Abstract

High-accuracy on-line wavelength stabilization is required for differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which is ideal for precisely measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration. Using a difference-frequency laser, we developed a ground-based 1.57-μm pulsed DIAL for performing atmospheric CO2 measurements. Owing to the system complexity, lacking phase, and intensity instability, the stabilization method was divided into two parts—wavelength calibration and locking—based on saturated absorption. After obtaining the on-line laser position, accuracy verification using statistical theory and locking stabilization using a one-dimensional template matching method, namely least-squares matching (LSM), were adopted to achieve wavelength locking. The resulting system is capable of generating a stable wavelength.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (1)

W. Gong, X. Ma, Y. Dong, H. Lin, and J. Li, “The use of 1572nm Mie LiDAR for observation of the optical properties of aerosols over Wuhan, China,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 52–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Bauer, W.-J. Cai, P. A. Raymond, T. S. Bianchi, C. S. Hopkinson, and P. A. Regnier, “The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean,” Nature 504(7478), 61–70 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

O. Mhibik, T. H. My, D. Paboeuf, F. Bretenaker, and C. Drag, “Frequency stabilization at the kilohertz level of a continuous intracavity frequency-doubled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2364–2366 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

M. Yokomizo, “Greenhouse gases observing SATellite (GOSAT) ground systems,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 44, 2008 (2008).

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, L. Brown, C. Miller, and R. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348cm−1: Positions, intensities, and air-and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242(2), 90–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45(18), 4448–4458 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nakamichi, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Fukuda, S. Enami, S. Hashimoto, M. Kawasaki, T. Umekawa, I. Morino, H. Suto, and G. Inoue, “Buffer-gas pressure broadening for the (3 0(0) 1)III ← (0 0 0) band of CO2 measured with continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(3), 364–368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

I. Y. Fung, S. C. Doney, K. Lindsay, and J. John, “Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(32), 11201–11206 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Breon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(11), 3003–3013 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

R. Engelen and G. Stephens, “Information content of infrared satellite sounding measurements with respect to CO2,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 43(2), 373–378 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. Hu, Z. Zhang, and C. V. Tao, “A robust method for semi-automatic extraction of road centerlines using a piecewise parabolic model and least square template matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 70(12), 1393–1398 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (3)

W. R. Bosenberg, J. I. Alexander, L. E. Myers, and R. W. Wallace, “2.5-W, continuous-wave, 629-nm solid-state laser source,” Opt. Lett. 23(3), 207–209 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282(5388), 442–446 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 399–410 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

S. Johansen, “Estimation and hypothesis testing of cointegration vectors in Gaussian vector autoregressive models,” Econometrica 59(6), 1551–1580 (1991).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1980 (1)

F. P. Valero, C. B. Suarez, and R. W. Boese, “Absolute intensities and pressure broadening coefficients measured at different temperatures for the 201II← 000 band of 12 C16 O2 at 4978cm−1,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 23(3), 337–341 (1980).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

G. Wertheim, M. Butler, K. West, and D. Buchanan, “Determination of the Gaussian and Lorentzian content of experimental line shapes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45(11), 1369–1371 (1974).
[Crossref]

Aben, I.

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Breon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(11), 3003–3013 (2005).
[Crossref]

Abo, M.

Abshire, J. B.

Alexander, J. I.

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Amediek, A.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aoki, S.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babikov, Y.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauer, J. E.

J. E. Bauer, W.-J. Cai, P. A. Raymond, T. S. Bianchi, C. S. Hopkinson, and P. A. Regnier, “The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean,” Nature 504(7478), 61–70 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benner, D. C.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, L. Brown, C. Miller, and R. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348cm−1: Positions, intensities, and air-and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242(2), 90–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bianchi, T. S.

J. E. Bauer, W.-J. Cai, P. A. Raymond, T. S. Bianchi, C. S. Hopkinson, and P. A. Regnier, “The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean,” Nature 504(7478), 61–70 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biondini, G.

Biraud, S.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

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Gibert, F.

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Gong, W.

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L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Raymond, P. A.

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Sakaizawa, D.

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S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282(5388), 442–446 (1998).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweeney, C.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, T.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282(5388), 442–446 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, N.

Tans, P.

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282(5388), 442–446 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tans, P. P.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, C. V.

X. Hu, Z. Zhang, and C. V. Tao, “A robust method for semi-automatic extraction of road centerlines using a piecewise parabolic model and least square template matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 70(12), 1393–1398 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tashkun, S.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ting, W.-J.

Toon, G. C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toth, R.

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, L. Brown, C. Miller, and R. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348cm−1: Positions, intensities, and air-and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242(2), 90–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ueno, S.

Umekawa, T.

S. Nakamichi, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Fukuda, S. Enami, S. Hashimoto, M. Kawasaki, T. Umekawa, I. Morino, H. Suto, and G. Inoue, “Buffer-gas pressure broadening for the (3 0(0) 1)III ← (0 0 0) band of CO2 measured with continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(3), 364–368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valero, F. P.

F. P. Valero, C. B. Suarez, and R. W. Boese, “Absolute intensities and pressure broadening coefficients measured at different temperatures for the 201II← 000 band of 12 C16 O2 at 4978cm−1,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 23(3), 337–341 (1980).
[Crossref]

Vinnichenko, N.

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, G.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wallace, R. W.

Weaver, C. J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wertheim, G.

G. Wertheim, M. Butler, K. West, and D. Buchanan, “Determination of the Gaussian and Lorentzian content of experimental line shapes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45(11), 1369–1371 (1974).
[Crossref]

West, K.

G. Wertheim, M. Butler, K. West, and D. Buchanan, “Determination of the Gaussian and Lorentzian content of experimental line shapes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45(11), 1369–1371 (1974).
[Crossref]

Wirth, M.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Yokomizo, M.

M. Yokomizo, “Greenhouse gases observing SATellite (GOSAT) ground systems,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 44, 2008 (2008).

Zhang, Z.

X. Hu, Z. Zhang, and C. V. Tao, “A robust method for semi-automatic extraction of road centerlines using a piecewise parabolic model and least square template matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 70(12), 1393–1398 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, and W. Grant, “Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements from air and space,” Appl. Phys. B 67(4), 399–410 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92(2), 295–302 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(3-4), 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Houweling, W. Hartmann, I. Aben, H. Schrijver, J. Skidmore, G.-J. Roelofs, and F.-M. Breon, “Evidence of systematic errors in SCIAMACHY-observed CO2 due to aerosols,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(11), 3003–3013 (2005).
[Crossref]

Econometrica (1)

S. Johansen, “Estimation and hypothesis testing of cointegration vectors in Gaussian vector autoregressive models,” Econometrica 59(6), 1551–1580 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. (1)

M. Yokomizo, “Greenhouse gases observing SATellite (GOSAT) ground systems,” Fujitsu Sci. Tech. J. 44, 2008 (2008).

J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. (1)

R. Engelen and G. Stephens, “Information content of infrared satellite sounding measurements with respect to CO2,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 43(2), 373–378 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

N. Saitoh, R. Imasu, Y. Ota, and Y. Niwa, “CO2 retrieval algorithm for the thermal infrared spectra of the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite: Potential of retrieving CO2 vertical profile from high-resolution FTS sensor,” J. Geophys. Res. 114(D17), D17305 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

V. Malathy Devi, D. C. Benner, L. Brown, C. Miller, and R. Toth, “Line mixing and speed dependence in CO2 at 6348cm−1: Positions, intensities, and air-and self-broadening derived with constrained multispectrum analysis,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 242(2), 90–117 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. (2)

F. P. Valero, C. B. Suarez, and R. W. Boese, “Absolute intensities and pressure broadening coefficients measured at different temperatures for the 201II← 000 band of 12 C16 O2 at 4978cm−1,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 23(3), 337–341 (1980).
[Crossref]

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Ra. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. E. Bauer, W.-J. Cai, P. A. Raymond, T. S. Bianchi, C. S. Hopkinson, and P. A. Regnier, “The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean,” Nature 504(7478), 61–70 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

W. Gong, X. Ma, Y. Dong, H. Lin, and J. Li, “The use of 1572nm Mie LiDAR for observation of the optical properties of aerosols over Wuhan, China,” Opt. Laser Technol. 56, 52–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing (1)

X. Hu, Z. Zhang, and C. V. Tao, “A robust method for semi-automatic extraction of road centerlines using a piecewise parabolic model and least square template matching,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 70(12), 1393–1398 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Nakamichi, Y. Kawaguchi, H. Fukuda, S. Enami, S. Hashimoto, M. Kawasaki, T. Umekawa, I. Morino, H. Suto, and G. Inoue, “Buffer-gas pressure broadening for the (3 0(0) 1)III ← (0 0 0) band of CO2 measured with continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8(3), 364–368 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

I. Y. Fung, S. C. Doney, K. Lindsay, and J. John, “Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(32), 11201–11206 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Wertheim, M. Butler, K. West, and D. Buchanan, “Determination of the Gaussian and Lorentzian content of experimental line shapes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45(11), 1369–1371 (1974).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

S. Fan, M. Gloor, J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, “A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models,” Science 282(5388), 442–446 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. B. Stephens, K. R. Gurney, P. P. Tans, C. Sweeney, W. Peters, L. Bruhwiler, P. Ciais, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, T. Nakazawa, S. Aoki, T. Machida, G. Inoue, N. Vinnichenko, J. Lloyd, A. Jordan, M. Heimann, O. Shibistova, R. L. Langenfelds, L. P. Steele, R. J. Francey, and A. S. Denning, “Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2.,” Science 316(5832), 1732–1735 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. (1)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex, and P. M. Midgley, “Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-Abstract for decision-makers,” (Groupe d'experts intergouvernemental sur l'evolution du climat/Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change-IPCC, C/O World Meteorological Organization, 7bis Avenue de la Paix, CP 2300 CH-1211 Geneva 2 (Switzerland), 2013).

Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia, “Optical depth,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_depth .

D. Lu and W. Pan, “Atmospheric profiling synthetic observation system (APSOS),” in Radiation Processes in the Atmosphere and Ocean (IRS2012): Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium (IRC/IAMAS) (AIP Publishing, 2013), pp. 244–247.
[Crossref]

D. Lu, W. Pan, S. Duan, J. Liu, and R. Zou, “Atmospheric Profiling Synthetic Observation System (APSOS) in Tibet,” in EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (2013), p. 5357.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Configuration of the pulsed difference frequency laser system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Linear fitting of the factory-measured wavelength and wavemeter-measured wavelengths. The primary reason for using a wavemeter is to understand the general wavelength accuracy of the laser and to demonstrate its linear functionality.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Structure of the basic wavelength stabilization system, where M1 and M2 are one-sided antireflection-coated glass devices, and M3 is a half-reflect mirror.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The background noise and the noise-removal signal in the optical depth (OD) detection of continuous wavelength.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Algorithm for wavelength calibration in flow-chart format.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Voigt fitting result of the absorption spectrum from the HITRAN database.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Voigt fitting result of the measured absorption spectrum.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Gauss fitting result of the frequency counts of the optical depth (OD) value in sample X. The data show the OD of the on-line laser, obtained in a series of wavelength scanning experiments.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The distribution of the OD for the wavelengths of interest, centered at the identified on-line wavelength.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The result of long-term wavelength stabilization. The red dots represent the threshold value. We treated the one that holding the OD exceeded the threshold as the on-line laser.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Detailed timing and drift data from the experiment

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

OD=ln( I 0 I ),
y= y 0 +A× 2ln2 π 3/2 w L w G 2 × e t 2 ( ln2 w L w G ) 2 + ( 4ln2 x x c w G t ) 2 dt,
x ¯ = 1 n 1 i=1 n 1 x i ,
s 1 2 = 1 n 1 1 i=1 n 1 ( x i x ¯ ) 2 ,
y ¯ = 1 n 2 i=1 n 2 y i ,
s 2 2 = 1 n 2 1 i=1 n 2 ( y i y ¯ ) 2 ,
F= s 1 2 s 2 2 ,
S 2 ( p,q )= [g( x,y ) g ' (x+p,y+q)] 2 dxdy ,
S 2 ( c )= i=1 m ( O i O i+c ' ) 2 ,
g 1 (x)+ n 1 ( x )= g 2 (x+Δx)+ n 2 ( x ),
ν( x )= g 2 ( x+Δx ) g 1 (x),
v(x)= g 2 ' (Δx)[ g 1 (x) g 2 (x)],
g 2 ' ( Δx )= g 2 ( x+Δ ) g 2 ( xΔ ) 2Δ ,
Δx= g 2 ' ×[ g 1 ( x ) g 2 ( x )] g 2 ' 2 ,

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