Abstract

We measure the excitation-wavelength and power dependence of time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) from the top InGaP subcell in a InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell. The wavelength-dependent data reveals that the PL decays are governed by charge separation. A fast single-exponential PL decay is observed at low excitation power densities, which is the charge separation under short-circuit condition. Under strong excitation a bi-exponential PL decay is observed. Its slow component appears at early times, followed by a faster component at late times. The slow decay is the carrier recombination of the subcell. The following fast component is the charge separation process under reduced built-in potential near the operating point. The subcells electrical conversion efficiency close to the operating point is evaluated using this decay time constant.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of effficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. D. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar-cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Kurtz and J. Geisz, “Multijunction solar cells for conversion of concentrated sunlight to electricity,” Opt. Express 18(51), A73–A78 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Hegedus, D. Desai, and C. Thompson, “Voltage dependent photocurrent collection in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15(7), 587–602 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Subcell I–V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. H. Lim, J.-J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(3), 344–350 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. S. Crandall, “Modeling of thin film solar cells: uniform field approximation,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 7176–7186 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Takamoto, M. Kaneiwa, M. Imaizumi, and M. Yamaguchi, “InGaP/GaAs-based multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(6), 495–511 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, “Spectral response and IV measurements of tandem amorphous-silicon alloy solar cells,” Solar Cells 18(3–4), 301–314 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Gu, Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and H. Li, “Optical properties of gas source MBE grown AlInP on GaAs,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 139(2–3), 246–250 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. K. Ahrenkiel and M. S. Lundstrom, Minority-Carrier Lifetime in III–V Semiconductors: Physics and Applications (Academic, 1993).
  19. W. K. Metzger, R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Dashdorj, and D. J. Friedman, “Analysis of charge separation dynamics in a semiconductor junction,” Physical Review B 71(3), 035301 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lim, J.-J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(3), 344–350 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Subcell I–V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Hegedus, D. Desai, and C. Thompson, “Voltage dependent photocurrent collection in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15(7), 587–602 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and H. Li, “Optical properties of gas source MBE grown AlInP on GaAs,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 139(2–3), 246–250 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

W. K. Metzger, R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Dashdorj, and D. J. Friedman, “Analysis of charge separation dynamics in a semiconductor junction,” Physical Review B 71(3), 035301 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Takamoto, M. Kaneiwa, M. Imaizumi, and M. Yamaguchi, “InGaP/GaAs-based multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(6), 495–511 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, “Spectral response and IV measurements of tandem amorphous-silicon alloy solar cells,” Solar Cells 18(3–4), 301–314 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. S. Crandall, “Modeling of thin film solar cells: uniform field approximation,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 7176–7186 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (2)

A. D. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar-cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of effficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[Crossref]

Ahrenkiel, R. K.

W. K. Metzger, R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Dashdorj, and D. J. Friedman, “Analysis of charge separation dynamics in a semiconductor junction,” Physical Review B 71(3), 035301 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. K. Ahrenkiel and M. S. Lundstrom, Minority-Carrier Lifetime in III–V Semiconductors: Physics and Applications (Academic, 1993).

Akiyama, H.

D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baur, C.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bett, A. W.

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Subcell I–V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burdick, J.

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, “Spectral response and IV measurements of tandem amorphous-silicon alloy solar cells,” Solar Cells 18(3–4), 301–314 (1986).
[Crossref]

Chan, S. H.

C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. Y.

C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Crandall, R. S.

R. S. Crandall, “Modeling of thin film solar cells: uniform field approximation,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 7176–7186 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dashdorj, J.

W. K. Metzger, R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Dashdorj, and D. J. Friedman, “Analysis of charge separation dynamics in a semiconductor junction,” Physical Review B 71(3), 035301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Desai, D.

S. Hegedus, D. Desai, and C. Thompson, “Voltage dependent photocurrent collection in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15(7), 587–602 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dimroth, F.

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Subcell I–V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, M. S.

C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, E.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

Friedman, D. J.

W. K. Metzger, R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Dashdorj, and D. J. Friedman, “Analysis of charge separation dynamics in a semiconductor junction,” Physical Review B 71(3), 035301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Geisz, J.

Glatfelter, T.

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, “Spectral response and IV measurements of tandem amorphous-silicon alloy solar cells,” Solar Cells 18(3–4), 301–314 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and H. Li, “Optical properties of gas source MBE grown AlInP on GaAs,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 139(2–3), 246–250 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hegedus, S.

S. Hegedus, D. Desai, and C. Thompson, “Voltage dependent photocurrent collection in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15(7), 587–602 (2007).
[Crossref]

Helbig, A.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[Crossref]

Hermle, M.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoheisel, R.

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Subcell I–V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ihara, T.

D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Imaizumi, M.

D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Takamoto, M. Kaneiwa, M. Imaizumi, and M. Yamaguchi, “InGaP/GaAs-based multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(6), 495–511 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jenkins, P. P.

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaneiwa, M.

T. Takamoto, M. Kaneiwa, M. Imaizumi, and M. Yamaguchi, “InGaP/GaAs-based multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(6), 495–511 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kanemitsu, Y.

D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kirchartz, T.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, S.

Letay, G.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, A. Z.

Y. Gu, Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and H. Li, “Optical properties of gas source MBE grown AlInP on GaAs,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 139(2–3), 246–250 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Y. Gu, Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and H. Li, “Optical properties of gas source MBE grown AlInP on GaAs,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 139(2–3), 246–250 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.-J.

S. H. Lim, J.-J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(3), 344–350 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, S. H.

S. H. Lim, J.-J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(3), 344–350 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, K. C.

C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lundstrom, M. S.

R. K. Ahrenkiel and M. S. Lundstrom, Minority-Carrier Lifetime in III–V Semiconductors: Physics and Applications (Academic, 1993).

Messenger, S. R.

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

Metzger, W. K.

W. K. Metzger, R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Dashdorj, and D. J. Friedman, “Analysis of charge separation dynamics in a semiconductor junction,” Physical Review B 71(3), 035301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meusel, M.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mochizuki, T.

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of effficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[Crossref]

Rau, U.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Roensch, S.

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Subcell I–V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sato, S.

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of effficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[Crossref]

Steenbergen, E. H.

S. H. Lim, J.-J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(3), 344–350 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takamoto, T.

T. Takamoto, M. Kaneiwa, M. Imaizumi, and M. Yamaguchi, “InGaP/GaAs-based multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(6), 495–511 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tex, D. M.

D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Thompson, C.

S. Hegedus, D. Desai, and C. Thompson, “Voltage dependent photocurrent collection in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15(7), 587–602 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vos, A. D.

A. D. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar-cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[Crossref]

Walters, R. J.

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

Warta, W.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

Werner, J. H.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, M.

T. Takamoto, M. Kaneiwa, M. Imaizumi, and M. Yamaguchi, “InGaP/GaAs-based multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(6), 495–511 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yoshita, M.

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. G.

Y. Gu, Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and H. Li, “Optical properties of gas source MBE grown AlInP on GaAs,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 139(2–3), 246–250 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.-H.

S. H. Lim, J.-J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(3), 344–350 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L.

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Zhu, C. Kim, M. Yoshita, S. Chen, S. Sato, T. Mochizuki, H. Akiyama, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: a design principle,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031118 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, and J. H. Werner, “Internal voltages in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, and A. W. Bett, “Subcell I–V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. M. Tex, T. Ihara, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements for determining voltage-dependent charge-separation efficiencies of subcells in triple-junction solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(1), 013905 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

R. S. Crandall, “Modeling of thin film solar cells: uniform field approximation,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(12), 7176–7186 (1983).
[Crossref]

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of effficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510–519 (1961).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

A. D. Vos, “Detailed balance limit of the efficiency of tandem solar-cells,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 13(5), 839–846 (1980).
[Crossref]

Mat. Sci. Eng. B (2)

Y. Gu, Y. G. Zhang, A. Z. Li, and H. Li, “Optical properties of gas source MBE grown AlInP on GaAs,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 139(2–3), 246–250 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, K. C. Lin, S. H. Chan, M. S. Feng, and C. Y. Chang, “Doping of InGaP epitaxial layers grown by low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition,” Mat. Sci. Eng. B 19(3), 234–239 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Physical Review B (1)

W. K. Metzger, R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Dashdorj, and D. J. Friedman, “Analysis of charge separation dynamics in a semiconductor junction,” Physical Review B 71(3), 035301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. (1)

T. Takamoto, M. Kaneiwa, M. Imaizumi, and M. Yamaguchi, “InGaP/GaAs-based multijunction solar cells,” Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 13(6), 495–511 (2005).
[Crossref]

Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. (3)

S. H. Lim, J.-J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, and Y.-H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 21(3), 344–350 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Letay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, and E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 11(8), 499–514 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Hegedus, D. Desai, and C. Thompson, “Voltage dependent photocurrent collection in CdTe/CdS solar cells,” Progr. Photovolt: Res. Appl. 15(7), 587–602 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Chen, L. Zhu, M. Yoshita, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, M. Imaizumi, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Thorough subcells diagnosis in a multi-junction solar cell via absolute electroluminescence-efficiency measurements,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7836 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells (1)

R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, S. R. Messenger, P. P. Jenkins, and R. J. Walters, “Electroluminescence analysis of irradiated GaInP/GaInAs/Ge space solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mat. Sol. Cells 108, 235–240 (2013).
[Crossref]

Solar Cells (1)

J. Burdick and T. Glatfelter, “Spectral response and IV measurements of tandem amorphous-silicon alloy solar cells,” Solar Cells 18(3–4), 301–314 (1986).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

R. K. Ahrenkiel and M. S. Lundstrom, Minority-Carrier Lifetime in III–V Semiconductors: Physics and Applications (Academic, 1993).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) PL from the InGaP subcell and the window layer, compared with the InGaP and GaAs subcell EQEs. (b) PL time decays for low (red) and high (blue) excitation powers. The important PL contributions are indicated.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Excitation-wavelength dependence of time constant τ1 and the corresponding integrated PL intensity of the τ1-decay component. The red and blue solid lines serve as a visual guide. Inset: PL spectra for excitations at 440 (blue) and 530 nm (red). (b) Wavelength dependence of τ2 and the corresponding integrated PL intensity of the τ2-decay component. Inset: PL spectra for excitations at 420 (blue) and 530 nm (red).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Excitation-wavelength dependence of τ3 (red dots) and PL intensity at crossover between τ2 and τ3 decays (blue open circles).

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