Abstract

We present a compact freeform optic, called “Freeform Shell-Mixer”, which, when placed on top of a multicolor light source (particularly, a multi-chip LED), turns it into a virtual source in which colors are uniformly mixed. The optic, compatible with injection molding, makes use of étendue-conserving Köhler integration to provide homogeneous mixing of light. Its minimal size (just 2x larger than the source) makes the concept compatible with many luminaries, as ray tracing models show. Simulations indicate that the Freeform Shell-Mixer can reach efficiencies above 95% and both the size of the virtual source and its emission pattern are very similar to the ones of the original source, so the correct performance of the luminaire is secured.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Köhler, “Ein neues Beleuchtungsverfahren für mikrophotographische Zwecke,” Z. Für Wiss. Mikrosk. Für Mikrosk. Tech. 10, 433–440 (1893).
  4. W. Cassarly, “Nonimaging Optics: Concentration and Illumination,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. III, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill, 2001).
  5. O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Chaves and M. Hernández, “Solar concentrators,” in Illumination Engineering, R. Koshel, ed. (Wiley, 2013).
  7. O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).
  8. J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Teupner, K. Bergenek, R. Wirth, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “Color uniformity in spotlights optimized with reflectors and TIR lenses,” Opt. Express 23(3), A118–A123 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Academic, 2005).

2015 (1)

2012 (2)

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

2008 (1)

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

1893 (1)

A. Köhler, “Ein neues Beleuchtungsverfahren für mikrophotographische Zwecke,” Z. Für Wiss. Mikrosk. Für Mikrosk. Tech. 10, 433–440 (1893).

Benitez, P.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Benítez, P.

A. Teupner, K. Bergenek, R. Wirth, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “Color uniformity in spotlights optimized with reflectors and TIR lenses,” Opt. Express 23(3), A118–A123 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

Bergenek, K.

Biot, G.

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

Buljan, M.

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

Chaves, J.

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

Cvetkovic, A.

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Dross, O.

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Grabovickic, D.

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, M.

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

Hernández, M.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Köhler, A.

A. Köhler, “Ein neues Beleuchtungsverfahren für mikrophotographische Zwecke,” Z. Für Wiss. Mikrosk. Für Mikrosk. Tech. 10, 433–440 (1893).

Lopez, J.

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

Miñano, J. C.

A. Teupner, K. Bergenek, R. Wirth, P. Benítez, and J. C. Miñano, “Color uniformity in spotlights optimized with reflectors and TIR lenses,” Opt. Express 23(3), A118–A123 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Mohedano, R.

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

Teupner, A.

Vilaplana, J.

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
[Crossref]

Wirth, R.

Laser Focus World (1)

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, and J. C. Miñano, “Köhler integration optics improve illumination homogeneity,” Laser Focus World 45, 1-3 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Chaves, A. Cvetkovic, R. Mohedano, O. Dross, M. Hernandez, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, and J. Vilaplana, “Inhomogeneous source uniformization using a shell mixer Köhler integrator,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502X (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernández, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, “Köhler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Grabovičkić, J. C. Miñano, P. Benítez, J. Lopez, J. Vilaplana, G. Biot, and M. Buljan, “Metal-less V-groove RXI collimator,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 81700G (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Buljan, P. Benítez, J. C. Miñano, L. Wang, and R. Mohedano, “Quasi-aplanatic free-form V-groove collimators for LED color mixing,” Proc. SPIE 8550, 85502W (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Für Wiss. Mikrosk. Für Mikrosk. Tech. (1)

A. Köhler, “Ein neues Beleuchtungsverfahren für mikrophotographische Zwecke,” Z. Für Wiss. Mikrosk. Für Mikrosk. Tech. 10, 433–440 (1893).

Other (3)

W. Cassarly, “Nonimaging Optics: Concentration and Illumination,” in Handbook of Optics, Vol. III, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

J. Chaves and M. Hernández, “Solar concentrators,” in Illumination Engineering, R. Koshel, ed. (Wiley, 2013).

R. Winston, J. C. Miñano, and P. Benitez, Nonimaging Optics (Academic, 2005).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Köhler integration with two lenses. (b) Array of two-surface Köhler integrators in the far field approximation and (c) explanation of crosstalk.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 2D sections of Köhler channels for the Spherical Shell-Mixer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a): Köhler channel designed using the Edge Ray Principle. (b) and (c): 2D channels for the Shell-Mixer. Polar angle θ, global and local optical axes z and zl are shown in (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b): 3D design of a Köhler channel for the Shell-Mixer. The surfaces are not to scale. (c): Lateral and top view of the freeform Shell-Mixer. Dimensions are in mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Setup with ideal RGBW square source, Shell-Mixer and imaging lens; color image of the source without (b) and with Shell-Mixer on top (c).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Setup with RGB source, Shell-Mixer and reflector; (b) Color image of the source formed in the far-field by the reflector alone and (c) with the Shell-Mixer added.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Intensity pattern of the Shell-Mixer compared to a Lambertian one; (b) Illuminance profiles and virtual sources created by the Freeform and Spherical Shells.

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