Abstract

Luminescent materials are widely used in white LEDs to convert part of the blue LED light into light with a longer wavelength, resulting in white light when both colors are well mixed. One way to integrate the luminescent material in the LED package is to deposit a thin luminescent layer on a planar carrier or disperse luminescent particles in the carrier material and then position the resulting wavelength conversion plate above one or more LEDs. It is very important that these wavelength conversion plates have the right properties to ensure homogeneous white light with a high efficiency and desired correlated color temperature (CCT). Key properties are the absorption and emission spectrum and the scattering and absorption coefficients. These properties strongly influence the color of the resulting light, but also the efficiency and the angular uniformity. This work describes an extensive study of the effect of the scattering and absorption coefficients in terms of the desired CCT. A computationally efficient extended Adding-Doubling method is used for the simulation of the light distribution and conversion in the planar wavelength conversion element. Ultimately an optimal combination with a high efficiency and low angular color deviation is desired. Different systems are investigated and optimal coefficients are found. With these findings a more targeted approach can be used in the manufacturing of wavelength conversion plates for white LEDs. The addition of scatterers or non-scattering luminescent particles can be used to obtain optimal scattering properties of the wavelength conversion plate.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2014 (2)

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

B.-Y. Joo and J.-H. Ko, “Analysis of color uniformity of white LED lens packages for direct-lit LCD backlight applications,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 17(6), 506–512 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe quantum dots phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

2011 (4)

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. C. Lin and R.-S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 552–554 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X.-B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33(4), 680–687 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Optics 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, N. Maliyagoda, and A. Bierman, “What is useful life for white light LEDs?” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 30(1), 57–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

Acuña, P.

Audenaert, J.

Bergh, A.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bierman, A.

N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, N. Maliyagoda, and A. Bierman, “What is useful life for white light LEDs?” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 30(1), 57–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bullough, J. D.

N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, N. Maliyagoda, and A. Bierman, “What is useful life for white light LEDs?” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 30(1), 57–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cao, B.

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-C.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-J.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chien, S.-H.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, S.-R.

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe quantum dots phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craford, G.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, of OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper DTu4C.4.

Deng, L.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Do, Y. R.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. K. Park, J. H. Oh, and Y. R. Do, “Toward scatter-free phosphors in white phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10218–10228 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duggal, A.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Durinck, G.

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, of OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper DTu4C.4.

Freyssinier, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Haitz, R.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Han, H.-V.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanselaer, P.

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, of OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper DTu4C.4.

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hofkens, J.

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, of OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper DTu4C.4.

Hoschopf, H.

Hu, R.

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu and X. Luo, “A model for calculating the bidirectional scattering properties of phosphor layer in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(21), 3376–3380 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huh, Y.-D.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jang, E.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, H.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joo, B.-Y.

Jun, S.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ko, J.-H.

Krenn, J. R.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H.-T.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leising, G.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

Leyre, S.

P. Acuña, S. Leyre, J. Audenaert, Y. Meuret, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Power and photon budget of a remote phosphor LED module,” Opt. Express 22(104), A1079–A1092 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, B. Van Giel, W. Saeys, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Extended adding-doubling method for fluorescent applications,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17856–17872 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, of OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper DTu4C.4.

Li, C.

Lim, J.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. C.

C. C. Lin and R.-S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.-C.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, R.-S.

C. C. Lin and R.-S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X.-B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33(4), 680–687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Optics 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Optics 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.-Y.

Z.-Y. Liu, C. Li, B.-H. Yu, Y.-H. Wang, and H.-B. Niu, “Effects of YAG:Ce phosphor particle size on luminous flux and angular color uniformity of phosphor-converted white LEDs,” J. Display Technol. 8(6), 329–335 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X.-B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33(4), 680–687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Hu and X. Luo, “A model for calculating the bidirectional scattering properties of phosphor layer in white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(21), 3376–3380 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Optics 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.-B.

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X.-B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33(4), 680–687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y. Y.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maliyagoda, N.

N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, N. Maliyagoda, and A. Bierman, “What is useful life for white light LEDs?” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 30(1), 57–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meuret, Y.

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, N. Maliyagoda, and A. Bierman, “What is useful life for white light LEDs?” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 30(1), 57–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

Narimatsu, H.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narita, J.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Niu, H.-B.

Oh, J. H.

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y. X.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, C. R.

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, H. K.

Parmentier, A. B.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Poelman, D.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reil, F.

Saeys, W.

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shi, F. G.

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 552–554 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shih, M.-H.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shuai, Y.

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 552–554 (2011).
[Crossref]

Smet, P. F.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tran, N. T.

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 552–554 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H.-H.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Giel, B.

Wang, C.-H.

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X.-B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33(4), 680–687 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Optics 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.-W.

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe quantum dots phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.-W.

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe quantum dots phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.-H.

Wenzl, F. P.

C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, and F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiao, F.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ye, S.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, B.-H.

Yu, H.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. Y.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y.

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Optics (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Measurement and numerical studies of optical properties of YAG:Ce phosphor for white light-emitting diode packaging,” Appl. Optics 49(2), 247–257 (2010).
[Crossref]

Electron. Mater. Lett. (1)

Y.-S. Cho, Y.-D. Huh, C. R. Park, and Y. R. Do, “Preparation with laser ablation and photoluminescence of Y3Al5O12:Ce nanophosphors,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 10(2), 461–465 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, and F. P. Wenzl, “The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1181–1188 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

R. Hu, B. Cao, Y. Zou, Y. Zhu, S. Liu, and X. Luo, “Modeling the light extraction efficiency of bi-layer phosphors in white LEDs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(12), 1141–1144 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Shuai, N. T. Tran, and F. G. Shi, “Nonmonotonic phosphor size dependence of luminous efficacy for typical white LED emitters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(9), 552–554 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. (1)

Z.-Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X.-B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 33(4), 680–687 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier, H. Yu, and L. Deng, “Solid-state lighting: failure analysis of white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 268(3), 449–456 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Illum. Eng. Soc. (1)

N. Narendran, J. D. Bullough, N. Maliyagoda, and A. Bierman, “What is useful life for white light LEDs?” J. Illum. Eng. Soc. 30(1), 57–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

S.-R. Chung, K.-W. Wang, and M.-W. Wang, “Hybrid YAG/CdSe quantum dots phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(6), 4358–4363 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (1)

C. C. Lin and R.-S. Liu, “Advances in phosphors for light-emitting diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2(11), 1268–1277 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. (1)

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: recent advances in materials, techniques and properties,” Mat. Sci. Eng. R-Rep. 71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

H.-C. Chen, K.-J. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-H. Wang, H.-V. Han, H.-H. Tsai, H.-T. Kuo, S.-H. Chien, M.-H. Shih, and H.-C. Kuo, “Improvement in uniformity of emission by ZrO2 nano-particles for white LEDs,” Nanotechnology 23(26), 265201 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, and F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (A) (1)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, H. Narimatsu, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “Recent progress of high efficiency white LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi (A) 204(6), 2087–2093 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Today (1)

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, and R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42–47 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

MATLAB 2014b, The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, United States.

S. Leyre, G. Durinck, J. Hofkens, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Experimental determination of the absorption and scattering properties of YAG:Ce phosphor,” in Light, Energy and the Environment, of OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper DTu4C.4.

TracePro75, Lambda Research Corporation, Littleton, Massachusetts, United States.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the setup simulated with the extended Adding-Doubling method. The radiant intensity distributions consist out of radially symmetric conical segments.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectra used for color calculations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic representation of the setup: white LED with reflector cup.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the transmitted excitation (left) and converted (right) light of the LED package with a reflector cup (simulated in TracePro) and the LED package with simplified light recycling (simulated with the Adding-Doubling method).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 True color of the light transmitted along the normal direction of the WCE of a system with g = 0.9 for different scattering and absorption coefficients. Black lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, 6000 K and 8000 K.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Total amount of transmitted light (in Watt) of systems with g = 0.9 for different scattering and absorption coefficients. Yellow lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, 6000 K and 8000 K. (b) Total amount of transmitted light (in Watt) of systems with g = 0.9 for different scattering and absorption coefficients resulting in transmitted light with a CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. Systems with maximum transmission are indicated with a red dotted line.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Color deviation in uv′-plane (CIELUV) between center and edge of the transmitted light distribution of systems with g = 0.9 for different scattering and absorption coefficients. Yellow lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, 6000 K and 8000 K. (b) Color deviation in uv′-plane (CIELUV) between center and edge of the transmitted light distribution of systems with g = 0.9 for different scattering and absorption coefficients resulting in transmitted light with a CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. Systems with maximum transmission are indicated with a red dotted line.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 True color of the light transmitted along the normal direction of the WCE of a system with g = 0.5 for different scattering and absorption coefficients. Black lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, 6000 K and 8000 K.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Total amount of transmitted light (in Watt) for different scattering and absorption coefficients of systems with g = 0.5. Yellow lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, 6000 K and 8000 K. (b) Total amount of transmitted light (in Watt) of systems with g = 0.5 for different scattering and absorption coefficients resulting in transmitted light with a CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. Systems with maximum transmission are indicated with a red dotted line.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Color deviation in uv′-plane (CIELUV) for different scattering and absorption coefficients of systems with g = 0.5. Yellow lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, 6000 K and 8000 K. (b) Color deviation in uv′-plane (CIELUV) between center and edge of the transmitted light distribution of systems with g = 0.5 for different scattering and absorption coefficients resulting in transmitted light with a CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. Systems with maximum transmission are indicated with red dotted line.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 True color of the light transmitted along the normal direction of the WCE of a system with g = 0.9 and simplified recycling for different scattering and absorption coefficients. Black lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, 6000 K and 8000 K.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Total amount of transmitted light (in Watt) of systems with g = 0.9 and simplified recycling for different scattering and absorption coefficients. Yellow lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. (b) Total amount of transmitted light (in Watt) of systems with g = 0.9 and simplified recycling for different scattering and absorption coefficients resulting in transmitted light with a CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. Systems with maximum transmission are indicated with a red dotted line.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a) Color deviation in uv′-plane (CIELUV) between center and edge of the transmitted light distribution of systems with g = 0.9 and simplified recycling for different scattering and absorption coefficients. Yellow lines: iso-CCT lines for CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. (b) Color deviation in uv′-plane (CIELUV) between center and edge of the transmitted light distribution of systems with g = 0.9 and simplified recycling for different scattering and absorption coefficients resulting in transmitted light with a CCT = 5000 K, CCT = 6000 K and CCT = 8000 K. Systems with maximum transmission are indicated with a red dotted line.

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