Abstract

Wavefront distortion fundamentally limits the achievable imaging depth and quality in thick tissue. Wavefront correction can help restore the diffraction limited focus albeit with a small field of view (FOV), which limits its imaging applications. In this work, we numerically investigate whether the multi-conjugate configuration, originally developed for astronomical adaptive optics, may increase the correction FOV in random turbid media. The results show that the multi-conjugate configuration can significantly improve the correction area compared to the widely adopted pupil plane correction. Even in the simple case of single-conjugation, it still outperforms the pupil plane correction. This study provides a guideline for designing the optimal wavefront correction system in deep tissue imaging.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (2)

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Kong and M. Cui, “In vivo fluorescence microscopy via iterative multi-photon adaptive compensation technique,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23786–23794 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kner, “Phase diversity for three-dimensional imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(10), 1980–1987 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. P. Paudel, C. Stockbridge, J. Mertz, and T. Bifano, “Focusing polychromatic light through strongly scattering media,” Opt. Express 21(14), 17299–17308 (2013).
[PubMed]

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Simmonds and M. J. Booth, “Modelling of multi-conjugate adaptive optics for spatially variant aberrations in microscopy,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094010 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (12)

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kastenmüller, P. Torabi-Parizi, N. Subramanian, T. Lämmermann, and R. N. Germain, “A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread,” Cell 150(6), 1235–1248 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491(7423), 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Tao, J. Crest, S. Kotadia, O. Azucena, D. C. Chen, W. Sullivan, and J. Kubby, “Live imaging using adaptive optics with fluorescent protein guide-stars,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15969–15982 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci Rep 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis and I. N. Papadopoulos, “Imaging: The fog clears,” Nature 491(7423), 197–198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. B. Conkey, A. M. Caravaca-Aguirre, and R. Piestun, “High-speed scattering medium characterization with application to focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1733–1740 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2007 (2)

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Afonso, P. V.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmad, A.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angermann, B. R.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azucena, O.

Bertolotti, J.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491(7423), 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bifano, T.

Blum, C.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491(7423), 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

R. D. Simmonds and M. J. Booth, “Modelling of multi-conjugate adaptive optics for spatially variant aberrations in microscopy,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094010 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Débarre, E. J. Botcherby, T. Watanabe, S. Srinivas, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, “Image-based adaptive optics for two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2495–2497 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botcherby, E. J.

Caravaca-Aguirre, A. M.

Carney, P. S.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. C.

Clark, C. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Conkey, D. B.

Crest, J.

Cui, M.

L. Kong and M. Cui, “In vivo fluorescence microscopy via iterative multi-photon adaptive compensation technique,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23786–23794 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci Rep 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Rosny, J.

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Débarre, D.

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimarzio, C. A.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fink, M.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiolka, R.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci Rep 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germain, R. N.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kastenmüller, P. Torabi-Parizi, N. Subramanian, T. Lämmermann, and R. N. Germain, “A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread,” Cell 150(6), 1235–1248 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gigan, S.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

Graf, B. W.

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heidmann, P.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horton, N. G.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Judkewitz, B.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juskaitis, R.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kastenmüller, W.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kastenmüller, P. Torabi-Parizi, N. Subramanian, T. Lämmermann, and R. N. Germain, “A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread,” Cell 150(6), 1235–1248 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kner, P.

Knutsson, P.

Kobat, D.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kong, L.

Kotadia, S.

Kubby, J.

Lagendijk, A.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491(7423), 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lämmermann, T.

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kastenmüller, P. Torabi-Parizi, N. Subramanian, T. Lämmermann, and R. N. Germain, “A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread,” Cell 150(6), 1235–1248 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lerosey, G.

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mertz, J.

Mosk, A. P.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491(7423), 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neil, M. A. A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Owner-Petersen, M.

Papadopoulos, I. N.

D. Psaltis and I. N. Papadopoulos, “Imaging: The fog clears,” Nature 491(7423), 197–198 (2012).
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T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
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Paudel, H. P.

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Popovic, Z.

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Schaffer, C. B.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Si, K.

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
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K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci Rep 2, 748 (2012).
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Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
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Simmonds, R. D.

R. D. Simmonds and M. J. Booth, “Modelling of multi-conjugate adaptive optics for spatially variant aberrations in microscopy,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094010 (2013).
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O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
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Stockbridge, C.

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W. Kastenmüller, P. Torabi-Parizi, N. Subramanian, T. Lämmermann, and R. N. Germain, “A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread,” Cell 150(6), 1235–1248 (2012).
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Sullivan, W.

Tang, J.

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
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Thaung, J.

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W. Kastenmüller, P. Torabi-Parizi, N. Subramanian, T. Lämmermann, and R. N. Germain, “A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread,” Cell 150(6), 1235–1248 (2012).
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N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Wilson, T.

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M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
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Wise, F. W.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Xu, C.

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
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Xu, X.

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
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Yang, C.

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
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Cell (1)

W. Kastenmüller, P. Torabi-Parizi, N. Subramanian, T. Lämmermann, and R. N. Germain, “A spatially-organized multicellular innate immune response in lymph nodes limits systemic pathogen spread,” Cell 150(6), 1235–1248 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. (1)

R. D. Simmonds and M. J. Booth, “Modelling of multi-conjugate adaptive optics for spatially variant aberrations in microscopy,” J. Opt. 15(9), 094010 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. M. Wang, B. Judkewitz, C. A. Dimarzio, and C. Yang, “Deep-tissue focal fluorescence imaging with digitally time-reversed ultrasound-encoded light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 928 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, “Deep tissue two-photon microscopy,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 932–940 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (6)

N. G. Horton, K. Wang, D. Kobat, C. G. Clark, F. W. Wise, C. B. Schaffer, and C. Xu, “In vivo three-photon microscopy of subcortical structures within an intact mouse brain,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 205–209 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Katz, E. Small, and Y. Silberberg, “Looking around corners and through thin turbid layers in real time with scattered incoherent light,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 549–553 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Fluorescence imaging beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation,” Nat. Photonics 6(10), 657–661 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xu, H. Liu, and L. V. Wang, “Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing into scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(3), 154–157 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Mosk, A. Lagendijk, G. Lerosey, and M. Fink, “Controlling waves in space and time for imaging and focusing in complex media,” Nat. Photonics 6(5), 283–292 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Katz, P. Heidmann, M. Fink, and S. Gigan, “Non-invasive single-shot imaging through scattering layers and around corners via speckle correlations,” Nat. Photonics 8(10), 784–790 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491(7423), 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Psaltis and I. N. Papadopoulos, “Imaging: The fog clears,” Nature 491(7423), 197–198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Lämmermann, P. V. Afonso, B. R. Angermann, J. M. Wang, W. Kastenmüller, C. A. Parent, and R. N. Germain, “Neutrophil swarms require LTB4 and integrins at sites of cell death in vivo,” Nature 498(7454), 371–375 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (3)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Adie, B. W. Graf, A. Ahmad, P. S. Carney, and S. A. Boppart, “Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(19), 7175–7180 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tang, R. N. Germain, and M. Cui, “Superpenetration optical microscopy by iterative multiphoton adaptive compensation technique,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(22), 8434–8439 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci Rep (1)

K. Si, R. Fiolka, and M. Cui, “Breaking the spatial resolution barrier via iterative sound-light interaction in deep tissue microscopy,” Sci Rep 2, 748 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

G. Lerosey, J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, “Focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal,” Science 315(5815), 1120–1122 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford, 1998).

J. Mertz, H. Paudel, and T. G. Bifano, “Field of view advantage of conjugate adaptive optics in microscopy applications,” arXiv:1501.02685 (2015).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of nano-optics (Cambridge University, 2012).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The phase profile of a portion of one distortion layer. (b) The focus intensity profile in clear medium (n = 1.33). (c) The focus intensity profile after the light propagated through the 960 µm thick tissue.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Multi-conjugate configuration. A corrector (grey color) was placed at the pupil plane to correct translation invariant distortion. Multiple correctors were imaged to the corresponding tissue layers in the right order. (b) In a simpler setup, the relay lenses directly imaged the tissue volume onto the corrector volume. The axial position of each corrector was right but the light traveled through the corrector in the wrong order.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Determine the electric field at the corrector plane. We let the laser beam travel from the diffraction limited focus through the tissue section and then propagate back in clear medium (n = 1.33) to the corrector that was located at the middle plane of the tissue section. (b) Determine the corrector phase values over extended range. We repeated the measurement for multiple focal locations such that the laser beams covered a larger portion of the corrector.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Correction FOV of multi-conjugate system with different numbers of correctors (bold number in the plot). For comparison, we plot the peak intensity over a 200 µm range for multi-conjugation (MC), flat wavefront without correction (flat), and pupil plane correction (pupil).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Multi-conjugate correction with different range of wavefront averaging. The bold number in each plot is the range of averaging in µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Compare single-conjugation with pupil plane correction for small FOV imaging. The phase amplitude of the tissue phase masks in (b) was higher than that in (a) to further reduce the Strehl ratio and make the tissue more turbid. The range of wavefront averaging was 34 µm in both plots.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Wide FOV correction for different tissue. The range of wavefront averaging was 100 µm and the goal was to have a threefold peak intensity enhancement. (a) The tissue feature size was 5 µm and quadruple-conjugation was used. (b) The peak intensity was normalized to the value without correction to show the enhancement factor. (c) and (d) are for tissue of10 µm feature size with double-conjugation. (e) and (f) are for tissue of 20 µm feature size with single-conjugation.

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