Abstract

We present and demonstrate a novel protocol for distributing secret keys between two and only two parties based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS). We demonstrate our new protocol with N = 3 parties using phase-encoded photons. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N − 2 parties. Our implementation allows for an accessible transition between N-party QSS and arbitrary two party QKD without modification of hardware. In addition, our approach significantly reduces the number of resources such as single photon detectors, lasers and dark fiber connections needed to implement QKD.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Bennet and G. Brassard, “Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), pp. 175–179.
  2. W. Wootters and W. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Phoenix, S. Barnett, P.D. Townsend, and K. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1155–1163 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multi-party qauntum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 69, 052307 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber,” Phys. Rev. A. 78, 062307 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 044301 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. L. Han, Y. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication using single photons,” Optics Commun. 281, 2690 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Hai-Qiang, W. Ke-Jin, and Y. Jian-hui, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing in a fiber network configuration,” Opt. Lett. 38, 21 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. Gottesman, “Theory of quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 61, 042311 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Cleve, D. Gottesman, and H. K. Lo, “How to share a quantum secret,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 648 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. P. He, “Comment on Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028901 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. T. Ng, D. Gosal, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Sagnac-loop phase shifter with polarization-independent operation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82, 013106 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. P. He and Z. D. Wang, “Single qubit quantum secret sharing with improved security,” Quant. Inf. Comput. 10, 28 (2010).
  18. A. Ferenczi, V. Narasimhachar, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Security proof of the unbalanced phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A. 86, 042327 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  20. W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with active phase randomization”, Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 044106 (2007)
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Hai-Qiang, W. Ke-Jin, and Y. Jian-hui, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing in a fiber network configuration,” Opt. Lett. 38, 21 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

A. Ferenczi, V. Narasimhachar, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Security proof of the unbalanced phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A. 86, 042327 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. T. Ng, D. Gosal, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Sagnac-loop phase shifter with polarization-independent operation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82, 013106 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

G. P. He and Z. D. Wang, “Single qubit quantum secret sharing with improved security,” Quant. Inf. Comput. 10, 28 (2010).

2008 (2)

J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber,” Phys. Rev. A. 78, 062307 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Han, Y. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication using single photons,” Optics Commun. 281, 2690 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

G. P. He, “Comment on Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028901 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with active phase randomization”, Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 044106 (2007)
[Crossref]

2005 (5)

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 044301 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multi-party qauntum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 69, 052307 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Gottesman, “Theory of quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 61, 042311 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

R. Cleve, D. Gottesman, and H. K. Lo, “How to share a quantum secret,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 648 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Phoenix, S. Barnett, P.D. Townsend, and K. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1155–1163 (1995).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

W. Wootters and W. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

Barnett, S.

S. Phoenix, S. Barnett, P.D. Townsend, and K. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1155–1163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Beal, A.

P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bennet, C.

C. Bennet and G. Brassard, “Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), pp. 175–179.

Berthiaume, A.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blow, K.

S. Phoenix, S. Barnett, P.D. Townsend, and K. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1155–1163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bogdanski, J.

J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber,” Phys. Rev. A. 78, 062307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bourennane, M.

J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber,” Phys. Rev. A. 78, 062307 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brassard, G.

C. Bennet and G. Brassard, “Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of IEEE int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (1984), pp. 175–179.

Buntschu, F.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bužek, V.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clausen, B.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cleve, R.

R. Cleve, D. Gottesman, and H. K. Lo, “How to share a quantum secret,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 648 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deng, F. G.

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multi-party qauntum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 69, 052307 (2004).
[Crossref]

Donkor, E.

P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Felber, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ferenczi, A.

A. Ferenczi, V. Narasimhachar, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Security proof of the unbalanced phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A. 86, 042327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gosal, D.

T. T. Ng, D. Gosal, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Sagnac-loop phase shifter with polarization-independent operation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82, 013106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gottesman, D.

R. Cleve, D. Gottesman, and H. K. Lo, “How to share a quantum secret,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 648 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gottesman, G.

G. Gottesman, “Theory of quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 61, 042311 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hai-Qiang, M.

M. Hai-Qiang, W. Ke-Jin, and Y. Jian-hui, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing in a fiber network configuration,” Opt. Lett. 38, 21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, L.

L. Han, Y. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication using single photons,” Optics Commun. 281, 2690 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, G. P.

G. P. He and Z. D. Wang, “Single qubit quantum secret sharing with improved security,” Quant. Inf. Comput. 10, 28 (2010).

G. P. He, “Comment on Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Henzen, L.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hillery, M.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hwang, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jian-hui, Y.

M. Hai-Qiang, W. Ke-Jin, and Y. Jian-hui, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing in a fiber network configuration,” Opt. Lett. 38, 21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Junod, P.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ke-Jin, W.

M. Hai-Qiang, W. Ke-Jin, and Y. Jian-hui, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing in a fiber network configuration,” Opt. Lett. 38, 21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kumavor, P.

P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kurtsiefer, C.

T. T. Ng, D. Gosal, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Sagnac-loop phase shifter with polarization-independent operation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82, 013106 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamas-Linares, A.

T. T. Ng, D. Gosal, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Sagnac-loop phase shifter with polarization-independent operation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82, 013106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Legre, M.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 044301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Litzistorf, G.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

L. Han, Y. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication using single photons,” Optics Commun. 281, 2690 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

L. Han, Y. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication using single photons,” Optics Commun. 281, 2690 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lo, H. K.

R. Cleve, D. Gottesman, and H. K. Lo, “How to share a quantum secret,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 648 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lo, H.-K.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with active phase randomization”, Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 044106 (2007)
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, G. L.

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multi-party qauntum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 69, 052307 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lutkenhaus, N.

A. Ferenczi, V. Narasimhachar, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Security proof of the unbalanced phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A. 86, 042327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Man, Z.

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 044301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Monat, L.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Monbaron, P.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Narasimhachar, V.

A. Ferenczi, V. Narasimhachar, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Security proof of the unbalanced phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A. 86, 042327 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. T.

T. T. Ng, D. Gosal, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Sagnac-loop phase shifter with polarization-independent operation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82, 013106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Page, J. B.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. W.

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multi-party qauntum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 69, 052307 (2004).
[Crossref]

Perroud, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Phoenix, S.

S. Phoenix, S. Barnett, P.D. Townsend, and K. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1155–1163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Qi, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with active phase randomization”, Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 044106 (2007)
[Crossref]

Rafiei, N.

J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber,” Phys. Rev. A. 78, 062307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ribordy, G.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Robyr, S.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rochas, A.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmid, C.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stucki, D.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tavares, J.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thew, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P.D.

S. Phoenix, S. Barnett, P.D. Townsend, and K. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1155–1163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Trinkler, P.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Trojek, P.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ventura, S.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Voirol, R.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Walenta, N.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.-B.

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. D.

G. P. He and Z. D. Wang, “Single qubit quantum secret sharing with improved security,” Quant. Inf. Comput. 10, 28 (2010).

Weinfurter, H.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wootters, W.

W. Wootters and W. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multi-party qauntum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 69, 052307 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yelin, S.

P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

L. Han, Y. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication using single photons,” Optics Commun. 281, 2690 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 044301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with active phase randomization”, Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 044106 (2007)
[Crossref]

Zukowksi, M.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zukowski, M.

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zurek, W.

W. Wootters and W. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, and H.-K. Lo, “Experimental quantum key distribution with active phase randomization”, Appl. Phys. Lett.,  90, 044106 (2007)
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

P. Kumavor, A. Beal, S. Yelin, E. Donkor, and B. Wang, “Comparison of four multi-user quantum key distribution schemes over passive optical networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Phoenix, S. Barnett, P.D. Townsend, and K. Blow, “Multi-user quantum cryptography on optical networks,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 1155–1163 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

W. Wootters and W. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

D. Stucki, M. Legre, F. Buntschu, B. Clausen, N. Felber, N. Gisin, L. Henzen, P. Junod, G. Litzistorf, P. Monbaron, L. Monat, J. B. Page, D. Perroud, G. Ribordy, A. Rochas, S. Robyr, J. Tavares, R. Thew, P. Trinkler, S. Ventura, R. Voirol, N. Walenta, and H. Zbinden, “Long-term performance of the Swiss Quantum quantum key distribution network in a field environment,” New J. Phys. 13, 123001 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

M. Hai-Qiang, W. Ke-Jin, and Y. Jian-hui, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing in a fiber network configuration,” Opt. Lett. 38, 21 (2013).
[Crossref]

Optics Commun. (1)

L. Han, Y. Liu, J. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication using single photons,” Optics Commun. 281, 2690 (2008).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A. (5)

L. Xiao, G. L. Long, F. G. Deng, and J. W. Pan, “Efficient multi-party qauntum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 69, 052307 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Bogdanski, N. Rafiei, and M. Bourennane, “Experimental quantum secret sharing using telecommunication fiber,” Phys. Rev. A. 78, 062307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Y. Li, and Z. Man, “Multiparty quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 71, 044301 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Gottesman, “Theory of quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A. 61, 042311 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Ferenczi, V. Narasimhachar, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Security proof of the unbalanced phase-encoded Bennett–Brassard 1984 protocol,” Phys. Rev. A. 86, 042327 (2012).
[Crossref]

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G. P. He, “Comment on Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028901 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowksi, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental single qubit quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 230505 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-B. Wang, “Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schmid, P. Trojek, M. Bourennane, C. Kurtsiefer, M. Zukowski, and H. Weinfurter, “Reply to Comment on ’Experimental Single Qubit Quantum Secret Sharing’,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 028902 (2007).
[Crossref]

Quant. Inf. Comput. (1)

G. P. He and Z. D. Wang, “Single qubit quantum secret sharing with improved security,” Quant. Inf. Comput. 10, 28 (2010).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

T. T. Ng, D. Gosal, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Sagnac-loop phase shifter with polarization-independent operation,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 82, 013106 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 N parties p with N(N − 1)/2 quantum channels (dashed black line) with a classical channel (solid red line). Any two nodes can perform QKD independently of the remaining N − 2 parties. Squares must be able to detect or emit single qubits.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 N parties p on a shared quantum channel (dashed black line) with a classical channel (solid red line). Any two nodes can build a secret key with collaboration from the remaining N − 2 parties.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of 3-party experimental system highlighting the operation of the Charlie unit. A 95/5 tap coupler (C) sends light from a heralding classical pulse to a detector (D) in order to synchronize the activation of the single photon phase modulator (PM). The polarization beam splitter (PBS) and Faraday rotators (FR) align the polarization with the primary access of the PM.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental results for the N=3 party, QSS based secret key distribution. The columns represent the number of detection events on two detectors after the projective measurement to the |±〉 basis. D1(light red) and D2 (dark blue) clearly show the difference between the deterministic Σ jϕj = and random cases Σ jϕj = (n + 1/2)π.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Three cases of an evil node Eve among an arbitrary number of nodes, N with Alice, A and Bob, B. Using the cheating protocol of [14] the upstream set, U, is contained in the black box and the downstream set, D, is contained in the dashed box. The position of A and B in each set U, D is arbitrary.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Brief Experimental Results

Tables Icon

Table 2 Experimental Results

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

| Ψ i = | + = 1 2 ( | 0 + | 1 ) .
| Ψ f = 1 2 ( | 0 + e i j = 1 N ϕ j | 1 ) .
| Ψ f = 1 2 ( | 0 + e i ( ϕ a + ϕ b + j = 1 N 2 ϕ j ) | 1 ) ,
( j = 1 N 2 ϕ j ) mod π { 0 , π / 2 } .
| Ψ f = 1 2 ( | 0 + e i ( ϕ a + ϕ b ) | 1 ) ,
| ϕ 0 = | ϕ E V E , | ϕ π / 2 = α 0 e i π / 2 | 0 + α 1 | 1 , | ϕ π = α 0 e i π | 0 + α 1 | 1 , | ϕ 3 π / 2 = α 0 e i 3 π / 2 | 0 + α 1 | 1 .

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