Abstract

A ring resonator is patterned on a porous silicon slab waveguide to produce a compact, high quality factor biosensor with a large internal surface area available for enhanced recognition of biological and chemical molecules. The porous nature of the ring resonator allows molecules to directly interact with the guided mode. Quality factors near 10,000 were measured for porous silicon ring resonators with a radius of 25 μm. A bulk detection sensitivity of 380 nm/RIU was measured upon exposure to salt water solutions. Specific detection of nucleic acid molecules was demonstrated with a surface detection sensitivity of 4 pm/nM.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

G. A. Rodriguez, J. D. Ryckman, Y. Jiao, and S. M. Weiss, “A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 53, 486–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. R. Beavers, J. W. Mares, C. M. Swartz, Y. Zhao, S. M. Weiss, and C. L. Duvall, “In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing,” Bioconjug. Chem. 25(7), 1192–1197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 13510–13519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (4)

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mancuso, J. M. Goddard, and D. Erickson, “Nanoporous polymer ring resonators for biosensing,” Opt. Express 20(1), 245–255 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(79), 79 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei, J. W. Mares, Y. Gao, D. Li, and S. M. Weiss, “Biomolecule kinetics measurements in flow cell integrated porous silicon waveguides,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1993–2003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. W. Mares and S. M. Weiss, “Diffusion dynamics of small molecules from mesoporous silicon films by real-time optical interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 50(27), 5329–5337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Qavi, T. M. Mysz, and R. C. Bailey, “Isothermal discrimination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms via real-time kinetic desorption and label-free detection of DNA using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6827–6833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei and S. M. Weiss, “Guided mode biosensor based on grating coupled porous silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11330–11339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei and S. M. Weiss, “Grating coupled waveguide biosensor based on porous silicon,” Proc. MRS 1301, 219–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lawrie, Z. Xu, G. Rong, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides in mesoporous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1339–1342 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, and H. Arwin, “Determination of pore size distribution and surface area of thin porous silicon layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 172(1-2), 117–125 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. St. J. Russel, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).
[Crossref]

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(34), 7925–7930 (1999).
[Crossref]

Arwin, H.

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, and H. Arwin, “Determination of pore size distribution and surface area of thin porous silicon layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 172(1-2), 117–125 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bailey, R. C.

A. J. Qavi, T. M. Mysz, and R. C. Bailey, “Isothermal discrimination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms via real-time kinetic desorption and label-free detection of DNA using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6827–6833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bañuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beavers, K. R.

K. R. Beavers, J. W. Mares, C. M. Swartz, Y. Zhao, S. M. Weiss, and C. L. Duvall, “In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing,” Bioconjug. Chem. 25(7), 1192–1197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 13510–13519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cai, L.

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(79), 79 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canham, L. T.

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. St. J. Russel, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carlborg, C. F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, S.

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cheung, K. C.

Chrostowski, L.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cunin, F.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dancil, K.-P. S.

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(34), 7925–7930 (1999).
[Crossref]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

DeHeyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dell’Olio, F.

Donzella, V.

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Duvall, C. L.

K. R. Beavers, J. W. Mares, C. M. Swartz, Y. Zhao, S. M. Weiss, and C. L. Duvall, “In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing,” Bioconjug. Chem. 25(7), 1192–1197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erickson, D.

Fauchet, P. M.

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Flueckiger, J.

Gao, Y.

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goddard, J. M.

Greiner, D. P.

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(34), 7925–7930 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grist, S. M.

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hu, D.

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(79), 79 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(79), 79 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiao, Y.

G. A. Rodriguez, J. D. Ryckman, Y. Jiao, and S. M. Weiss, “A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 53, 486–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

Kirk, J. T.

Kravchenko, I. I.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laibinis, P. E.

Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 13510–13519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Lawrie, Z. Xu, G. Rong, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides in mesoporous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1339–1342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lawrie, J. L.

Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 13510–13519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Lawrie, Z. Xu, G. Rong, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides in mesoporous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1339–1342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Li, S.

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(79), 79 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mancuso, M.

Maquieira Catala, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mares, J. W.

McNab, S. J.

Miller, B. L.

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Miskelly, G. M.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Murphy, T. E.

Mysz, T. M.

A. J. Qavi, T. M. Mysz, and R. C. Bailey, “Isothermal discrimination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms via real-time kinetic desorption and label-free detection of DNA using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6827–6833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pacholski, C.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M. N.

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qavi, A. J.

A. J. Qavi, T. M. Mysz, and R. C. Bailey, “Isothermal discrimination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms via real-time kinetic desorption and label-free detection of DNA using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6827–6833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, K.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ratner, D. M.

Retterer, S. T.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, G. A.

G. A. Rodriguez, J. D. Ryckman, Y. Jiao, and S. M. Weiss, “A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 53, 486–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rong, G.

J. L. Lawrie, Z. Xu, G. Rong, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides in mesoporous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1339–1342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rothberg, L. J.

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Russel, P. St. J.

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. St. J. Russel, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ryckman, J. D.

G. A. Rodriguez, J. D. Ryckman, Y. Jiao, and S. M. Weiss, “A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 53, 486–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sailor, M. J.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(34), 7925–7930 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sartor, M.

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S. A.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, W.

Snow, P. A.

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. St. J. Russel, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sohlström, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

Squire, E. K.

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. St. J. Russel, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swartz, C. M.

K. R. Beavers, J. W. Mares, C. M. Swartz, Y. Zhao, S. M. Weiss, and C. L. Duvall, “In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing,” Bioconjug. Chem. 25(7), 1192–1197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Talebi Fard, S.

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

van der Wijngaart, W.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wei, X.

Weiss, S. M.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. A. Rodriguez, J. D. Ryckman, Y. Jiao, and S. M. Weiss, “A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 53, 486–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 13510–13519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Beavers, J. W. Mares, C. M. Swartz, Y. Zhao, S. M. Weiss, and C. L. Duvall, “In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing,” Bioconjug. Chem. 25(7), 1192–1197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei, J. W. Mares, Y. Gao, D. Li, and S. M. Weiss, “Biomolecule kinetics measurements in flow cell integrated porous silicon waveguides,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 1993–2003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei and S. M. Weiss, “Guided mode biosensor based on grating coupled porous silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11330–11339 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Mares and S. M. Weiss, “Diffusion dynamics of small molecules from mesoporous silicon films by real-time optical interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 50(27), 5329–5337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wei and S. M. Weiss, “Grating coupled waveguide biosensor based on porous silicon,” Proc. MRS 1301, 219–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Lawrie, Z. Xu, G. Rong, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides in mesoporous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1339–1342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wongmanerod, C.

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, and H. Arwin, “Determination of pore size distribution and surface area of thin porous silicon layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 172(1-2), 117–125 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

J. L. Lawrie, Z. Xu, G. Rong, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides in mesoporous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1339–1342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zangooie, S.

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, and H. Arwin, “Determination of pore size distribution and surface area of thin porous silicon layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 172(1-2), 117–125 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 13510–13519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Beavers, J. W. Mares, C. M. Swartz, Y. Zhao, S. M. Weiss, and C. L. Duvall, “In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing,” Bioconjug. Chem. 25(7), 1192–1197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(16), 13510–13519 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photon. (1)

S. Hu, Y. Zhao, K. Qin, S. T. Retterer, I. I. Kravchenko, and S. M. Weiss, “Enhancing the sensitivity of label-free silicon photonic biosensors through increased probe molecule density,” ACS Photon. 1(7), 590–597 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

A. J. Qavi, T. M. Mysz, and R. C. Bailey, “Isothermal discrimination of single-nucleotide polymorphisms via real-time kinetic desorption and label-free detection of DNA using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 83(17), 6827–6833 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. Wongmanerod, S. Zangooie, and H. Arwin, “Determination of pore size distribution and surface area of thin porous silicon layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 172(1-2), 117–125 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bioconjug. Chem. (1)

K. R. Beavers, J. W. Mares, C. M. Swartz, Y. Zhao, S. M. Weiss, and C. L. Duvall, “In situ synthesis of peptide nucleic acids in porous silicon for drug delivery and biosensing,” Bioconjug. Chem. 25(7), 1192–1197 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

G. A. Rodriguez, J. D. Ryckman, Y. Jiao, and S. M. Weiss, “A size selective porous silicon grating-coupled Bloch surface and sub-surface wave biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 53, 486–493 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

C. Pacholski, M. Sartor, M. J. Sailor, F. Cunin, and G. M. Miskelly, “Biosensing using porous silicon double-layer interferometers: reflective interferometric fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(33), 11636–11645 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.-P. S. Dancil, D. P. Greiner, and M. J. Sailor, “A porous silicon optical biosensor: detection of reversible binding of IgG to a protein A-modified surface,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 121(34), 7925–7930 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. St. J. Russel, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(4), 1781–1784 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

W. Bogaerts, P. DeHeyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

S. Li, D. Hu, J. Huang, and L. Cai, “Optical sensing nanostructures for porous silicon rugate filters,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(79), 79 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. (1)

S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Phys. Status Solidi, A Appl. Res. 182(1), 541–546 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. L. Lawrie, Z. Xu, G. Rong, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides in mesoporous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi., A Appl. Mater. Sci. 206(6), 1339–1342 (2009).
[Crossref]

Proc. MRS (1)

X. Wei and S. M. Weiss, “Grating coupled waveguide biosensor based on porous silicon,” Proc. MRS 1301, 219–224 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Labeled schematic of PSi ring resonator employed in this work.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM images of (a) 25μm radius PSi ring resonator WG, (b) top view porosity profile of the WG (small pores) and cladding (large pores) layers, and (c) cross section of the ridge WG post RIE etch.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 SEM image of two 10 μm radius 90° bends in a PSi ridge WG used to characterize bending losses. Bending losses are estimated at <1 dB/90° bend. The inset image shows the relationship between measured transmission and PSi WG length, yielding PSi propagation losses of 2.75 dB/mm
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) FDTD simulation (black) compared to measured transmission spectrum (red) of a 25 μm PSi ring. Good agreement of FSR = 7.6 nm and resonance wavelengths is observed. (b) Lorenzian fit of resonance near 1554 nm, which indicates a Q-factor of 9100. (c) Transmission spectrum of a 10 μm PSi ring with FSR = 18.8 nm and Q-factor of 6400 near 1558 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Bulk sensitivity of (a) 10 μm and (b) 25 μm radius PSi ring resonators as determined based on exposure to different salt water concentrations referenced to deionized water. The sensitivity of both rings is approximately 380 nm/RIU
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) PSi slab WG reflectance fringe shifts caused by APTES and SPDP attachment. (b) Resonance shifts of 10 μm radius PSi ring due to attachment of DNA and PNA to a SPDP functionalized surface. (c) Transmission spectra of 25 μm radius PSi ring before and after DNA-PNA hybridization.

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