Abstract

Active coherent beam combination using a 7-non-coupled core, polarization maintaining, air-clad, Yb-doped fiber is demonstrated as a monolithic and compact power-scaling concept for ultrafast fiber lasers. A microlens array matched to the multicore fiber and an active phase controller composed of a spatial light modulator applying a stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm are utilized to perform coherent combining in the tiled aperture geometry. The mitigation of nonlinear effects at a pulse energy of 8.9 µJ and duration of 860 fs is experimentally verified at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. The experimental combining efficiency results in a far field central lobe carrying 49% of the total power, compared to an ideal value of 76%. This efficiency is primarily limited by group delay differences between cores which is identified as the main drawback of the system. Minimizing these group delay issues, e.g. by using short and straight rod-type multicore fibers, should allow a practical power scaling solution for femtosecond fiber systems.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Coherent beam combining of a narrow-linewidth long-pulse Er3+-doped multicore fiber amplifier

F. Prevost, L. Lombard, J. Primot, L. P. Ramirez, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, and M. Hanna
Opt. Express 25(9) 9528-9534 (2017)

Spectral division amplification of a 40 nm bandwidth in a multicore Yb doped fiber and femtosecond pulse synthesis with in-fiber delay line

Ph. Rigaud, V. Kermene, G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, and A. Barthélémy
Opt. Express 23(21) 27448-27456 (2015)

Coherent combining in an Yb-doped double-core fiber laser

Johan Boullet, David Sabourdy, Agnès Desfarges-Berthelemot, Vincent Kermène, Dominique Pagnoux, Philippe Roy, Bernard Dussardier, and Wilfried Blanc
Opt. Lett. 30(15) 1962-1964 (2005)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Designing advanced very-large-mode-area fibers for power scaling of fiber-laser systems,” Optica 1(4), 233–242 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Seise, A. Klenke, S. Breitkopf, M. Plötner, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherently combined fiber laser system delivering 120 μJ femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 439–441 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. Daniault, M. Hanna, L. Lombard, Y. Zaouter, E. Mottay, D. Goular, P. Bourdon, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Coherent beam combining of two femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 621–623 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Zaouter, L. Daniault, M. Hanna, D. N. Papadopoulos, F. Morin, C. Hönninger, F. Druon, E. Mottay, and P. Georges, “Passive coherent combination of two ultrafast rod type fiber chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1460–1462 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Klenke, E. Seise, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Breitkopf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24280–24285 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Michaille, C. R. Bennett, D. M. Taylor, T. J. Shepherd, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Petersson, “Phase locking and supermode selection in multicore photonic crystal fiber lasers with a large doped area,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1668–1670 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X.-H. Fang, M.-L. Hu, B.-W. Liu, L. Chai, C.-Y. Wang, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of 150 MW, 110 fs pulses by phase-locked amplification in multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2326–2328 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Paurisse, M. Hanna, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Wavefront control of a multicore ytterbium-doped pulse fiber amplifier by digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1428–1430 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. I. Hartl, A. Marcinkevičius, H. A. McKay, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Coherent Beam Combination Using Multi-Core Leakage-Channel Fibers,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuA6.
  12. Ph. Rigaud, V. Kermene, G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, D. Labat, A. Le Rouge, T. Mansuryan, and A. Barthélémy, “Spatially dispersive amplification in a 12-core fiber and femtosecond pulse synthesis by coherent spectral combining,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13555–13563 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 234–242 (2011).
  14. A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol–gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055106 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. A. Vorontsov and V. P. Sivokon, “Stochastic parallel-gradient-descent technique for high-resolution wave-front phase-distortion correction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(10), 2745–2758 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Liu and M. A. Vorontsov, “Phase-Locking ot Tiled Fiber Array using SPGD Feedback Controller,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950P (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. M. Redmond, K. J. Creedon, J. E. Kansky, S. J. Augst, L. J. Missaggia, M. K. Connors, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, T. Y. Fan, G. W. Turner, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 999–1001 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. F. Guichard, M. Hanna, L. Lombard, Y. Zaouter, C. Hönninger, F. Morin, F. Druon, E. Mottay, and P. Georges, “Two-channel pulse synthesis to overcome gain narrowing in femtosecond fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5430–5433 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. Hanna, D. N. Papadopoulos, L. Daniault, F. Druon, P. Georges, and Y. Zaouter, “Coherent beam combining in the femtosecond regime,” Chapter 9 in “Coherent laser beam combining”, Ed. Arnaud Brignon, Wiley-VCH, ISBN 978–3-527–41150–4, pp 277–301 (2013).
  20. J. Bourderionnet, C. Bellanger, J. Primot, and A. Brignon, “Collective coherent phase combining of 64 fibers,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17053–17058 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Lhermite, E. Suran, V. Kermene, F. Louradour, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of 49 laser beams from a multiple core optical fiber by a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4783–4789 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (7)

A. Klenke, E. Seise, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Breitkopf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24280–24285 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Seise, A. Klenke, S. Breitkopf, M. Plötner, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherently combined fiber laser system delivering 120 μJ femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 439–441 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Daniault, M. Hanna, L. Lombard, Y. Zaouter, E. Mottay, D. Goular, P. Bourdon, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Coherent beam combining of two femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 621–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bourderionnet, C. Bellanger, J. Primot, and A. Brignon, “Collective coherent phase combining of 64 fibers,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17053–17058 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Redmond, K. J. Creedon, J. E. Kansky, S. J. Augst, L. J. Missaggia, M. K. Connors, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, T. Y. Fan, G. W. Turner, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 999–1001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 234–242 (2011).

2010 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

1998 (1)

Augst, S. J.

Barthélémy, A.

Baz, A.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol–gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bellanger, C.

Bennett, C. R.

Bigot, L.

Bouazaoui, M.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol–gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055106 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 234–242 (2011).

Bourderionnet, J.

Bourdon, P.

Bouwmans, G.

Breitkopf, S.

Brignon, A.

Broeng, J.

Capoen, B.

Carstens, H.

Chai, L.

Chann, B.

Connors, M. K.

Creedon, K. J.

Daniault, L.

Demmler, S.

Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.

Druon, F.

Eidam, T.

El Hamzaoui, H.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol–gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055106 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Razdobreev, M. Bouazaoui, and B. Capoen, “From molecular precursors in solution to microstructured optical fiber: a Sol-gel polymeric route,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 234–242 (2011).

Ermeneux, S.

Fan, T. Y.

Fang, X.-H.

Fsaifes, I.

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol–gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Georges, P.

Goular, D.

Guichard, F.

Hädrich, S.

Hanna, M.

Hönninger, C.

Hu, M.-L.

Huang, R. K.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Kansky, J. E.

Kermene, V.

Klenke, A.

Labat, D.

Le Rouge, A.

Lhermite, J.

Limpert, J.

Liu, B.-W.

Liu, L.

L. Liu and M. A. Vorontsov, “Phase-Locking ot Tiled Fiber Array using SPGD Feedback Controller,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950P (2005).
[Crossref]

Lombard, L.

Louradour, F.

Mansuryan, T.

Michaille, L.

Missaggia, L. J.

Morin, F.

Mottay, E.

Otto, H.-J.

Papadopoulos, D. N.

Paurisse, M.

Petersson, A.

Plötner, M.

Primot, J.

Razdobreev, I.

Redmond, S. M.

Rigaud, Ph.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Salin, F.

Sanchez-Rubio, A.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Seise, E.

Shepherd, T. J.

Simonsen, H. R.

Sivokon, V. P.

Stutzki, F.

Suran, E.

Taylor, D. M.

Tünnermann, A.

Turner, G. W.

Vorontsov, M. A.

Wang, C.-Y.

Yvernault, P.

Zaouter, Y.

Zheltikov, A. M.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Baz, H. El Hamzaoui, I. Fsaifes, G. Bouwmans, M. Bouazaoui, and L. Bigot, “A pure silica ytterbium-doped sol–gel-based fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Ph. Rigaud, V. Kermene, G. Bouwmans, L. Bigot, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, D. Labat, A. Le Rouge, T. Mansuryan, and A. Barthélémy, “Spatially dispersive amplification in a 12-core fiber and femtosecond pulse synthesis by coherent spectral combining,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13555–13563 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bourderionnet, C. Bellanger, J. Primot, and A. Brignon, “Collective coherent phase combining of 64 fibers,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17053–17058 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lhermite, E. Suran, V. Kermene, F. Louradour, A. Desfarges-Berthelemot, and A. Barthélémy, “Coherent combining of 49 laser beams from a multiple core optical fiber by a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4783–4789 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klenke, E. Seise, S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, S. Breitkopf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24280–24285 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (9)

L. Michaille, C. R. Bennett, D. M. Taylor, T. J. Shepherd, J. Broeng, H. R. Simonsen, and A. Petersson, “Phase locking and supermode selection in multicore photonic crystal fiber lasers with a large doped area,” Opt. Lett. 30(13), 1668–1670 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-H. Fang, M.-L. Hu, B.-W. Liu, L. Chai, C.-Y. Wang, and A. M. Zheltikov, “Generation of 150 MW, 110 fs pulses by phase-locked amplification in multicore photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(14), 2326–2328 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Paurisse, M. Hanna, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Wavefront control of a multicore ytterbium-doped pulse fiber amplifier by digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1428–1430 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Seise, A. Klenke, S. Breitkopf, M. Plötner, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherently combined fiber laser system delivering 120 μJ femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 439–441 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Daniault, M. Hanna, L. Lombard, Y. Zaouter, E. Mottay, D. Goular, P. Bourdon, F. Druon, and P. Georges, “Coherent beam combining of two femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 621–623 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zaouter, L. Daniault, M. Hanna, D. N. Papadopoulos, F. Morin, C. Hönninger, F. Druon, E. Mottay, and P. Georges, “Passive coherent combination of two ultrafast rod type fiber chirped pulse amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 37(9), 1460–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, A. Klenke, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Scaling the mode instability threshold with multicore fibers,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2680–2683 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Redmond, K. J. Creedon, J. E. Kansky, S. J. Augst, L. J. Missaggia, M. K. Connors, R. K. Huang, B. Chann, T. Y. Fan, G. W. Turner, and A. Sanchez-Rubio, “Active coherent beam combining of diode lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 999–1001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Guichard, M. Hanna, L. Lombard, Y. Zaouter, C. Hönninger, F. Morin, F. Druon, E. Mottay, and P. Georges, “Two-channel pulse synthesis to overcome gain narrowing in femtosecond fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5430–5433 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Liu and M. A. Vorontsov, “Phase-Locking ot Tiled Fiber Array using SPGD Feedback Controller,” Proc. SPIE 5895, 58950P (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

M. Hanna, D. N. Papadopoulos, L. Daniault, F. Druon, P. Georges, and Y. Zaouter, “Coherent beam combining in the femtosecond regime,” Chapter 9 in “Coherent laser beam combining”, Ed. Arnaud Brignon, Wiley-VCH, ISBN 978–3-527–41150–4, pp 277–301 (2013).

I. Hartl, A. Marcinkevičius, H. A. McKay, L. Dong, and M. E. Fermann, “Coherent Beam Combination Using Multi-Core Leakage-Channel Fibers,” in Advanced Solid-State Photonics, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuA6.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Image of the double-clad Yb-doped multicore fiber. The seven cores of the fiber are highlighted with blue circles while the dark blue circle indicates the inner cladding. Boron rods (dark gray zones) placed adjacent to each core makes the MCF polarization maintaining.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the MCF amplifier. (a) Coupling of the seed and pump beams into the fiber. The seed beam is shaped with a spatial light modulator (SLM) for injection in the 7-core MCF and is collimated by a microlens array (MLA). The pump laser diode (LD) is coupled at the output end of the fiber. (b) Phase noise characterization setup with a quadrature detector composed of a beamsplitter and two photodiodes (PD). (c) Phase locking of the output via a stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) feedback loop and compression of the combined beam. Near field (NF) and far field (FF) images of the beam are included.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison between the (a) phase noise and (b) phase noise density between two cores of the MCF (blue) and two separate DC fiber amplifiers (green). The integrated phase noise of the MCF is shown in red.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison between (a-c) simulated and (d-f) experimental near field and far field beams of the MCF. (a,d) Near field image consisting of cores collimated by a microlens array, (b,e) far field images when the cores have random phases or are not phase locked via SPGD, (c,f) far field images when the cores have locked phases or after phase locking via SPGD.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Autocorrelation of the compressed pulses and (b) spectra when 1 core (blue) and all 7 cores (green) are excited in the fiber with a seed repetition rate of 10 MHz, power of 63 mW and maximum pump power of 17.5 W. Inset in (a) is the far field spatial profile of the combined beam. The spectrum of the input seed beam is also indicated in (b). Spectra across the central lobe in the (c) horizontal and (d) vertical directions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Autocorrelation of the compressed pulses for an excitation of 1 core (blue) and all 7 cores (green) at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. The pump power of the amplifier is selected to maintain a constant output power of 0.89 W whether 1 or 7 cores are excited.

Metrics