Abstract

A multi-source inverse-geometry CT (MS-IGCT) system consists of a small 2D detector array and multiple x-ray sources. During data acquisition, each source is activated sequentially, and may have random source intensity fluctuations relative to their respective nominal intensity. While a conventional 3rd generation CT system uses a reference channel to monitor the source intensity fluctuation, the MS-IGCT system source illuminates a small portion of the entire field-of-view (FOV). Therefore, it is difficult for all sources to illuminate the reference channel and the projection data computed by standard normalization using flat field data of each source contains error and can cause significant artifacts. In this work, we present a raw data normalization algorithm to reduce the image artifacts caused by source intensity fluctuation. The proposed method was tested using computer simulations with a uniform water phantom and a Shepp-Logan phantom, and experimental data of an ice-filled PMMA phantom and a rabbit. The effect on image resolution and robustness of the noise were tested using MTF and standard deviation of the reconstructed noise image. With the intensity fluctuation and no correction, reconstructed images from simulation and experimental data show high frequency artifacts and ring artifacts which are removed effectively using the proposed method. It is also observed that the proposed method does not degrade the image resolution and is very robust to the presence of noise.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Swinging multi-source industrial CT systems for aperiodic dynamic imaging

Weiwen Wu, Hengyong Yu, Changcheng Gong, and Fenglin Liu
Opt. Express 25(20) 24215-24235 (2017)

Ring artifact correction using detector line-ratios in computed tomography

Younguk Kim, Jongduk Baek, and Dosik Hwang
Opt. Express 22(11) 13380-13392 (2014)

Noise reduction with low dose CT data based on a modified ROF model

Yining Zhu, Mengliu Zhao, Yunsong Zhao, Hongwei Li, and Peng Zhang
Opt. Express 20(16) 17987-18004 (2012)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.
  3. T. G. Schmidt, R. Fahrig, and N. J. Pelc, “An inverse-geometry volumetric CT system with a large-area scanned source: a feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 9(31), 2623–2627 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.
  5. J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Baek and N. J. Pelc, “Data normalization method for a multisource inverse geometry CT system,” Proc. SPIE 8313, 83132B (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)
  10. J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.
  11. A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE Press, 1988).
  12. J. Hsieh, Computed Tomography Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances (SPIE Publications, 2003).
  13. K. E. Bennet and R. L. Byer, “Fan-beam-tomography noise theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3(5), 624–633 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. E. Bennet and R. L. Byer, “Optical tomography: experimental verification of noise theory,” Opt. Lett. 9(7), 270–272 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. E. Bennet, G. W. Faris, and R. L. Byer, “Experimental optical fan beam tomography,” Appl. Opt. 23(16), 2678–2685 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. L. Zeng, “Nonuniform noise propagation by using the ramp filter in fan-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(6), 690–695 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Zhu and J. Starlack, “A practical reconstruction algorithm for CT noise variance maps using FBP reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 651023 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. Baek and N. J. Pelc, “Data normalization method for a multisource inverse geometry CT system,” Proc. SPIE 8313, 83132B (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

2009 (1)

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu and J. Starlack, “A practical reconstruction algorithm for CT noise variance maps using FBP reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 651023 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

G. L. Zeng, “Nonuniform noise propagation by using the ramp filter in fan-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(6), 690–695 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. G. Schmidt, R. Fahrig, and N. J. Pelc, “An inverse-geometry volumetric CT system with a large-area scanned source: a feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 9(31), 2623–2627 (2004).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1984 (2)

Baek, J.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baek and N. J. Pelc, “Data normalization method for a multisource inverse geometry CT system,” Proc. SPIE 8313, 83132B (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Basu, S.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

Beculaes, B.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bennet, K. E.

Beque, D.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

Caiafa, A.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Cao, Y.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

Claus, B.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

Conway, K.

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

De Man, B.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Edic, P.

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

Fahrig, R.

T. G. Schmidt, R. Fahrig, and N. J. Pelc, “An inverse-geometry volumetric CT system with a large-area scanned source: a feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 9(31), 2623–2627 (2004).
[Crossref]

Faris, G. W.

Fitzgerald, P.

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

Frutschy, K.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Gunturi, S.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

Harrison, D.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

Hsieh, J.

J. Hsieh, Computed Tomography Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances (SPIE Publications, 2003).

Iatrou, M.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

Inzinna, L.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Kak, A. C.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE Press, 1988).

Khare, K.

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

LeBlanc, J.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

Longtin, R.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

Lounsberry, B.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

McDevitt, D.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

Neculaes, B.

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Neculaus, B.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

Pelc, N. J.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Baek and N. J. Pelc, “Data normalization method for a multisource inverse geometry CT system,” Proc. SPIE 8313, 83132B (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

T. G. Schmidt, R. Fahrig, and N. J. Pelc, “An inverse-geometry volumetric CT system with a large-area scanned source: a feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 9(31), 2623–2627 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Reynolds, J.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Roffers, R.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

Roy, J.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

Schmidt, T. G.

T. G. Schmidt, R. Fahrig, and N. J. Pelc, “An inverse-geometry volumetric CT system with a large-area scanned source: a feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 9(31), 2623–2627 (2004).
[Crossref]

Senzig, B.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Short, J.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

Slaney, M.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE Press, 1988).

Starlack, J.

L. Zhu and J. Starlack, “A practical reconstruction algorithm for CT noise variance maps using FBP reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 651023 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thompson, R.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

Uribe, J.

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

Vermilyea, M.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

Waters, W.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

Wilson, C.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

Yin, Z.

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

Zeng, G. L.

G. L. Zeng, “Nonuniform noise propagation by using the ramp filter in fan-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(6), 690–695 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu and J. Starlack, “A practical reconstruction algorithm for CT noise variance maps using FBP reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 651023 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (1)

G. L. Zeng, “Nonuniform noise propagation by using the ramp filter in fan-beam computed tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 23(6), 690–695 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

T. G. Schmidt, R. Fahrig, and N. J. Pelc, “An inverse-geometry volumetric CT system with a large-area scanned source: a feasibility study,” Med. Phys. 9(31), 2623–2627 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. Baek, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, J. Reynolds, B. Beculaes, K. Frutschy, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “A multiple-source inverse-geometry CT system: initial results with an 8 spot x-ray source array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 59(5), 1189–1202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (6)

J. Baek and N. J. Pelc, “Data normalization method for a multisource inverse geometry CT system,” Proc. SPIE 8313, 83132B (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. De Man, P. Edic, B. Lounsberry, B. Neculaes, Y. Zou, L. Inzinna, K. Conway, X. Zhang, Y. Cao, S. Gunturi, A. Caiafa, and J. Reynolds, “X-ray multisource for medical imaging,” Proc. SPIE 7258, 725822 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Frutschy, B. Neculaus, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, Y. Zou, X. Zhang, S. Gunturi, Y. Cao, B. De Man, D. McDevitt, R. Roffers, B. Lounsberry, and N. J. Pelc, “High power distributed x-ray source,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Neculaes, L. Inzinna, A. Caiafa, J. Reynolds, K. Frutschy, B. De Man, J. Uribe, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, and N. J. Pelc, “A high power distributed x-ray source for multisource inverse geometry CT,” Proc. SPIE 7622, 76221H (2010)

L. Zhu and J. Starlack, “A practical reconstruction algorithm for CT noise variance maps using FBP reconstruction,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 651023 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. De Man, S. Basu, D. Beque, B. Claus, P. Edic, M. Iatrou, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, R. Thompson, M. Vermilyea, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse geometry CT: a new system concept for x-ray computed tomography,” Proc. SPIE 6510, 65100H (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

B. De Man, S. Basu, P. Fitzgerald, D. Harrison, M. Iatrou, K. Khare, J. LeBlanc, B. Senzig, C. Wilson, Z. Yin, and N. J. Pelc, “Inverse geometry CT: the next generation CT architecture?” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2007), pp. 2715–2716.

B. De Man, A. Caiafa, Y. Cao, K. Frutschy, D. Harrison, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, B. Neculaes, J. Reynolds, J. Roy, J. Short, J. Uribe, W. Waters, X. Zhang, Y. Zou, B. Senzig, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: from system concept to research prototype,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2009), pp. 3531–3533.

J. Uribe, J. Reynolds, L. Inzinna, R. Longtin, D. Harrison, B. De Man, B. Neculaes, A. Caiafa, W. Waters, K. Frutschy, B. Senzig, J. Baek, and N. J. Pelc, “Multi-source inverse-geometry CT: prototype system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE NSS-MIC (IEEE, 2010), pp. 2578–2581.

A. C. Kak and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging (IEEE Press, 1988).

J. Hsieh, Computed Tomography Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances (SPIE Publications, 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transverse view of (a) conventional 3rd generation CT and (b) MS-IGCT.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Profile of rebinned projection with and without source intensity fluctuation, (b) profile of filtered projection, and reconstructed water phantom, (c) with and (d) without source intensity fluctuation. The display window of the uniform water phantom is [0.18 0.22] cm−1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Integrated MS-IGCT system.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Sampling of 2D Radon space for the first three sources: source 1 (S1), source 2 (S2), and source 3 (S3).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Reconstructed images and central profiles of a uniform water phantom and a Shepp Logan phantom without correction. Noiseless simulation of (a) a uniform water phantom and (b) a Shepp Logan phantom. The display windows are [0.18 0.22] cm−1 and [1 1.05] cm−1 for the uniform water phantom and the Shepp Logan phantom, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Reconstructed images and central profiles of a uniform water phantom and a Shepp Logan phantom with and without correction. Noiseless simulation of (a) a uniform water phantom and (b) a Shepp Logan phantom. The display windows are [0.18 0.22] cm−1 and [1 1.05] cm−1 for the uniform water phantom and the Shepp Logan phantom, respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Reconstructed noise images of a Shepp Logan phantom with and without correction. The display window is [11.05] cm−1.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Reference PSF and PSF with correction near isocenter and off-center. (b) Comparison of corresponding MTF near isocenter and off-center. (c) Reference noise image, noise image with correction, and comparison of STD across the FOV from both noise images.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Reconstructed images and central profiles of (a) an ice-filled PMMA phantom and (b) a rabbit without and with correction. The display windows is [0.15 0.25] cm−1 for the ice-filled PMMA phantom and a rabbit.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Simulation and reconstruction parameters

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N i , j , k = α i , j N i n exp ( p i , j , k )
p i , j , k = log ( N i n / N i , j , k ) + log ( α i , j )
p 1 , j + 1 , k = log ( N i n / N 1 , j + 1 , k ) p 1 , j + 1 , k + 1 = log ( N i n / N 1 , j + 1 , k + 1 ) p 1 , j , k = log ( N i n / N 1 , j , k ) p 1 , j , k + 1 = log ( N i n / N 1 , j , k + 1 ) p 2 , l , m = log ( N i n / N 2 , l , m ) + log ( α 2 , l )

Metrics