Abstract

The self-assembled monolayer periodic array of polystyrene spheres conformally coated with TiO2 layer using atomic layer deposition is designed to obtain a further enhancement of light extraction for LYSO scintillator. The maximum enhancement is 149% for the sample with polystyrene spheres conformally coated with TiO2 layer, while the enhancement is only 76% for the sample with only polystyrene spheres. Such further enhancement could be contributed from the additional modes forming by TiO2 layer due to its high refractive index, which can be approved by the simulation of electric field distribution. The experimental results are agreement with the simulated results. Furthermore, the prepared structured layer exhibits an excellent combination with the surface of scintillator, which is in favor of the practical application. Therefore, it is safely concluded that the combination of self-assembly method and atomic layer deposition is a promising approach to obtain a significant enhancement of light extraction for a large area. This method can be extended to many other luminescent materials and devices.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Ding, B. Liu, Y. Wu, J. Yang, G. Ren, and J. Chen, “Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO: Ce crystals,” J. Lumin. 154, 260–266 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Wei, Z. Huo, Y. Zhang, H. Zheng, Y. Chen, J. Yang, Q. Hu, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. Li, “Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1093–A1100 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. H. Lin, W. L. Chang, H.-Y. Lin, T.-H. Chou, H.-C. Kan, and C. C. Hsu, “Enhancing light extraction efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi crystal,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22090–22097 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. Du, T. Wei, H. Zheng, L. Wang, C. Geng, Q. Yan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Size-controllable nanopyramids photonic crystal selectively grown on p-GaN for enhanced light-extraction of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25373–25380 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. H. T. Miyazaki, H. Miyazaki, K. Ohtaka, and T. Sato, “Photonic band in two-dimensional lattices of micrometer-sized spheres mechanically arranged under a scanning electron microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7152–7158 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. Yan, Y. Zeng, Y. Wu, Y. Zhao, L. Ji, Y. Jiang, and L. Li, “Ten-fold enhancement of ZnO thin film ultraviolet-luminescence by dielectric microsphere arrays,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23552–23564 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, Y. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071909 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  21. Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. C. Marichy, M. Bechelany, and N. Pinna, “Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials for energy and environmental applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1017–1032 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition: an overview,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 111–131 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. López-García, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. López, and A. García-Martín, “Light confinement by two-dimensional arrays of dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 85(23), 235145 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Kurokawa, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Jimba, “Light scattering from a monolayer of periodically arrayed dielectric spheres on dielectric substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 201102 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

D. Ding, B. Liu, Y. Wu, J. Yang, G. Ren, and J. Chen, “Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO: Ce crystals,” J. Lumin. 154, 260–266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Wei, Z. Huo, Y. Zhang, H. Zheng, Y. Chen, J. Yang, Q. Hu, R. Duan, J. Wang, Y. Zeng, and J. Li, “Efficiency enhancement of homoepitaxial InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrate with double embedded SiO2 photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 22(S4Suppl 4), A1093–A1100 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yan, Y. Zeng, Y. Wu, Y. Zhao, L. Ji, Y. Jiang, and L. Li, “Ten-fold enhancement of ZnO thin film ultraviolet-luminescence by dielectric microsphere arrays,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23552–23564 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (6)

J. H. Lin, W. L. Chang, H.-Y. Lin, T.-H. Chou, H.-C. Kan, and C. C. Hsu, “Enhancing light extraction efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi crystal,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22090–22097 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Du, T. Wei, H. Zheng, L. Wang, C. Geng, Q. Yan, J. Wang, and J. Li, “Size-controllable nanopyramids photonic crystal selectively grown on p-GaN for enhanced light-extraction of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25373–25380 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, Y. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071909 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Marichy, M. Bechelany, and N. Pinna, “Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials for energy and environmental applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1017–1032 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. López-García, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. López, and A. García-Martín, “Light confinement by two-dimensional arrays of dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 85(23), 235145 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition: an overview,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 111–131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Y. Kurokawa, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Jimba, “Light scattering from a monolayer of periodically arrayed dielectric spheres on dielectric substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 201102 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. T. Miyazaki, H. Miyazaki, K. Ohtaka, and T. Sato, “Photonic band in two-dimensional lattices of micrometer-sized spheres mechanically arranged under a scanning electron microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7152–7158 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auffray, E.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baek, S.

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ballif, C.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Battaglia, C.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bechelany, M.

C. Marichy, M. Bechelany, and N. Pinna, “Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials for energy and environmental applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1017–1032 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blanco, Á.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bukowsky, C. R.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Callahan, D. M.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W. L.

Chen, H.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, Y. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071909 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

D. Ding, B. Liu, Y. Wu, J. Yang, G. Ren, and J. Chen, “Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO: Ce crystals,” J. Lumin. 154, 260–266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, C.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, Y. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, C.-O.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-G.

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, T.-H.

Cui, Y.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Deceglie, M. G.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, D.

D. Ding, B. Liu, Y. Wu, J. Yang, G. Ren, and J. Chen, “Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO: Ce crystals,” J. Lumin. 154, 260–266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Du, C.

Duan, R.

Fabjan, C. W.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Froufe-Pérez, L. S.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galisteo-López, J. F.

M. López-García, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. López, and A. García-Martín, “Light confinement by two-dimensional arrays of dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 85(23), 235145 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Martín, A.

M. López-García, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. López, and A. García-Martín, “Light confinement by two-dimensional arrays of dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 85(23), 235145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Geng, C.

George, S. M.

S. M. George, “Atomic layer deposition: an overview,” Chem. Rev. 110(1), 111–131 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grubbs, R. H.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, Y. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071909 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hansen, O.

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hess, O.

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. C.

Hu, E. L.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Huo, Z.

Hyun, W. J.

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibisate, M.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Im, S. H.

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iza, M.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ji, L.

Jiang, Y.

Jimba, Y.

Y. Kurokawa, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Jimba, “Light scattering from a monolayer of periodically arrayed dielectric spheres on dielectric substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 201102 (2002).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jokubavicius, V.

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kan, H.-C.

Kang, G.

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K.

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. C.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Knapitsch, A.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kurokawa, Y.

Y. Kurokawa, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Jimba, “Light scattering from a monolayer of periodically arrayed dielectric spheres on dielectric substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 201102 (2002).
[Crossref]

Leclercq, J.-L.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lecoq, P.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. K.

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Letartre, X.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, L.

Lin, H.-Y.

Lin, J. H.

Liu, B.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Ding, B. Liu, Y. Wu, J. Yang, G. Ren, and J. Chen, “Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO: Ce crystals,” J. Lumin. 154, 260–266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, Y. Yi, H. Chen, and M. Gu, “Improved light extraction efficiency of cerium-doped lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate scintillator by monolayers of periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(7), 071909 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Pignalosa, B. Liu, H. Chen, H. Smith, and Y. Yi, “Giant light extraction enhancement of medical imaging scintillation materials using biologically inspired integrated nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2808–2810 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López, C.

M. López-García, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. López, and A. García-Martín, “Light confinement by two-dimensional arrays of dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 85(23), 235145 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López-García, M.

M. López-García, J. F. Galisteo-López, C. López, and A. García-Martín, “Light confinement by two-dimensional arrays of dielectric spheres,” Phys. Rev. B 85(23), 235145 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mao, R.

Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marichy, C.

C. Marichy, M. Bechelany, and N. Pinna, “Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials for energy and environmental applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1017–1032 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matioli, E.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mazurczyk, R.

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Effects of photonic crystals on the light output of heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2322–2329 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Knapitsch, E. Auffray, C. W. Fabjan, J.-L. Leclercq, X. Letartre, R. Mazurczyk, and P. Lecoq, “Results of photonic crystal enhanced light extraction on heavy inorganic scintillators,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 59(5), 2334–2339 (2012).
[Crossref]

McGroddy, K.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, H.

Y. Kurokawa, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Jimba, “Light scattering from a monolayer of periodically arrayed dielectric spheres on dielectric substrates,” Phys. Rev. B 65(20), 201102 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. T. Miyazaki, H. Miyazaki, K. Ohtaka, and T. Sato, “Photonic band in two-dimensional lattices of micrometer-sized spheres mechanically arranged under a scanning electron microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7152–7158 (2000).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki, H. Miyazaki, K. Ohtaka, and T. Sato, “Photonic band in two-dimensional lattices of micrometer-sized spheres mechanically arranged under a scanning electron microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7152–7158 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mortensen, N. A.

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Munday, J. N.

J. Grandidier, D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, and H. A. Atwater, “Light absorption enhancement in thin-film solar cells using whispering gallery modes in dielectric nanospheres,” Adv. Mater. 23(10), 1272–1276 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Narasimhan, V. K.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. S.

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohtaka, K.

H. T. Miyazaki, H. Miyazaki, K. Ohtaka, and T. Sato, “Photonic band in two-dimensional lattices of micrometer-sized spheres mechanically arranged under a scanning electron microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7152–7158 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ou, Y.

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Padilla, W. J.

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H.

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, O. O.

W. J. Hyun, H. K. Lee, S. S. Oh, O. Hess, C.-G. Choi, S. H. Im, and O. O. Park, “Two-dimensional TiO2 inverse opal with a closed top surface structure for enhanced light extraction from polymer light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(16), 1846–1850 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pignalosa, P.

Pinna, N.

C. Marichy, M. Bechelany, and N. Pinna, “Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials for energy and environmental applications,” Adv. Mater. 24(8), 1017–1032 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, G.

D. Ding, B. Liu, Y. Wu, J. Yang, G. Ren, and J. Chen, “Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO: Ce crystals,” J. Lumin. 154, 260–266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Z.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sapienza, R.

J. F. Galisteo-López, M. Ibisate, R. Sapienza, L. S. Froufe-Pérez, Á. Blanco, and C. López, “Self-assembled photonic structures,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 30–69 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

H. T. Miyazaki, H. Miyazaki, K. Ohtaka, and T. Sato, “Photonic band in two-dimensional lattices of micrometer-sized spheres mechanically arranged under a scanning electron microscope,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7152–7158 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shin, D.

G. Kang, H. Park, D. Shin, S. Baek, M. Choi, D.-H. Yu, K. Kim, and W. J. Padilla, “Broadband light-trapping enhancement in an ultrathin film a-Si absorber using whispering gallery modes and guided wave modes with dielectric surface-textured structures,” Adv. Mater. 25(18), 2617–2623 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, H.

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y. C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, C.-O. Cho, H. Jeon, Y.-J. Lee, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Enhanced light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes with 2D SiO2/SiNx photonic crystals,” Adv. Mater. 15(14), 1214–1218 (2003).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Syväjärvi, M.

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P. R.

S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. F. Schubert, “High extraction efficiency of spontaneous emission from slabs of photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(17), 3294–3297 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Wei, T.

Weisbuch, C.

K. McGroddy, A. David, E. Matioli, M. Iza, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “Directional emission control and increased light extraction in GaN photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weitekamp, R. A.

J. Grandidier, R. A. Weitekamp, M. G. Deceglie, D. M. Callahan, C. Battaglia, C. R. Bukowsky, C. Ballif, R. H. Grubbs, and H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere arrays,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 210(2), 255–260 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

D. Ding, B. Liu, Y. Wu, J. Yang, G. Ren, and J. Chen, “Effect of yttrium on electron–phonon coupling strength of 5d state of Ce3+ ion in LYSO: Ce crystals,” J. Lumin. 154, 260–266 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yan, Y. Zeng, Y. Wu, Y. Zhao, L. Ji, Y. Jiang, and L. Li, “Ten-fold enhancement of ZnO thin film ultraviolet-luminescence by dielectric microsphere arrays,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23552–23564 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

X. Zhu, Y. Ou, V. Jokubavicius, M. Syväjärvi, O. Hansen, H. Ou, N. A. Mortensen, and S. Xiao, “Broadband light-extraction enhanced by arrays of whispering gallery resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(24), 241108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xie, C.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, Q.

Yan, Y.

Yang, J.

Yao, J.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, Y.

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Z. Zhu, B. Liu, C. Cheng, H. Chen, M. Gu, Y. Yi, and R. Mao, “Broadband light output enhancement for scintillator using whispering-gallery modes in nanospheres,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 211(7), 1583–1588 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Scheme of the light extraction process for LYSO scintillator by the periodic arrays of polystyrene spheres conformally coated with TiO2 layer. (b) Top-view and (c) cross section of SEM images of the sample covered with the array of spheres (diameter of 414 nm) and conformally coated with TiO2 layer (thickness of 90 nm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Numerical simulations of p-polarization transmission with a function of incident angle at the wavelength of 415 nm for plain LYSO as a reference, LYSO covered with spheres (d = 414nm), and LYSO covered with spheres conformally coated with TiO2 layer with thickness of 30, 58.8 and 90 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Emission spectra at normal direction (a) and integrated with 0-60° (b) of LYSO covered with only spheres, spheres with TiO2 layer (thickness of 30, 58.8 and 90 nm). Measurement and simulation of enhancement ratio with respect to the reference sample (c). Angular profile of wavelength-integrated emission for all samples (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated transmission spectra in the normal direction for the free-standing structured layers (black solid lines) and the structured layers on LYSO substrates (blue dashed lines). The structured layers are only spheres (a), spheres with TiO2 layer thickness of 30 nm (b), 58.8 nm (c) and 90 nm (d).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Simulations of spatial distributions of electric field intensity for p-polarization. The structures, wavelengths and incident angles are (a) free-standing sphere, 419 nm, 0°, (b) sphere on LYSO, 420 nm, 0°, (c) sphere on LYSO, 420 nm, 50.3°, (d) free-standing sphere with TiO2 90 nm, 421 nm, 0°, (e) sphere with TiO2 90 nm on LYSO, 412 nm, 0°, (f) sphere with TiO2 90 nm, 415 nm, 44.5°. The black circles represent the site of spheres or shells.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 X-ray excited emission spectra at normal direction of LYSO covered with only spheres, spheres with TiO2 layer (thickness of 30, 58.8 and 90 nm).

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| k // +n G 0 |< 2π λ 0

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