Abstract

Pores formed during the sintering of a glass/phosphor mixture affect the scattering and path of light within the resulting phosphor-in-glass (PIG) plate. An investigation of the interactions between blue light from an LED chip and pores within a PIG plate is therefore needed to understand the effect of light scattering on the optical properties. To this end, various glass compositions based on SiO2-B2O3-ZnO were prepared so as to better understand the effect of modifiers (i.e., Li2O, Na2O, La2O3, WO3) on the viscosity and pore properties at different sintering temperatures. This study found that PIGs sintered within a given viscosity range exhibit different optical properties depending on their pore size and overall porosity; a higher luminous efficacy observed in the case of intermediate scattering length values was due to an improved interaction between pores and light. This is a significant finding, as ensuring suitable PIG pore characteristics is an important factor in achieving a desired spectrum and high efficacy from white LEDs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, S. Kim, F. Iqbal, H. Yie, and H. Kim, “Effect of transmittance on luminescence properties of phosphor-in-glass for LED packaging,” Opt. Express 23(3), A43–A50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

J. S. Lee, P. Arunkumar, S. Kim, I. J. Lee, H. Lee, and W. B. Im, “Smart design to resolve spectral overlapping of phosphor-in-glass for high-powered remote-type white light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 762–765 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seo, S. Kim, Y. Kim, F. lqbal, and H. Kim, “Effect of glass refractive index on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(9), 2789–2793 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. Heo, W. B. Im, and W. J. Chung, “Control of chromaticity by phosphor in glasses with low temperature sintered silicate glasses for LED applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4084–4087 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chen and Y. Chen, “Transparent Ce3+: Y3Al5O12 glass ceramic for organic-resin-free white-light-emitting diodes,” Ceram. Int. 40(9), 15325–15329 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

M. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, and C. S. Kang, “Thermal measurements and analyses of low-cost high-power LED packages and their modules,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 845–854 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shin and S. Jang, “Thermal analysis of high power LED packages under the alternating current operation,” Solid-State Electron. 68, 48–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. K. Park, J. R. Oh, and Y. Rag, “2D SiNx photonic crystal coated Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ ceramic plate phosphor for high-power white light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25593–25601 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Temperature quenching of yellow Ce3+ luminescence in YAG:Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1387–1391 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Tran and F. Shi, “Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, and S. Tanabe, “YAG glass–ceramic phosphors for white LED (I): development,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594111 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Y. Rouault and S. Assouline, “A probabilistic approach towards modeling the relationships between particle and pore size distributions: the multicomponent packed sphere case,” Powder Technol. 96(1), 33–41 (1998).
[Crossref]

Arunkumar, P.

Assouline, S.

Y. Rouault and S. Assouline, “A probabilistic approach towards modeling the relationships between particle and pore size distributions: the multicomponent packed sphere case,” Powder Technol. 96(1), 33–41 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bachmann, V.

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Temperature quenching of yellow Ce3+ luminescence in YAG:Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baumard, J.-F.

Bergenek, K.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Boulesteix, R.

Chen, C. H.

M. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, and C. S. Kang, “Thermal measurements and analyses of low-cost high-power LED packages and their modules,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 845–854 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Chen and Y. Chen, “Transparent Ce3+: Y3Al5O12 glass ceramic for organic-resin-free white-light-emitting diodes,” Ceram. Int. 40(9), 15325–15329 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

D. Chen and Y. Chen, “Transparent Ce3+: Y3Al5O12 glass ceramic for organic-resin-free white-light-emitting diodes,” Ceram. Int. 40(9), 15325–15329 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, W. J.

Demir, H.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ding, M.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eisert, D.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, Y.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujioka, K.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fujita, S.

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1387–1391 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, and S. Tanabe, “YAG glass–ceramic phosphors for white LED (I): development,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hannah, M.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

Im, W. B.

Iqbal, F.

Jang, S.

M. Shin and S. Jang, “Thermal analysis of high power LED packages under the alternating current operation,” Solid-State Electron. 68, 48–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jermann, F.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ji, Z.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kang, C. S.

M. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, and C. S. Kang, “Thermal measurements and analyses of low-cost high-power LED packages and their modules,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 845–854 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kelso, J.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Y. Kim, S. Kim, F. Iqbal, H. Yie, and H. Kim, “Effect of transmittance on luminescence properties of phosphor-in-glass for LED packaging,” Opt. Express 23(3), A43–A50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seo, S. Kim, Y. Kim, F. lqbal, and H. Kim, “Effect of glass refractive index on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(9), 2789–2793 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, S. Kim, F. Iqbal, H. Yie, and H. Kim, “Effect of transmittance on luminescence properties of phosphor-in-glass for LED packaging,” Opt. Express 23(3), A43–A50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seo, S. Kim, Y. Kim, F. lqbal, and H. Kim, “Effect of glass refractive index on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(9), 2789–2793 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. H.

Lee, H.

Lee, I. J.

Lee, J. S.

Lee, X. H.

Lee, Y. K.

Li, F.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liang, X.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

Linkov, A.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

lqbal, F.

J. Seo, S. Kim, Y. Kim, F. lqbal, and H. Kim, “Effect of glass refractive index on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(9), 2789–2793 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, H.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lu, T.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, B.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maître, A.

Meijerink, A.

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Temperature quenching of yellow Ce3+ luminescence in YAG:Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mont, F.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Moreno, I.

Nishiura, S.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nizamoglu, S.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, J. R.

Park, H. K.

Qi, J.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rabinovitch, Y.

Rag, Y.

Raukas, M.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Reynaud, F.

Ronda, C.

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Temperature quenching of yellow Ce3+ luminescence in YAG:Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rouault, Y.

Y. Rouault and S. Assouline, “A probabilistic approach towards modeling the relationships between particle and pore size distributions: the multicomponent packed sphere case,” Powder Technol. 96(1), 33–41 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, A.

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1387–1391 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, and S. Tanabe, “YAG glass–ceramic phosphors for white LED (I): development,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Seo, J.

J. Seo, S. Kim, Y. Kim, F. lqbal, and H. Kim, “Effect of glass refractive index on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(9), 2789–2793 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shi, F.

Shin, M.

M. Shin and S. Jang, “Thermal analysis of high power LED packages under the alternating current operation,” Solid-State Electron. 68, 48–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

Siegel, R.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stough, M.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, C. C.

Tanabe, S.

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1387–1391 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, and S. Tanabe, “YAG glass–ceramic phosphors for white LED (I): development,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tran, N.

Tsai, M. Y.

M. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, and C. S. Kang, “Thermal measurements and analyses of low-cost high-power LED packages and their modules,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 845–854 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wei, G.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, N.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wirth, R.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xiang, W.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, and S. Tanabe, “YAG glass–ceramic phosphors for white LED (I): development,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yie, H.

Yoshihara, S.

S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, and S. Tanabe, “YAG glass–ceramic phosphors for white LED (I): development,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zengin, G.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhong, J.

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zink, N.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. Demir, “Color-converting combinations of nanocrystal emitters for warm-white light generation with high color rendering index,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(3), 031102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Int. (1)

D. Chen and Y. Chen, “Transparent Ce3+: Y3Al5O12 glass ceramic for organic-resin-free white-light-emitting diodes,” Ceram. Int. 40(9), 15325–15329 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, and A. Meijerink, “Temperature quenching of yellow Ce3+ luminescence in YAG:Ce,” Chem. Mater. 21(10), 2077–2084 (2009).
[Crossref]

ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Fujita, A. Sakamoto, and S. Tanabe, “Luminescence characteristics of YAG glass-ceramic phosphor for white LED,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14(5), 1387–1391 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

J. Seo, S. Kim, Y. Kim, F. lqbal, and H. Kim, “Effect of glass refractive index on light extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 97(9), 2789–2793 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (1)

D. Chen, W. Xiang, X. Liang, J. Zhong, H. Yu, M. Ding, H. Lu, and Z. Ji, “Advances in transparent glass–ceramic phosphors for white light-emitting diodes—A review,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 35(3), 859–869 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Reliab. (1)

M. Y. Tsai, C. H. Chen, and C. S. Kang, “Thermal measurements and analyses of low-cost high-power LED packages and their modules,” Microelectron. Reliab. 52(5), 845–854 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Nishiura, S. Tanabe, K. Fujioka, and Y. Fujimoto, “Properties of transparent Ce:YAG ceramic phosphors for white LED,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 688–691 (2011).
[Crossref]

Powder Technol. (1)

Y. Rouault and S. Assouline, “A probabilistic approach towards modeling the relationships between particle and pore size distributions: the multicomponent packed sphere case,” Powder Technol. 96(1), 33–41 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita, S. Yoshihara, A. Sakamoto, S. Yamamoto, and S. Tanabe, “YAG glass–ceramic phosphors for white LED (I): development,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594111 (2005).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. Shin and S. Jang, “Thermal analysis of high power LED packages under the alternating current operation,” Solid-State Electron. 68, 48–50 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M. N. Rahaman, Sintering of Ceramics (CRC, 2008), Chap. 6.

J. S. Reed, Principles of Ceramics Processing (John Wiley & Sons, 1995).

W. Cheng, C. Tsai, J. Chang, S. Huang, J. Chen, S. Hu, Y. Huang, and W. Cheng, “Fabrication of low-temperature Ce3+:YAG doped glass for phosphor-converted white-light-emitting diodes,” in Proceeding of Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference. (Technical Digest, 2012), pp. 603–604.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 DSC curves of: (a) G1 PIG (Low Tg), (b) G2 PIG (High Tg).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Viscosity of: (a) G1 PIG (Low Tg), (b) G2 PIG (High Tg).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Color rendering index of PIG samples as a function of correlated color temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Luminous efficacy of G1 and G2 PIGs as a function of sintering temperature.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM image of a cross-section of PIGs and pore characteristics related with viscosity changes: Sample 1 (6.6-6.7 dPa∙s) series (a1) #1, (a2) #2, (a3) #3, (a4) #4, (a5) #5, and (a6) #6; Sample 2 (5.8-6.2dPa∙s) series (b1) #1, (b2) #2, (b3) #3, (b4) #4, (b5) #5, and (b6) #6.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Variation in mean pore size and porosity of PIGs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Scattering coefficient and (b) mean scattering length of PIGs as a function of sintering temperature.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Interaction between phosphor and blue light based on the mean scattering length and scattering type.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Relationship between blue and yellow intensity based on the scattering characteristics.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Relationship between pore properties and blue/yellow intensity ratio with scattering type.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Compositions and refractive index of glasses used to fabricate PIGs

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Table 2 Thermal properties of PIGs and sintering conditions used

Equations (1)

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C s c a = 3 V p 2 d Q s c a

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