Abstract

Although perovskite materials have been widely investigated for thin-film photovoltaic devices due to the potential for high efficiency, their high toxicity has pressed the development of a solar cell structure of an ultra-thin absorber layer. But insufficient light absorption could be a result of ultra-thin perovskite films. In this paper, we propose a new nanoplasmonic solar cell that integrates metal nanoparticles at its rear/front surfaces of the perovskite layer. Plasmon-enhanced light scattering and near-field enhancement effects from lumpy sliver nanoparticles result in the photocurrent enhancement for a 50 nm thick absorber, which is higher than that for a 300 nm thick flat perovskite solar cell. We also predict the 4-fold photocurrent enhancement in an ultrathin perovskite solar cell with the absorber thickness of 10 nm. Our results pave a new way for ultrathin high-efficiency solar cells with either a lead-based or a lead-free perovskite absorption layer.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

10 December 2015: A correction was made to the body text.


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References

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    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
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  11. X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  13. Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Dabirian and N. Taghavinia, “Theoretical Study of Light Trapping in Nanostructured Thin Film Solar Cells Using Wavelength-Scale Silver Particles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14926–14932 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. K. Cushing and N. Wu, “Plasmon-Enhanced Solar Energy Harvesting,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 22, 63–67 (2013).
  20. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2015 (6)

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dabirian and N. Taghavinia, “Theoretical Study of Light Trapping in Nanostructured Thin Film Solar Cells Using Wavelength-Scale Silver Particles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14926–14932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

H. J. Snaith, “Perovskites: the emergence of a new era for low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3623–3630 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cai, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Near-field light concentration of ultra-small metallic nanoparticles for absorption enhancement in a-Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. K. Cushing and N. Wu, “Plasmon-Enhanced Solar Energy Harvesting,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 22, 63–67 (2013).

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abate, A.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bach, U.

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ball, J. M.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boothroyd, C.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, B.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cai, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Near-field light concentration of ultra-small metallic nanoparticles for absorption enhancement in a-Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093107 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, D. H.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.-B.

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Crossland, E. J. W.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cushing, S. K.

S. K. Cushing and N. Wu, “Plasmon-Enhanced Solar Energy Harvesting,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 22, 63–67 (2013).

Dabirian, A.

A. Dabirian and N. Taghavinia, “Theoretical Study of Light Trapping in Nanostructured Thin Film Solar Cells Using Wavelength-Scale Silver Particles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14926–14932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duan, H. S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duchamp, M.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eperon, G. E.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fahim, N.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaspera, E. D.

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grätzel, M.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cai, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Near-field light concentration of ultra-small metallic nanoparticles for absorption enhancement in a-Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093107 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guarnera, S.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haghighirad, A.-A.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hao, F.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herz, L. M.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ho-Baillie, A.

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hong, Z.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hörantner, M. T.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hou, Q.

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hüttner, S.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jasieniak, J. J.

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jia, B.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cai, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Near-field light concentration of ultra-small metallic nanoparticles for absorption enhancement in a-Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093107 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Johnston, M. B.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanatzidis, M. G.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kojima, A.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, Y. M.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Luo, S.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mathews, N.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mhaisalkar, S.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyasaka, T.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narasimhan, V. K.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noel, N. K.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, Z.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Padture, N. P.

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pan, X.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pathak, S. K.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petrozza, A.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, Q.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, B.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramirez, I.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Riede, M.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Z.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sabba, D.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadhanala, A.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saha, J. K.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saliba, M.

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salim, T.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, X.

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

B. Cai, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Near-field light concentration of ultra-small metallic nanoparticles for absorption enhancement in a-Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093107 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shirai, Y.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snaith, H. J.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. J. Snaith, “Perovskites: the emergence of a new era for low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3623–3630 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, T. B.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiccia, L.

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Stokes, N.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stoumpos, C. C.

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stranks, S. D.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sum, T. C.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taghavinia, N.

A. Dabirian and N. Taghavinia, “Theoretical Study of Light Trapping in Nanostructured Thin Film Solar Cells Using Wavelength-Scale Silver Particles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14926–14932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teshima, K.

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasiliev, A. L.

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ventura, M.

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wehrenfennig, C.

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiesner, U.

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, N.

S. K. Cushing and N. Wu, “Plasmon-Enhanced Solar Energy Harvesting,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 22, 63–67 (2013).

Wu, W.

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, L.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, C.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xing, G.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, M.

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yantara, N.

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, J.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, L.

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, H.

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, K.

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. Dabirian and N. Taghavinia, “Theoretical Study of Light Trapping in Nanostructured Thin Film Solar Cells Using Wavelength-Scale Silver Particles,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(27), 14926–14932 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

X. Chen, B. Jia, B. Cai, J. Fang, Z. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Zhao, and M. Gu, “Graphenized carbon nanofiber: a novel light-trapping material to achieve ultrahigh efficiency silicon thin-film solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 27, 849–855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Cai, B. Jia, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Near-field light concentration of ultra-small metallic nanoparticles for absorption enhancement in a-Si solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(9), 093107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Electrochem. Soc. Interface (1)

S. K. Cushing and N. Wu, “Plasmon-Enhanced Solar Energy Harvesting,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface 22, 63–67 (2013).

Energy Environ. Sci. (3)

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, S. Hüttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, T. Salim, N. Mathews, M. Duchamp, C. Boothroyd, G. Xing, T. C. Sum, and Y. M. Lam, “The origin of high efficiency in low-temperature solution-processable bilayer organometal halide hybrid solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(1), 399–407 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, A. Abate, C. Wehrenfennig, S. Guarnera, A.-A. Haghighirad, A. Sadhanala, G. E. Eperon, S. K. Pathak, M. B. Johnston, A. Petrozza, L. M. Herz, and H. J. Snaith, “Lead-free organic-inorganic tin halide perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(9), 3061–3068 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. (1)

Y. Zhou, M. Yang, W. Wu, A. L. Vasiliev, K. Zhu, and N. P. Padture, “Room-temperature crystallization of hybrid-perovskite thin films via solvent-solvent extraction for high-performance solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(15), 8178–8184 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

H. J. Snaith, “Perovskites: the emergence of a new era for low-cost, high-efficiency solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(21), 3623–3630 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Energy (1)

E. D. Gaspera, Y. Peng, Q. Hou, L. Spiccia, U. Bach, J. J. Jasieniak, and Y.-B. Cheng, “Ultra-thin high efficiency semitransparent perovskite solar cells,” Nano Energy 13, 249–257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

X. Chen, B. Jia, J. K. Saha, B. Cai, N. Stokes, Q. Qiao, Y. Wang, Z. Shi, and M. Gu, “Broadband Enhancement in Thin-Film Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells Enabled by Nucleated Silver Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2187–2192 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, M. Saliba, S. D. Stranks, Y. Sun, X. Shi, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Enhancement of Perovskite-Based Solar Cells Employing Core-Shell Metal Nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 13(9), 4505–4510 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

M. Gu, Z. Ouyang, B. Jia, N. Stokes, X. Chen, N. Fahim, X. Li, M. Ventura, and Z. Shi, “Nanoplasmonics: a frontier of photovoltaic solar cells,” Nanophotonics 1(3-4), 235–248 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat. Commun. 3, 664–671 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (3)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, D. H. Cao, R. P. H. Chang, and M. G. Kanatzidis, “Lead-free solid-state organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 489–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

RSC Advances (1)

Z. Lu, X. Pan, Y. Ma, Y. Li, L. Zheng, D. Zhang, Q. Xu, Z. Chen, S. Wang, B. Qu, F. Liu, Y. Huang, L. Xiao, and Q. Gong, “Plasmonic-enhanced perovskite solar cells using alloy popcorn nanoparticles,” RSC Advances 5(15), 11175–11179 (2015).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T. B. Song, H. S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Interface engineering of highly efficient perovskite solar cells,” Science 345(6196), 542–546 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/images/efficiency_chart.jpg .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device schematics of the plasmonic perovskite solar cells. (a) With small metal particles embedded in the perovskite absorber at the front surface. (b) With small metal particles at the rear surface. (c) With lumpy nanoparticles at the rear surface. (d) The cross-section of the solar cells embedded with the lumpy nanoparticle.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index of the perovskite material measured by ellipsometer. (b)-(e) Absorption enhancement with Au and Ag nanoparticles at different positions in 10 nm thick perovskite layer as a function of the radius and the SC density.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Absorbance in perovskite layer with/without Ag nanoparticles at the rear surface or on the top surface. (b)-(c) Normalized light intensity around Au and Ag nanoparticle in solar cells at the wavelength of 630 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Absorption enhancement mapping results in the perovskite layer with lumpy Ag nanoparticles. (b) Light absorbance of the perovskite absorber with/without metal nanoparticles at the optimized conditions.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 JSC of the perovskite solar cells with surface engineered metal nanoparticles as a function of the perovskite absorber thickness.

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