Abstract

We propose a new technique for mitigation of nonlinear distortion of broadband signals due to electrical/optical conversions and fibre transmission. This technique uses memory polynomials on signals on their original format. The performance improvement is assessed experimentally for an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signal, with 750 MHz of bandwidth (centred at 1.5 GHz) and carrying 1.25 Gbps, transmitted along a wavelength division multiplexing long-reach passive optical network. It is shown that, in back-to-back, an error vector magnitude improvement of 4.1 dB and 11.8 dB can be achieved with digital pre-distortion and digital post-distortion, respectively. With 125 km of single-mode fibre transmission, these improvements are reduced to about 1 dB and 3 dB, respectively.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

F. Carvalho and A. Cartaxo, “Optimal electrical power distribution among coexisting OFDM-based signals in LR-PONs: theoretical and experimental analyses,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6(6), 559–570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, J. Zhou, W. Chen, and B. Zhou, “A robust augmented complexity-reduced generalized memory polynomial for wideband RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61(5), 2389–2401 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

H. Cao, H. Nemati, A. Tehrani, T. Eriksson, J. Grahn, and C. Fager, “Linearization of efficiency-optimized dynamic load modulation transmitter architectures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(4), 873–881 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Shen, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, G. Cowan, K. Wu, and T. Liu, “A novel analog broadband RF predistortion circuit to linearize electro-absorption modulators in multiband OFDM radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3327–3335 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23601–23612 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. Zhu, P. Draxler, J. Yan, T. Brazil, D. Kimball, and P. Asbeck, “Open-loop digital predistorter for RF power amplifiers using dynamic deviation reduction-based Volterra series,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56(7), 1524–1534 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Morgan, Z. Ma, J. Kim, M. Zierdt, and J. Pastalan, “A generalized memory polynomial model for digital predistortion of RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Signal Proces. 54(10), 3852–3860 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

L. Ding, G. Zhou, D. Morgan, M. Zhengxiang, J. Kenney, J. Kim, and C. Giardina, “A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. D’Andrea, V. Lottici, and R. Reggiannini, “Nonlinear predistortion of OFDM signals over frequency-selective fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49(5), 837–843 (2001).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. Cavers, “Amplifier linearization using a digital predistorter with fast adaptation and low memory requirements,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 39(4), 374–382 (1990).
[Crossref]

Alves, T.

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. 1–3, paper OW3B.2, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 2012.

T. Alves, J. Morgado, and A. Cartaxo, “Linearity improvement of directly modulated PONs by digital pre-distortion of coexisting OFDM-based signals,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, pp. 1–2, paper AW4A.2, Colorado Springs, CO, USA, 2012.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Asbeck, P.

A. Zhu, P. Draxler, J. Yan, T. Brazil, D. Kimball, and P. Asbeck, “Open-loop digital predistorter for RF power amplifiers using dynamic deviation reduction-based Volterra series,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56(7), 1524–1534 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brazil, T.

A. Zhu, P. Draxler, J. Yan, T. Brazil, D. Kimball, and P. Asbeck, “Open-loop digital predistorter for RF power amplifiers using dynamic deviation reduction-based Volterra series,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56(7), 1524–1534 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, H. Nemati, A. Tehrani, T. Eriksson, J. Grahn, and C. Fager, “Linearization of efficiency-optimized dynamic load modulation transmitter architectures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(4), 873–881 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cartaxo, A.

F. Carvalho and A. Cartaxo, “Optimal electrical power distribution among coexisting OFDM-based signals in LR-PONs: theoretical and experimental analyses,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6(6), 559–570 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Carvalho and A. Cartaxo, “Study on electrical power distribution among coexisting OFDM-based wired-wireless signals along long-reach passive optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 813–824 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23601–23612 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Alves, J. Morgado, and A. Cartaxo, “Linearity improvement of directly modulated PONs by digital pre-distortion of coexisting OFDM-based signals,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, pp. 1–2, paper AW4A.2, Colorado Springs, CO, USA, 2012.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. 1–3, paper OW3B.2, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 2012.

A. Cartaxo, J. Morgado, and D. Fonseca, “A perspective on optical-wireless converged NG-FTTH networks using directly modulated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, pp. 1–4, paper Mo.B4.3, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011.

Carvalho, F.

Carvalho, N.

Cavers, J.

J. Cavers, “Amplifier linearization using a digital predistorter with fast adaptation and low memory requirements,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 39(4), 374–382 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, J.

Chen, W.

Y. Liu, J. Zhou, W. Chen, and B. Zhou, “A robust augmented complexity-reduced generalized memory polynomial for wideband RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61(5), 2389–2401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cluzeaud, P.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Correcher, J.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Cowan, G.

Y. Shen, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, G. Cowan, K. Wu, and T. Liu, “A novel analog broadband RF predistortion circuit to linearize electro-absorption modulators in multiband OFDM radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3327–3335 (2010).
[Crossref]

D’Andrea, A.

A. D’Andrea, V. Lottici, and R. Reggiannini, “Nonlinear predistortion of OFDM signals over frequency-selective fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49(5), 837–843 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

Ding, L.

L. Ding, G. Zhou, D. Morgan, M. Zhengxiang, J. Kenney, J. Kim, and C. Giardina, “A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Draxler, P.

A. Zhu, P. Draxler, J. Yan, T. Brazil, D. Kimball, and P. Asbeck, “Open-loop digital predistorter for RF power amplifiers using dynamic deviation reduction-based Volterra series,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56(7), 1524–1534 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eriksson, T.

H. Cao, H. Nemati, A. Tehrani, T. Eriksson, J. Grahn, and C. Fager, “Linearization of efficiency-optimized dynamic load modulation transmitter architectures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(4), 873–881 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fager, C.

H. Cao, H. Nemati, A. Tehrani, T. Eriksson, J. Grahn, and C. Fager, “Linearization of efficiency-optimized dynamic load modulation transmitter architectures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(4), 873–881 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fonseca, D.

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23601–23612 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Cartaxo, J. Morgado, and D. Fonseca, “A perspective on optical-wireless converged NG-FTTH networks using directly modulated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, pp. 1–4, paper Mo.B4.3, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011.

Giardina, C.

L. Ding, G. Zhou, D. Morgan, M. Zhengxiang, J. Kenney, J. Kim, and C. Giardina, “A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grahn, J.

H. Cao, H. Nemati, A. Tehrani, T. Eriksson, J. Grahn, and C. Fager, “Linearization of efficiency-optimized dynamic load modulation transmitter architectures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(4), 873–881 (2010).
[Crossref]

Herman, M.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Herrera, J.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Hraimel, B.

Y. Shen, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, G. Cowan, K. Wu, and T. Liu, “A novel analog broadband RF predistortion circuit to linearize electro-absorption modulators in multiband OFDM radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3327–3335 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsu, D.

Ji, Y.

Kenney, J.

L. Ding, G. Zhou, D. Morgan, M. Zhengxiang, J. Kenney, J. Kim, and C. Giardina, “A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

D. Morgan, Z. Ma, J. Kim, M. Zierdt, and J. Pastalan, “A generalized memory polynomial model for digital predistortion of RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Signal Proces. 54(10), 3852–3860 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Ding, G. Zhou, D. Morgan, M. Zhengxiang, J. Kenney, J. Kim, and C. Giardina, “A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kimball, D.

A. Zhu, P. Draxler, J. Yan, T. Brazil, D. Kimball, and P. Asbeck, “Open-loop digital predistorter for RF power amplifiers using dynamic deviation reduction-based Volterra series,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 56(7), 1524–1534 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Lin, J.

Liu, T.

Y. Shen, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, G. Cowan, K. Wu, and T. Liu, “A novel analog broadband RF predistortion circuit to linearize electro-absorption modulators in multiband OFDM radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3327–3335 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, J. Zhou, W. Chen, and B. Zhou, “A robust augmented complexity-reduced generalized memory polynomial for wideband RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61(5), 2389–2401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Llorente, R.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. 1–3, paper OW3B.2, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 2012.

Lottici, V.

A. D’Andrea, V. Lottici, and R. Reggiannini, “Nonlinear predistortion of OFDM signals over frequency-selective fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49(5), 837–843 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Ma, Z.

D. Morgan, Z. Ma, J. Kim, M. Zierdt, and J. Pastalan, “A generalized memory polynomial model for digital predistortion of RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Signal Proces. 54(10), 3852–3860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morant, M.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. 1–3, paper OW3B.2, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 2012.

Morgado, J.

J. Morgado, D. Fonseca, and A. Cartaxo, “Experimental study of coexistence of multi-band OFDM-UWB and OFDM-baseband signals in long-reach PONs using directly modulated lasers,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23601–23612 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Alves, J. Morgado, and A. Cartaxo, “Linearity improvement of directly modulated PONs by digital pre-distortion of coexisting OFDM-based signals,” in Advanced Photonics Congress, pp. 1–2, paper AW4A.2, Colorado Springs, CO, USA, 2012.

A. Cartaxo, J. Morgado, and D. Fonseca, “A perspective on optical-wireless converged NG-FTTH networks using directly modulated lasers,” in International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, pp. 1–4, paper Mo.B4.3, Stockholm, Sweden, June 2011.

Morgan, D.

D. Morgan, Z. Ma, J. Kim, M. Zierdt, and J. Pastalan, “A generalized memory polynomial model for digital predistortion of RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Signal Proces. 54(10), 3852–3860 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Ding, G. Zhou, D. Morgan, M. Zhengxiang, J. Kenney, J. Kim, and C. Giardina, “A robust digital baseband predistorter constructed using memory polynomials,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 52(1), 159–165 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nagy, Z.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Nemati, H.

H. Cao, H. Nemati, A. Tehrani, T. Eriksson, J. Grahn, and C. Fager, “Linearization of efficiency-optimized dynamic load modulation transmitter architectures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 58(4), 873–881 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pastalan, J.

D. Morgan, Z. Ma, J. Kim, M. Zierdt, and J. Pastalan, “A generalized memory polynomial model for digital predistortion of RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Signal Proces. 54(10), 3852–3860 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pei, Y.

Pellicer, E.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Quinlan, T.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Reggiannini, R.

A. D’Andrea, V. Lottici, and R. Reggiannini, “Nonlinear predistortion of OFDM signals over frequency-selective fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 49(5), 837–843 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, C.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

Sambaraju, R.

R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

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R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

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Y. Shen, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, G. Cowan, K. Wu, and T. Liu, “A novel analog broadband RF predistortion circuit to linearize electro-absorption modulators in multiband OFDM radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3327–3335 (2010).
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J. Ulm and B. Weeks, “Next play evolution: beyond triple play and quad play,” in IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, pp. 1–6, Dallas, TX, USA, June 2007.

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R. Llorente, M. Morant, E. Pellicer, M. Herman, Z. Nagy, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, J. Herrera, J. Correcher, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, C. Rodrigues, P. Cluzeaud, A. Schmidt, R. Piesiewicz, and R. Sambaraju, “On-the-field demonstration of quintuple-play service provision in long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON access networks,” European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, paper We.4.F.1, London, UK, September 2013.

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J. Ulm and B. Weeks, “Next play evolution: beyond triple play and quad play,” in IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, pp. 1–6, Dallas, TX, USA, June 2007.

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Y. Shen, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, G. Cowan, K. Wu, and T. Liu, “A novel analog broadband RF predistortion circuit to linearize electro-absorption modulators in multiband OFDM radio-over-fiber systems,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 58(11), 3327–3335 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Y. Liu, J. Zhou, W. Chen, and B. Zhou, “A robust augmented complexity-reduced generalized memory polynomial for wideband RF power amplifiers,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 61(5), 2389–2401 (2014).
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M. Morant, T. Alves, A. Cartaxo, and R. Llorente, “Transmission impairment compensation using broadband channel sounding in multi-format OFDM-based long-reach PONs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. 1–3, paper OW3B.2, Los Angeles, CA, USA, March 2012.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Implementation schemes of digital (a) pre-distortion and (b) post-distortion, using a digital signal processor (DSP) programmed with a memory polynomial (MP), adjusted by the coefficients w, to compensate for the distortion introduced by the transmission system S. Remark: the signals u and v in implementations (a) and (b) are different.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup employed to evaluate the performance improvement achieved by mitigating the NLD in the transmission system S using DPD and DPostD. The necessary MP, w coefficient estimator and signal (de)/modulator are implemented in the digital domain by MATLAB programs.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Input-output characteristics of system S, of the experimental setup of Fig. 2 in optical back-to-back, for sp of (a) 10%, (b) 30% and (c) 100%.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. PSDs obtained at DSO output with the experimental setup in optical BtB with sp=10%, without BBNIM (red line) and with BBNIM (black line). In (a), DPD; in (b), DPostD.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PSDs obtained at DSO output with the experimental setup in optical BtB with sp=25%, without BBNIM (red line) and with BBNIM (black line). In (a), DPD; in (b), DPostD.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PSDs obtained at DSO output with the experimental setup in optical BtB with sp=50%, without BBNIM (red line) and with BBNIM (black line). In (a), DPD; in (b), DPostD.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. EVM of OFDM-GbE signal as a function of RMS voltage at DSO output, transmitted along the experimental setup of Fig. 2 in optical back-to-back when using DPD, DPostD or no BBNIM.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. EVM of OFDM-GbE signal (○) without BBNIM, (□) with DPD, (⋄) with DPostD and (◂) with PE, as a function of RMS voltage at DSO output, transmitted along the experimental setup of Fig. 2 with (a) 75 km, (b) 100 km and (c) 125 km of total fibre length.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. a-vectors, number of coefficients, C, and corresponding number of multiplications per sampling interval that are required to calculate the output samples of the best performing MP for DPD and DPostD in the experimental setup of Fig. 2 in optical BtB, as a function of peak and RMS amplitudes of the input signal (expressed as percentage of sM).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Optimum EVM and maximum EVM improvements, and corresponding RMS voltage at DSO input, with DPD and DPostD, for optical BtB.

Tables Icon

Table 3. a-vectors of the best performing MPs for DPD and DPostD in the experimental setup of Fig. 2 for total fibre lengths of 75, 100 and 125 km, as a function of sp.

Equations (8)

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v [ n ] = p = 1 P q 1 = 0 a p q p = 0 a p h p ( q 1 , q 2 , , q p ) m = 1 p u [ n q m ]
u [ n ] = MP ( w , v [ n ] ) = p = 1 P q 1 = 0 a p q 2 = 0 q 1 q p = 0 q p 1 w p ( q 1 , q 2 , , q p ) m = 1 p v [ n q m ] .
C p = m p = 1 a p m p 1 = 1 m p m 1 = 1 m 2 1 , 1 p P
MP ( w , v [ n ] ) = q 1 = 0 37 w 1 ( q 1 ) v [ n q 1 ] + q 1 = 0 12 q 2 = 0 q 1 q 3 = 0 q 2 w 3 ( q 1 q 2 , q 3 ) v [ n q 1 ] v [ n q 2 ] v [ n q 3 ] .
V = [ V 1 C 1 V 2 C 2 V P C P ] } N s
V p = [ ( v [ 0 ] ) p ( v [ 1 ] ) ( v [ 0 ] ) p 1 ( v [ a p ] ) p 1 v [ 1 a p ] ( v [ a p ] ) p ( v [ 1 ] ) p ( v [ 0 ] ) ( v [ 1 ] ) p 1 ( v [ 1 a p ] ) p 1 v [ 2 a p ] ( v [ 1 a p ] ) p ( v [ N s 1 ] ) p ( v [ N s a p ] ) p ] .
w = ( V H V ) 1 V H u ,
w i + 1 = w i + μ ( V H V ) 1 V H ( u V w i ) ,

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