond Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser with wide pulse-repetition-rate range based on topological insulator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 50(6), 393–396 (2014).
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P. H. Tang, X. Q. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, Y. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Y. Shen, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Topological insulator: Bi2Te3 saturable absorber for the passive Q-switching operation of an in-band pumped 1645-nm Er:YAG ceramic laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 5(2), 1500707 (2013).
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C. Chi, J. Lee, J. Koo, and J. H. Lee, “All-normal-dispersion dissipative-soliton fiber laser at 1.06 µm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator-deposited side-polished fiber,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105106 (2014).
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D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
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D. Hsieh, Y. Xia, D. Qian, L. Wray, J. H. Dil, F. Meier, J. Osterwalder, L. Patthey, J. G. Checkelsky, N. P. Ong, A. V. Fedorov, H. Lin, A. Bansil, D. Grauer, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A tunable topological insulator in the spin helical Dirac transport regime,” Nature 460(7259), 1101–1105 (2009).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

L. Yun and D. D. Han, “Bound state of dissipative solitons in a nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 313, 70–73 (2014).
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Opt. Express (14)

Y. D. Cui and X. M. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013).
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H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, X. Wu, and H. Y. Tam, “Dissipative vector solitons in a dispersionmanaged cavity fiber laser with net positive cavity dispersion,” Opt. Express 17(2), 455–460 (2009).
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L. X. Xu, G. L. Chen, C. Gu, A. T. Wang, H. Ming, and P. K. A. Wai, “Square shape spectrum in 1550 nm and 1060 nm bands in passive mode-locked fiber laser,” in Proceedings of 14th OptoEectronics and Communications Conference, 2009, pp. 3–4.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of saturable absorber of Bi2Te3 self-assembly layer nanosheets covered by two PMMA layers. Inset: (1) Bi2Te3 self-assembly layer generated on the DI water surface. (2) Optical image of PMMA-TI-PMMA on the fiber ferrule.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of the Z-scan experimental setup.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup of TI-SA based fiber laser.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Low-magnification FESEM image of Bi2Te3nanosheets. (b) High-magnification FESEM image of Bi2Te3nanosheets. (c) TEM image of a single perfect hexagonal nanosheet.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Topographic AFM images of the Bi2Te3nanosheet. (b) Corresponding height profiles. (c) Corresponding three-dimensional images.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) XRD pattern of the as-prepared Bi2Te3nanosheets. (b) Raman spectra of Bi2Te3 nanosheets at 632nm laser excitation.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) The linear absorption spectra of TI sample. (b) Open aperture Z-scan traces.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Single dissipative soliton operation of the laser at pump power of 150 mW: (a) Pulse train. (b) Optical spectra measured. (c) Pulse profile. (d) Oscilloscope trace of pulse train.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Long-term stability: optical spectra measured at a 2 h interval over 14 h. (b) Multi-pulse state with two pulses. (c) Multi-pulse state with three pulses. (d) Output average power versus pump power.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The evolution of dissipative solitons pulse spectra (a) and profiles (b) with the increasing of the pump power. (c) The relation of the spectral bandwidth, pulse duration and the time-bandwidth product with respect to different pump powers.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Wavelength-tunable optical spectra with the adjustment of the intra-cavity PCs.

Equations (1)

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T( x )= ( 1 α 0 L 1+I/ I s βIL ) / ( 1 α 0 L )

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