Abstract

The flow-pattern transition has been a challenging problem in two-phase flow system. We propose the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to investigate the behavior underlying oil-water flow in rectangular horizontal pipes. The low water content (0.03-2.3%) in oil-water flow can be measured accurately and reliably from the relationship between THz peak amplitude and water volume fraction. In addition, we obtain the flow pattern transition boundaries in terms of flow rates. The critical flow rate Qc of the flow pattern transitions decreases from 0.32 m3/h to 0.18 m3/h when the corresponding water content increases from 0.03% to 2.3%. These properties render THz-TDS particularly powerful technology for investigating a horizontal oil-water two-phase flow system.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (2)

Z. K. Gao, Y. X. Yang, P. C. Fang, N. D. Jin, C. Y. Xia, and L. D. Hu, “Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. N. Ge, H. L. Zhan, W. X. Leng, K. Zhao, and L. Z. Xiao, “Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 29(3), 1622–1627 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

F. L. Qin, Q. Li, H. L. Zhan, W. J. Jin, H. L. Liu, and K. Zhao, “Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(7), 1404–1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. S. Zhai, N. D. Jin, Z. K. Gao, A. Zhao, and L. Zhu, “Cross-correlation velocity measurement of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow by using parallel-wire capacitance probe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 53, 277–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bao, S. X. Wu, K. Zhao, L. J. Zheng, and C. H. Xu, “Applying terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to probe the evolution of kerogen in close pyrolysis systems,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 56(8), 1603–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Gao, X. W. Zhang, N. D. Jin, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, “Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(3), 032910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ekarit and S. Cem, “Experimental study of single-phase and two-phase water-in-crude-oil dispersed flow wax deposition in a mini pilot-scale flow loop,” Energy Fuels 27, 5036–5053 (2013).

2012 (5)

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Al-Wahaibi, N. Yusuf, Y. Al-Wahaibi, and A. Al-Ajmi, “Experimental study on the transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 38(1), 126–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. G. Morgan, C. N. Markides, C. P. Hale, and G. F. Hewitt, “Horizontal liquid-liquid flow characteristics at low superficial velocities using laser-induced fluorescence,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 43, 101–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Sarica and E. Panacharoensawad, “Review of paraffin deposition research under multiphase flow conditions,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3968–3978 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-Q. Zhang, C. Sarica, and E. Pereyra, “Review of high-viscosity oil multiphase pipe flow,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3979–3985 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

T. Al-Wahaibi and P. Angeli, “Experimental study on interfacial waves in stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 37(8), 930–940 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. A. S. Kumara, B. M. Halvorsen, and M. C. Melaaen, “Particle image velocimetry for characterizing the flow structure of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 65(15), 4332–4349 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

T. Al-Wahaibi and P. Angeli, “Transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 62(11), 2915–2928 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

O. Rodriguez and R. Oliemans, “Experimental study on oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 32(3), 323–343 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Lovick and P. Angeli, “Experimental studies on the dual continuous flow pattern in oil-water flows,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 30(2), 139–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Laminar stratified pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 28(6), 963–996 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Brauner and A. Ullmann, “Modeling of phase inversion phenomenon in two-phase pipe flows,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 28(7), 1177–1204 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Interface shapes for two-phase laminar stratified flow in a circular pipe,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 27(7), 1301–1311 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. Angeli and G. F. Hewitt, “Flow structure in horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 26(7), 1117–1140 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. J. McKibben, R. G. Gillies, and C. A. Shook, “A laboratory investigation of horizontal well heavy oil-water flows,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 78(4), 743–751 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Hadjiloucas, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, “Measurements of leaf water content using terahertz radiation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(2), 142–149 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. L. Trallero, C. Sarica, and J. P. Brill, “A study of oil-water flow patterns in horizontal pipes,” SPE Prod. Facilities 12(03), 165–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Nädler and D. Mewes, “Flow induced emulsification in the flow of two immiscible liquids in horizontal pipes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 23(1), 55–68 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

N. Brauner and M. Maron, “Flow pattern transitions in two-phase liquid-liquid flow in horizontal tubes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 18(1), 123–140 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

N. Rott, “Note on the history of the Reynolds number,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 22(1), 1–12 (1990).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

A. E. Dukler, M. Wicks, and R. G. Cleveland, “Frictional pressure drop in two-phase flow,” AIChE J. 10(1), 44–51 (1964).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

T. W. F. Russell, G. W. Hodgson, and G. W. Govier, “Horizontal pipeline flow mixtures of oil and water,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 37(1), 9–17 (1959).
[Crossref]

Al-Ajmi, A.

T. Al-Wahaibi, N. Yusuf, Y. Al-Wahaibi, and A. Al-Ajmi, “Experimental study on the transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 38(1), 126–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Al-Wahaibi, T.

T. Al-Wahaibi, N. Yusuf, Y. Al-Wahaibi, and A. Al-Ajmi, “Experimental study on the transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 38(1), 126–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Al-Wahaibi and P. Angeli, “Experimental study on interfacial waves in stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 37(8), 930–940 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Al-Wahaibi and P. Angeli, “Transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 62(11), 2915–2928 (2007).
[Crossref]

Al-Wahaibi, Y.

T. Al-Wahaibi, N. Yusuf, Y. Al-Wahaibi, and A. Al-Ajmi, “Experimental study on the transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 38(1), 126–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Angeli, P.

T. Al-Wahaibi and P. Angeli, “Experimental study on interfacial waves in stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 37(8), 930–940 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Al-Wahaibi and P. Angeli, “Transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 62(11), 2915–2928 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lovick and P. Angeli, “Experimental studies on the dual continuous flow pattern in oil-water flows,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 30(2), 139–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Angeli and G. F. Hewitt, “Flow structure in horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 26(7), 1117–1140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, D.

Bao, R. M.

R. M. Bao, S. X. Wu, K. Zhao, L. J. Zheng, and C. H. Xu, “Applying terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to probe the evolution of kerogen in close pyrolysis systems,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 56(8), 1603–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowen, J. W.

S. Hadjiloucas, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, “Measurements of leaf water content using terahertz radiation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(2), 142–149 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brauner, N.

N. Brauner and A. Ullmann, “Modeling of phase inversion phenomenon in two-phase pipe flows,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 28(7), 1177–1204 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Brauner and M. Maron, “Flow pattern transitions in two-phase liquid-liquid flow in horizontal tubes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 18(1), 123–140 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brill, J. P.

J. L. Trallero, C. Sarica, and J. P. Brill, “A study of oil-water flow patterns in horizontal pipes,” SPE Prod. Facilities 12(03), 165–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

Buchner, R.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cem, S.

P. Ekarit and S. Cem, “Experimental study of single-phase and two-phase water-in-crude-oil dispersed flow wax deposition in a mini pilot-scale flow loop,” Energy Fuels 27, 5036–5053 (2013).

Chen, S. H.

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cleveland, R. G.

A. E. Dukler, M. Wicks, and R. G. Cleveland, “Frictional pressure drop in two-phase flow,” AIChE J. 10(1), 44–51 (1964).
[Crossref]

Delfos, R.

K. Piela, R. Delfos, G. Ooms, J. Westerweel, and R. V. A. Oliemans, “On the phase inversion process in an oil-water pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 34(7), 665–677 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dukler, A. E.

A. E. Dukler, M. Wicks, and R. G. Cleveland, “Frictional pressure drop in two-phase flow,” AIChE J. 10(1), 44–51 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ekarit, P.

P. Ekarit and S. Cem, “Experimental study of single-phase and two-phase water-in-crude-oil dispersed flow wax deposition in a mini pilot-scale flow loop,” Energy Fuels 27, 5036–5053 (2013).

Fang, P. C.

Z. K. Gao, Y. X. Yang, P. C. Fang, N. D. Jin, C. Y. Xia, and L. D. Hu, “Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Z. K.

Z. K. Gao, Y. X. Yang, P. C. Fang, N. D. Jin, C. Y. Xia, and L. D. Hu, “Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Zhai, N. D. Jin, Z. K. Gao, A. Zhao, and L. Zhu, “Cross-correlation velocity measurement of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow by using parallel-wire capacitance probe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 53, 277–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Gao, X. W. Zhang, N. D. Jin, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, “Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(3), 032910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, L. N.

L. N. Ge, H. L. Zhan, W. X. Leng, K. Zhao, and L. Z. Xiao, “Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 29(3), 1622–1627 (2015).
[Crossref]

George, P. A.

Gillies, R. G.

M. J. McKibben, R. G. Gillies, and C. A. Shook, “A laboratory investigation of horizontal well heavy oil-water flows,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 78(4), 743–751 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gorenflo, S.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

Govier, G. W.

T. W. F. Russell, G. W. Hodgson, and G. W. Govier, “Horizontal pipeline flow mixtures of oil and water,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 37(1), 9–17 (1959).
[Crossref]

Hadjiloucas, S.

S. Hadjiloucas, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, “Measurements of leaf water content using terahertz radiation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(2), 142–149 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hale, C. P.

R. G. Morgan, C. N. Markides, C. P. Hale, and G. F. Hewitt, “Horizontal liquid-liquid flow characteristics at low superficial velocities using laser-induced fluorescence,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 43, 101–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Halvorsen, B. M.

W. A. S. Kumara, B. M. Halvorsen, and M. C. Melaaen, “Particle image velocimetry for characterizing the flow structure of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 65(15), 4332–4349 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, D. H.

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hawkins, B. G.

Helm, H.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hewitt, G. F.

R. G. Morgan, C. N. Markides, C. P. Hale, and G. F. Hewitt, “Horizontal liquid-liquid flow characteristics at low superficial velocities using laser-induced fluorescence,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 43, 101–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Laminar stratified pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 28(6), 963–996 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Interface shapes for two-phase laminar stratified flow in a circular pipe,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 27(7), 1301–1311 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Angeli and G. F. Hewitt, “Flow structure in horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 26(7), 1117–1140 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hinkov, I.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hodgson, G. W.

T. W. F. Russell, G. W. Hodgson, and G. W. Govier, “Horizontal pipeline flow mixtures of oil and water,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 37(1), 9–17 (1959).
[Crossref]

Hu, L. D.

Z. K. Gao, Y. X. Yang, P. C. Fang, N. D. Jin, C. Y. Xia, and L. D. Hu, “Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hui, W.

Jiang, C.

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, N. D.

Z. K. Gao, Y. X. Yang, P. C. Fang, N. D. Jin, C. Y. Xia, and L. D. Hu, “Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Zhai, N. D. Jin, Z. K. Gao, A. Zhao, and L. Zhu, “Cross-correlation velocity measurement of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow by using parallel-wire capacitance probe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 53, 277–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Gao, X. W. Zhang, N. D. Jin, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, “Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(3), 032910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, W. J.

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. L. Qin, Q. Li, H. L. Zhan, W. J. Jin, H. L. Liu, and K. Zhao, “Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(7), 1404–1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karatzas, L. S.

S. Hadjiloucas, L. S. Karatzas, and J. W. Bowen, “Measurements of leaf water content using terahertz radiation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory 47(2), 142–149 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kirby, B. J.

Kumara, W. A. S.

W. A. S. Kumara, B. M. Halvorsen, and M. C. Melaaen, “Particle image velocimetry for characterizing the flow structure of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 65(15), 4332–4349 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kurths, J.

Z. K. Gao, X. W. Zhang, N. D. Jin, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, “Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(3), 032910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lambrecht, A.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, C. J.

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Laminar stratified pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 28(6), 963–996 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Interface shapes for two-phase laminar stratified flow in a circular pipe,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 27(7), 1301–1311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leng, W. X.

L. N. Ge, H. L. Zhan, W. X. Leng, K. Zhao, and L. Z. Xiao, “Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 29(3), 1622–1627 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

F. L. Qin, Q. Li, H. L. Zhan, W. J. Jin, H. L. Liu, and K. Zhao, “Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(7), 1404–1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liang, C.

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, H. L.

F. L. Qin, Q. Li, H. L. Zhan, W. J. Jin, H. L. Liu, and K. Zhao, “Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(7), 1404–1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lovick, J.

J. Lovick and P. Angeli, “Experimental studies on the dual continuous flow pattern in oil-water flows,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 30(2), 139–157 (2004).
[Crossref]

Markides, C. N.

R. G. Morgan, C. N. Markides, C. P. Hale, and G. F. Hewitt, “Horizontal liquid-liquid flow characteristics at low superficial velocities using laser-induced fluorescence,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 43, 101–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maron, M.

N. Brauner and M. Maron, “Flow pattern transitions in two-phase liquid-liquid flow in horizontal tubes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 18(1), 123–140 (1992).
[Crossref]

Marwan, N.

Z. K. Gao, X. W. Zhang, N. D. Jin, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, “Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(3), 032910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKibben, M. J.

M. J. McKibben, R. G. Gillies, and C. A. Shook, “A laboratory investigation of horizontal well heavy oil-water flows,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 78(4), 743–751 (2000).
[Crossref]

Melaaen, M. C.

W. A. S. Kumara, B. M. Halvorsen, and M. C. Melaaen, “Particle image velocimetry for characterizing the flow structure of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 65(15), 4332–4349 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mewes, D.

M. Nädler and D. Mewes, “Flow induced emulsification in the flow of two immiscible liquids in horizontal pipes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 23(1), 55–68 (1997).
[Crossref]

Morgan, R. G.

R. G. Morgan, C. N. Markides, C. P. Hale, and G. F. Hewitt, “Horizontal liquid-liquid flow characteristics at low superficial velocities using laser-induced fluorescence,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 43, 101–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nädler, M.

M. Nädler and D. Mewes, “Flow induced emulsification in the flow of two immiscible liquids in horizontal pipes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 23(1), 55–68 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. S.

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Laminar stratified pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 28(6), 963–996 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. S. Ng, C. J. Lawrence, and G. F. Hewitt, “Interface shapes for two-phase laminar stratified flow in a circular pipe,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 27(7), 1301–1311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ni, H.

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oliemans, R.

O. Rodriguez and R. Oliemans, “Experimental study on oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 32(3), 323–343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oliemans, R. V. A.

K. Piela, R. Delfos, G. Ooms, J. Westerweel, and R. V. A. Oliemans, “On the phase inversion process in an oil-water pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 34(7), 665–677 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ooms, G.

K. Piela, R. Delfos, G. Ooms, J. Westerweel, and R. V. A. Oliemans, “On the phase inversion process in an oil-water pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 34(7), 665–677 (2008).
[Crossref]

Panacharoensawad, E.

C. Sarica and E. Panacharoensawad, “Review of paraffin deposition research under multiphase flow conditions,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3968–3978 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pereyra, E.

H.-Q. Zhang, C. Sarica, and E. Pereyra, “Review of high-viscosity oil multiphase pipe flow,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3979–3985 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piela, K.

K. Piela, R. Delfos, G. Ooms, J. Westerweel, and R. V. A. Oliemans, “On the phase inversion process in an oil-water pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 34(7), 665–677 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qin, F. L.

F. L. Qin, Q. Li, H. L. Zhan, W. J. Jin, H. L. Liu, and K. Zhao, “Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(7), 1404–1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rana, F.

Rodriguez, O.

O. Rodriguez and R. Oliemans, “Experimental study on oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 32(3), 323–343 (2006).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

Rott, N.

N. Rott, “Note on the history of the Reynolds number,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 22(1), 1–12 (1990).
[Crossref]

Russell, T. W. F.

T. W. F. Russell, G. W. Hodgson, and G. W. Govier, “Horizontal pipeline flow mixtures of oil and water,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 37(1), 9–17 (1959).
[Crossref]

Sarica, C.

C. Sarica and E. Panacharoensawad, “Review of paraffin deposition research under multiphase flow conditions,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3968–3978 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-Q. Zhang, C. Sarica, and E. Pereyra, “Review of high-viscosity oil multiphase pipe flow,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3979–3985 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Trallero, C. Sarica, and J. P. Brill, “A study of oil-water flow patterns in horizontal pipes,” SPE Prod. Facilities 12(03), 165–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schabel, S.

Shi, Y. L.

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shook, C. A.

M. J. McKibben, R. G. Gillies, and C. A. Shook, “A laboratory investigation of horizontal well heavy oil-water flows,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 78(4), 743–751 (2000).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. E.

Tauer, U.

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M. D.

Tian, L.

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Trallero, J. L.

J. L. Trallero, C. Sarica, and J. P. Brill, “A study of oil-water flow patterns in horizontal pipes,” SPE Prod. Facilities 12(03), 165–172 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ullmann, A.

N. Brauner and A. Ullmann, “Modeling of phase inversion phenomenon in two-phase pipe flows,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 28(7), 1177–1204 (2002).
[Crossref]

von Spiegel, W.

Westerweel, J.

K. Piela, R. Delfos, G. Ooms, J. Westerweel, and R. V. A. Oliemans, “On the phase inversion process in an oil-water pipe flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 34(7), 665–677 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wicks, M.

A. E. Dukler, M. Wicks, and R. G. Cleveland, “Frictional pressure drop in two-phase flow,” AIChE J. 10(1), 44–51 (1964).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. X.

R. M. Bao, S. X. Wu, K. Zhao, L. J. Zheng, and C. H. Xu, “Applying terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to probe the evolution of kerogen in close pyrolysis systems,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 56(8), 1603–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, C. Y.

Z. K. Gao, Y. X. Yang, P. C. Fang, N. D. Jin, C. Y. Xia, and L. D. Hu, “Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, L. Z.

L. N. Ge, H. L. Zhan, W. X. Leng, K. Zhao, and L. Z. Xiao, “Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 29(3), 1622–1627 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, C. H.

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bao, S. X. Wu, K. Zhao, L. J. Zheng, and C. H. Xu, “Applying terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to probe the evolution of kerogen in close pyrolysis systems,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 56(8), 1603–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. P.

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. X.

Z. K. Gao, Y. X. Yang, P. C. Fang, N. D. Jin, C. Y. Xia, and L. D. Hu, “Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yusuf, N.

T. Al-Wahaibi, N. Yusuf, Y. Al-Wahaibi, and A. Al-Ajmi, “Experimental study on the transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flow,” Int. J. Multiph. Flow 38(1), 126–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhai, L. S.

L. S. Zhai, N. D. Jin, Z. K. Gao, A. Zhao, and L. Zhu, “Cross-correlation velocity measurement of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow by using parallel-wire capacitance probe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 53, 277–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhan, H. L.

L. N. Ge, H. L. Zhan, W. X. Leng, K. Zhao, and L. Z. Xiao, “Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 29(3), 1622–1627 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. L. Qin, Q. Li, H. L. Zhan, W. J. Jin, H. L. Liu, and K. Zhao, “Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(7), 1404–1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. L.

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.-Q.

H.-Q. Zhang, C. Sarica, and E. Pereyra, “Review of high-viscosity oil multiphase pipe flow,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3979–3985 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. W.

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. W.

Z. K. Gao, X. W. Zhang, N. D. Jin, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, “Multivariate recurrence network analysis for characterizing horizontal oil-water two-phase flow,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 88(3), 032910 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z. W.

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, A.

L. S. Zhai, N. D. Jin, Z. K. Gao, A. Zhao, and L. Zhu, “Cross-correlation velocity measurement of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow by using parallel-wire capacitance probe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 53, 277–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. M.

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, K.

L. N. Ge, H. L. Zhan, W. X. Leng, K. Zhao, and L. Z. Xiao, “Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 29(3), 1622–1627 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, K. Zhao, L. W. Zhang, C. Liang, Z. W. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, and D. H. Han, “Probing PM2.5 with terahertz wave,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(12), 2354–2356 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. L. Qin, Q. Li, H. L. Zhan, W. J. Jin, H. L. Liu, and K. Zhao, “Probing the sulfur content in gasoline quantitatively with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 57(7), 1404–1406 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Bao, S. X. Wu, K. Zhao, L. J. Zheng, and C. H. Xu, “Applying terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to probe the evolution of kerogen in close pyrolysis systems,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 56(8), 1603–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L. J.

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. Q.

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L. J.

R. M. Bao, S. X. Wu, K. Zhao, L. J. Zheng, and C. H. Xu, “Applying terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to probe the evolution of kerogen in close pyrolysis systems,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 56(8), 1603–1605 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q. L.

H. Zhao, K. Zhao, L. Tian, S. Q. Zhao, Q. L. Zhou, Y. L. Shi, D. M. Zhao, and C. L. Zhang, “Spectrum features of commercial derv fuel oils in terahertz region,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 55(2), 195–198 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

L. S. Zhai, N. D. Jin, Z. K. Gao, A. Zhao, and L. Zhu, “Cross-correlation velocity measurement of horizontal oil-water two-phase flow by using parallel-wire capacitance probe,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 53, 277–289 (2014).
[Crossref]

AIChE J. (1)

A. E. Dukler, M. Wicks, and R. G. Cleveland, “Frictional pressure drop in two-phase flow,” AIChE J. 10(1), 44–51 (1964).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. (1)

N. Rott, “Note on the history of the Reynolds number,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 22(1), 1–12 (1990).
[Crossref]

Appl. Geophys. (1)

W. J. Jin, K. Zhao, C. Yang, C. H. Xu, H. Ni, and S. H. Chen, “Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Geophys. 10(4), 506–509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Can. J. Chem. Eng. (2)

T. W. F. Russell, G. W. Hodgson, and G. W. Govier, “Horizontal pipeline flow mixtures of oil and water,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 37(1), 9–17 (1959).
[Crossref]

M. J. McKibben, R. G. Gillies, and C. A. Shook, “A laboratory investigation of horizontal well heavy oil-water flows,” Can. J. Chem. Eng. 78(4), 743–751 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chem. Eng. Sci. (2)

W. A. S. Kumara, B. M. Halvorsen, and M. C. Melaaen, “Particle image velocimetry for characterizing the flow structure of oil–water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 65(15), 4332–4349 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Al-Wahaibi and P. Angeli, “Transition between stratified and non-stratified horizontal oil-water flows,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 62(11), 2915–2928 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Gorenflo, U. Tauer, I. Hinkov, A. Lambrecht, R. Buchner, and H. Helm, “Dielectric properties of oil–water complexes using terahertz transmission spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 421(4-6), 494–498 (2006).
[Crossref]

Energy Fuels (5)

P. Ekarit and S. Cem, “Experimental study of single-phase and two-phase water-in-crude-oil dispersed flow wax deposition in a mini pilot-scale flow loop,” Energy Fuels 27, 5036–5053 (2013).

C. Jiang, K. Zhao, L. J. Zhao, W. J. Jin, Y. P. Yang, and S. H. Chen, “Probing disaggregation of crude oil in magnetic field with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 28(1), 483–487 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. N. Ge, H. L. Zhan, W. X. Leng, K. Zhao, and L. Z. Xiao, “Optical characterization of the principal hydrocarbon components in natural gas using terahertz spectroscopy,” Energy Fuels 29(3), 1622–1627 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Sarica and E. Panacharoensawad, “Review of paraffin deposition research under multiphase flow conditions,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3968–3978 (2012).
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H.-Q. Zhang, C. Sarica, and E. Pereyra, “Review of high-viscosity oil multiphase pipe flow,” Energy Fuels 26(7), 3979–3985 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental flow loop facility. The insert shows a schematic of the THz-TDS measurement process.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 THz-TDS for various water content of diesel oil-water mixtures at flow rate 0.28 m3/h. The insert shows the peak value of THz signal for different water content in oil-water mixtures.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a)-(h) Peak of THz-TDS amplitude for different water content diesel oil-water mixtures with increasing flow rates from 0.1 m3/h to 0.36 m3/h.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Critical flow rate Qc and Reynolds number Re for different water content diesel oil-water mixtures. The inserts show schematics of the flow patterns: laminar flow pattern (left image) and transition flow pattern (right image). The color of the symbol is corresponding to those of the measurements shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The schematic for the flow patterns transitions at QQc .

Equations (2)

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R e = Q D H / ( v A )
v = ( ε o μ o + ε w μ w ) / ( ρ o ε o + ρ w ε w )

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