Abstract

A thermoplastic polymer refractive microlens array has been rapidly fabricated by contactless hot embossing technology through the stainless steel template with micro through-holes array, which has a diameter of 150 µm and a pitch of 185 µm. By optimizing the technical parameters including heating and demoulding temperature, loading pressure, loading and pressure holding time, a series of high quality microlenses arrays of different sags could be obtained. In addition, the sag and the radius of curvature of the microlens are controllable. The geometrical and optical properties of the microlenses are measured and the influence of temperature and pressure duration on the optical properties of the microlenses are analysed. The results show good surface features and optical performances. Unlike previous contactless hot embossing, a low cost and durable stainless steel template was utilized instead of silicon or nickel mold to avoid valuable equipments and complicated fabrication procedure. Besides, the whole contactless hot embossing process was absence of vacuum equipment. We think that the technology could be an attractive high flexibility method for enhancing efficiency and reducing cost.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2014 (3)

2013 (1)

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2010 (2)

J. T. Wu, Y. T. Chu, S. Y. Yang, and C. C. Li, “Low-temperature embossing technique for fabrication of large-area polymeric microlens array with supercritical carbon dioxide,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(12), 2620–2624 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Stevens and T. Miyashita, “Review of standards for microlenses and microlens arrays,” Imaging. Sci. J 58(4), 202–212 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and M. H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(2), 355–361 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Peng, X. G. Liang, Z. L. Fu, and S. Y. Chou, “High fidelity fabrication of microlens arrays by nanoimprint using conformal mold duplication and low-pressure liquid material curing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(2), 410–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Sokuler, D. Aronov, G. Rosenman, and L. A. Gheber, “Tailored polymer microlenses on treated glass surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203106 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. Bardinal, E. Daran, T. Leïchlé, C. Vergnenègre, C. Levallois, T. Camps, V. Conedera, J. B. Doucet, F. Carcenac, H. Ottevaere, and H. Thienpont, “Fabrication and characterization of microlens arrays using a cantilever-based spotter,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6900–6907 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Akatay and H. Urey, “Design and optimization of microlens array based high resolution beam steering system,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4523–4529 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

L. Aretxabaleta, J. Aurrekoetxea, I. Urrutibeascoa, and M. Sánchez-Soto, “Characterisation of the impact behaviour of polymer thermoplastics,” Polym. Test. 24(2), 145–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. W. Pan, X. J. Shen, and L. W. Lin, “Micro-plastic lens array fabricated by a hot intrusion process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(6), 1063–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. He, X. C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, J. Bu, and S. H. Tao, “Low-cost and efficient coupling technique using reflowed sol-gel microlens,” Opt. Express 11(14), 1621–1627 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Slawomir, F. Ines, K. Henryk, and K. Stefan, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a parameter study,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1053–1055 (2003).

2002 (2)

X. J. Shen, L. W. Pan, and L. W. Lin, “Microplastic embossing process: experimental and theoretical characterizations,” Sensor. Acturat. A. Phys. 97, 428–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. S. Ong, Y. H. Koh, and Y. Q. Fu, “Microlens array produced using hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 60(3), 365–379 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Muller, and A. Picard, “Compact self-aligning assemblies with refractive microlens arrays made by contactless embossing,” Proc. SPIE 3289, 22–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Lowe, A. Michel, and A. Picard, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a new technology for manufacturing refractive microlenses,” Proc. SPIE 3099, 89–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

Akatay, A.

Aretxabaleta, L.

L. Aretxabaleta, J. Aurrekoetxea, I. Urrutibeascoa, and M. Sánchez-Soto, “Characterisation of the impact behaviour of polymer thermoplastics,” Polym. Test. 24(2), 145–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Aronov, D.

M. Sokuler, D. Aronov, G. Rosenman, and L. A. Gheber, “Tailored polymer microlenses on treated glass surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aurrekoetxea, J.

L. Aretxabaleta, J. Aurrekoetxea, I. Urrutibeascoa, and M. Sánchez-Soto, “Characterisation of the impact behaviour of polymer thermoplastics,” Polym. Test. 24(2), 145–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bardinal, V.

Bu, J.

Camps, T.

Carcenac, F.

Chang, C. Y.

Chang, L. Q.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. H.

F. Li, S. H. Chen, H. Luo, Y. F. Zhou, J. J. Lai, and Y. Q. Gao, “Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Chou, S. Y.

C. Peng, X. G. Liang, Z. L. Fu, and S. Y. Chou, “High fidelity fabrication of microlens arrays by nanoimprint using conformal mold duplication and low-pressure liquid material curing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(2), 410–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, M. H.

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and M. H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(2), 355–361 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y. T.

J. T. Wu, Y. T. Chu, S. Y. Yang, and C. C. Li, “Low-temperature embossing technique for fabrication of large-area polymeric microlens array with supercritical carbon dioxide,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(12), 2620–2624 (2010).
[Crossref]

Conedera, V.

Daran, E.

Doucet, J. B.

Ehrfeld, W.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Muller, and A. Picard, “Compact self-aligning assemblies with refractive microlens arrays made by contactless embossing,” Proc. SPIE 3289, 22–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Lowe, A. Michel, and A. Picard, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a new technology for manufacturing refractive microlenses,” Proc. SPIE 3099, 89–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. Q.

N. S. Ong, Y. H. Koh, and Y. Q. Fu, “Microlens array produced using hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 60(3), 365–379 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fu, Z. L.

C. Peng, X. G. Liang, Z. L. Fu, and S. Y. Chou, “High fidelity fabrication of microlens arrays by nanoimprint using conformal mold duplication and low-pressure liquid material curing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(2), 410–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y. Q.

F. Li, S. H. Chen, H. Luo, Y. F. Zhou, J. J. Lai, and Y. Q. Gao, “Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gheber, L. A.

M. Sokuler, D. Aronov, G. Rosenman, and L. A. Gheber, “Tailored polymer microlenses on treated glass surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203106 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, M.

He, P.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henryk, K.

Z. Slawomir, F. Ines, K. Henryk, and K. Stefan, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a parameter study,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1053–1055 (2003).

Hsieh, K. H.

Hu, B. W.

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, S.

Huang, L. S.

Huo, J. M.

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ines, F.

Z. Slawomir, F. Ines, K. Henryk, and K. Stefan, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a parameter study,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1053–1055 (2003).

Jiao, G. H.

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koh, Y. H.

N. S. Ong, Y. H. Koh, and Y. Q. Fu, “Microlens array produced using hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 60(3), 365–379 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kwak, K. J.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lai, J. J.

F. Li, S. H. Chen, H. Luo, Y. F. Zhou, J. J. Lai, and Y. Q. Gao, “Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, L. J.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lei, X.

Leïchlé, T.

Levallois, C.

Li, C. C.

J. T. Wu, Y. T. Chu, S. Y. Yang, and C. C. Li, “Low-temperature embossing technique for fabrication of large-area polymeric microlens array with supercritical carbon dioxide,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(12), 2620–2624 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, F.

F. Li, S. H. Chen, H. Luo, Y. F. Zhou, J. J. Lai, and Y. Q. Gao, “Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, T. H.

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. L.

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liang, X. G.

C. Peng, X. G. Liang, Z. L. Fu, and S. Y. Chou, “High fidelity fabrication of microlens arrays by nanoimprint using conformal mold duplication and low-pressure liquid material curing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(2), 410–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liao, W. C.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, L. W.

L. W. Pan, X. J. Shen, and L. W. Lin, “Micro-plastic lens array fabricated by a hot intrusion process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(6), 1063–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. J. Shen, L. W. Pan, and L. W. Lin, “Microplastic embossing process: experimental and theoretical characterizations,” Sensor. Acturat. A. Phys. 97, 428–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Lowe, H.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Lowe, A. Michel, and A. Picard, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a new technology for manufacturing refractive microlenses,” Proc. SPIE 3099, 89–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

F. Li, S. H. Chen, H. Luo, Y. F. Zhou, J. J. Lai, and Y. Q. Gao, “Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Michel, A.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Lowe, A. Michel, and A. Picard, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a new technology for manufacturing refractive microlenses,” Proc. SPIE 3099, 89–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

R. Stevens and T. Miyashita, “Review of standards for microlenses and microlens arrays,” Imaging. Sci. J 58(4), 202–212 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moench, W.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Muller, H.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Muller, and A. Picard, “Compact self-aligning assemblies with refractive microlens arrays made by contactless embossing,” Proc. SPIE 3289, 22–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ngo, N. Q.

Ong, N. S.

N. S. Ong, Y. H. Koh, and Y. Q. Fu, “Microlens array produced using hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 60(3), 365–379 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ottevaere, H.

Pan, L. W.

L. W. Pan, X. J. Shen, and L. W. Lin, “Micro-plastic lens array fabricated by a hot intrusion process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(6), 1063–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. J. Shen, L. W. Pan, and L. W. Lin, “Microplastic embossing process: experimental and theoretical characterizations,” Sensor. Acturat. A. Phys. 97, 428–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

C. Peng, X. G. Liang, Z. L. Fu, and S. Y. Chou, “High fidelity fabrication of microlens arrays by nanoimprint using conformal mold duplication and low-pressure liquid material curing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(2), 410–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Perez, D. G.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Picard, A.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Muller, and A. Picard, “Compact self-aligning assemblies with refractive microlens arrays made by contactless embossing,” Proc. SPIE 3289, 22–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Lowe, A. Michel, and A. Picard, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a new technology for manufacturing refractive microlenses,” Proc. SPIE 3099, 89–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rosenman, G.

M. Sokuler, D. Aronov, G. Rosenman, and L. A. Gheber, “Tailored polymer microlenses on treated glass surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Soto, M.

L. Aretxabaleta, J. Aurrekoetxea, I. Urrutibeascoa, and M. Sánchez-Soto, “Characterisation of the impact behaviour of polymer thermoplastics,” Polym. Test. 24(2), 145–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schulze, J.

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Muller, and A. Picard, “Compact self-aligning assemblies with refractive microlens arrays made by contactless embossing,” Proc. SPIE 3289, 22–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Lowe, A. Michel, and A. Picard, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a new technology for manufacturing refractive microlenses,” Proc. SPIE 3099, 89–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shen, X. J.

L. W. Pan, X. J. Shen, and L. W. Lin, “Micro-plastic lens array fabricated by a hot intrusion process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(6), 1063–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

X. J. Shen, L. W. Pan, and L. W. Lin, “Microplastic embossing process: experimental and theoretical characterizations,” Sensor. Acturat. A. Phys. 97, 428–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shu, X. Y.

Slawomir, Z.

Z. Slawomir, F. Ines, K. Henryk, and K. Stefan, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a parameter study,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1053–1055 (2003).

Sokuler, M.

M. Sokuler, D. Aronov, G. Rosenman, and L. A. Gheber, “Tailored polymer microlenses on treated glass surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stefan, K.

Z. Slawomir, F. Ines, K. Henryk, and K. Stefan, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a parameter study,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1053–1055 (2003).

Stevens, R.

R. Stevens and T. Miyashita, “Review of standards for microlenses and microlens arrays,” Imaging. Sci. J 58(4), 202–212 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, X. S.

Tao, S. H.

Thienpont, H.

Urey, H.

Urrutibeascoa, I.

L. Aretxabaleta, J. Aurrekoetxea, I. Urrutibeascoa, and M. Sánchez-Soto, “Characterisation of the impact behaviour of polymer thermoplastics,” Polym. Test. 24(2), 145–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vergnenègre, C.

Wang, J.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. L.

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. T.

J. T. Wu, Y. T. Chu, S. Y. Yang, and C. C. Li, “Low-temperature embossing technique for fabrication of large-area polymeric microlens array with supercritical carbon dioxide,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(12), 2620–2624 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J. F.

Xie, D.

Xie, P. C.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. Y.

J. T. Wu, Y. T. Chu, S. Y. Yang, and C. C. Li, “Low-temperature embossing technique for fabrication of large-area polymeric microlens array with supercritical carbon dioxide,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(12), 2620–2624 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and M. H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(2), 355–361 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, L. S. Huang, and K. H. Hsieh, “Fabrication of polymer microlens arrays using capillary forming with a soft mold of micro-holes array and UV-curable polymer,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6253–6258 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-13-6253 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yen, Y. C.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yi, A.

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yi, A. Y.

Yuan, X. C.

Zang, Z. G.

Zappe, H.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. H.

Zhao, L.

Zhou, Y. F.

F. Li, S. H. Chen, H. Luo, Y. F. Zhou, J. J. Lai, and Y. Q. Gao, “Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Sokuler, D. Aronov, G. Rosenman, and L. A. Gheber, “Tailored polymer microlenses on treated glass surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(20), 203106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Imaging. Sci. J (1)

R. Stevens and T. Miyashita, “Review of standards for microlenses and microlens arrays,” Imaging. Sci. J 58(4), 202–212 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

L. W. Pan, X. J. Shen, and L. W. Lin, “Micro-plastic lens array fabricated by a hot intrusion process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13(6), 1063–1071 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

W. Moench and H. Zappe, “Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(4), 330–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

C. Peng, X. G. Liang, Z. L. Fu, and S. Y. Chou, “High fidelity fabrication of microlens arrays by nanoimprint using conformal mold duplication and low-pressure liquid material curing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25(2), 410–414 (2007).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (3)

J. T. Wu, Y. T. Chu, S. Y. Yang, and C. C. Li, “Low-temperature embossing technique for fabrication of large-area polymeric microlens array with supercritical carbon dioxide,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(12), 2620–2624 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. S. Ong, Y. H. Koh, and Y. Q. Fu, “Microlens array produced using hot embossing process,” Microelectron. Eng. 60(3), 365–379 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chang, S. Y. Yang, and M. H. Chu, “Rapid fabrication of ultraviolet-cured polymer microlens arrays by soft roller stamping process,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(2), 355–361 (2007).
[Crossref]

Microsyst. Technol. (1)

J. Liu, X. Jin, T. Sun, Z. Xu, C. Liu, J. Wang, L. Chen, and L. Wang, “Hot embossing of polymer nanochannels using PMMA moulds,” Microsyst. Technol. 19(4), 629–634 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Slawomir, F. Ines, K. Henryk, and K. Stefan, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a parameter study,” Opt. Eng. 42, 1053–1055 (2003).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

F. Li, S. H. Chen, H. Luo, Y. F. Zhou, J. J. Lai, and Y. Q. Gao, “Fabrication and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane concave microlens array,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44(4), 1054–1059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

Y. L. Li, T. H. Li, G. H. Jiao, B. W. Hu, J. M. Huo, and L. L. Wang, “Research on micro-optical lenses fabrication technology,” Optik (Stuttg.) 118(8), 395–401 (2007).
[Crossref]

Polym. Test. (1)

L. Aretxabaleta, J. Aurrekoetxea, I. Urrutibeascoa, and M. Sánchez-Soto, “Characterisation of the impact behaviour of polymer thermoplastics,” Polym. Test. 24(2), 145–151 (2005).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Muller, and A. Picard, “Compact self-aligning assemblies with refractive microlens arrays made by contactless embossing,” Proc. SPIE 3289, 22–32 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Schulze, W. Ehrfeld, H. Lowe, A. Michel, and A. Picard, “Contactless embossing of microlenses—a new technology for manufacturing refractive microlenses,” Proc. SPIE 3099, 89–98 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sensor. Acturat. A. Phys. (1)

X. J. Shen, L. W. Pan, and L. W. Lin, “Microplastic embossing process: experimental and theoretical characterizations,” Sensor. Acturat. A. Phys. 97, 428–433 (2002).
[Crossref]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

P. C. Xie, P. He, Y. C. Yen, K. J. Kwak, D. G. Perez, L. Q. Chang, W. C. Liao, A. Yi, and L. J. Lee, “Rapid hot embossing of polymer microstructures using carbide-bonded graphene coating on silicon stampers,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 258, 174–180 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Process of the formation of microlens by contactless hot embossing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Stainless steel mold, (a) real picture, (b) × 200.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Photograph of the hot embossing apparatus.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 100°C (a) 10 kg/cm2, (b) 15 kg/cm2, (c) 20 kg/cm2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 110°C (a) 10 kg/cm2, (b) 15 kg/cm2, (c) 20 kg/cm2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 115°C (a) 10 kg/cm2, (b) 15 kg/cm2, (c) 20 kg/cm2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 120°C (a) 10 kg/cm2, (b) 15 kg/cm2, (c) 20 kg/cm2.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 2-D.profile of microlens array measured using Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Surface roughnesses measured in two areas of 5 × 5μm on the fabricated microlens.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Light spots of the microlens array.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Schematic diagram of measuring microlens rise.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Schematic diagram of experimental characterization of the microlenses .
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Temperature dependent (a) microlens sag and (b) radius of curvature under various press.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Pressure dependent (a) microlens sag and (b) radius of curvature under various temperature.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Radius of curvature and f-number under various lens sags.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Contactless hot embossing and their features

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Table 2 Technological parameters of contactless hot embossing

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Table 3 Arithmetical mean deviation of the profile Ra and the mean standard deviation

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Table 4 Lens sag, radius of curvature, focal length and f-number during different temperatures and presses

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= ( D 2 ) 2 + [ 2( n p n a )( f L + f M ) n a + n p ] 2
f= n a n p n a R
f-number= f D

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