Abstract

A new type of nonlinear waveguides, photorefractive surface optical waveguides is suggested, which can be induced by photorefractive surface waves on the boundary of photorefractive crystal. The disturbed refractive index distribution of such waveguides behaves as a periodic lattice with apodized envelope, thus we call them photorefractive surface apodized waveguide arrays. Moreover, the dispersion relation and corresponding modes are analyzed. It is very interesting that the dispersion curves of index-guided modes and Bragg-guided modes couple and intertwine with each other, and anti-crossings instead of crossings between them hence generate some mini-gaps. Moreover there exists a type of extraordinary modes constituted by the splice of index-guided modes and Bragg-guided modes.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

Z. Luo, F. Liu, Y. Xu, H. Liu, T. Zhang, J. Xu, and J. Tian, “Dark surface waves in self-focusing media with diffusion and photovoltaic nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15075–15080 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, and S. Anand, “Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides,” AIP Adv. 3(3), 032136 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2007 (2)

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and M. A. Karpierz, “All-optical switching and beam steering in tunable waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051112 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422(6928), 147–150 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. Smith, T. Krauss, and R. Houdré, “Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1490–1496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, “Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 770–778 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

1977 (1)

1939 (1)

W. Shockley, “On the surface states associated with a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. 56(4), 317–323 (1939).
[Crossref]

1932 (1)

I. E. Tamm, “On the possible bound states of electrons on a crystal surface,” Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 1, 733–735 (1932).

Alfassi, B.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amin, M.

N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, and S. Anand, “Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides,” AIP Adv. 3(3), 032136 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anand, S.

N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, and S. Anand, “Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides,” AIP Adv. 3(3), 032136 (2013).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and M. A. Karpierz, “All-optical switching and beam steering in tunable waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. Smith, T. Krauss, and R. Houdré, “Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1490–1496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brzdakiewicz, K. A.

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and M. A. Karpierz, “All-optical switching and beam steering in tunable waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Christodoulides, D. N.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422(6928), 147–150 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, K. Y.

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cuisin, C.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[Crossref]

De La Rue, R. M.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Derouin, E.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drisse, O.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Duan, G.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Duree, G.

Efremidis, N. K.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422(6928), 147–150 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ennser, K.

K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, “Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 770–778 (1998).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, J. W.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422(6928), 147–150 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fratalocchi, A.

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and M. A. Karpierz, “All-optical switching and beam steering in tunable waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujisawa, T.

Garcia Quirino, G. S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golka, S.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heidrich, H.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hensel, H. J.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. S.

Houdré, R.

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. Smith, T. Krauss, and R. Houdré, “Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1490–1496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z. J.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. D.

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z. L.

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Janiak, K.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kang, H. Z.

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1605–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karpierz, M. A.

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and M. A. Karpierz, “All-optical switching and beam steering in tunable waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

Krauss, T.

Krauss, T. F.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Laming, R. I.

K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, “Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 770–778 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[Crossref]

Legouézigou, L.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Legouézigou, O.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

Liu, H.

Liu, S. M.

Lou, C. B.

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1605–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Ma, H. H.

Manela, O.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morin, M.

Naureen, S.

N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, and S. Anand, “Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides,” AIP Adv. 3(3), 032136 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oesterle, U.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Olivier, S.

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. Smith, T. Krauss, and R. Houdré, “Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1490–1496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pommereau, F.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rattier, M.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ren, X. K.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rotschild, C.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

Salamo, G.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422(6928), 147–150 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Morin, G. Duree, G. Salamo, and M. Segev, “Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 20(20), 2066–2068 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahid, N.

N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, and S. Anand, “Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides,” AIP Adv. 3(3), 032136 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shao, W. W.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley, “On the surface states associated with a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. 56(4), 317–323 (1939).
[Crossref]

Smith, C.

Smith, C. J. M.

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tamm, I. E.

I. E. Tamm, “On the possible bound states of electrons on a crystal surface,” Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 1, 733–735 (1932).

Tian, J.

Tian, J. G.

Viasnoff-Schwoob, E.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, B. H.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Olivier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. Smith, T. Krauss, and R. Houdré, “Coupled-mode theory and propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(13), 1490–1496 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Xu, J. J.

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1605–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Xu, Y. H.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. P.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, P.

Yokoi, N.

Zervas, M. N.

K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, “Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 770–778 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, T.

Zhang, T. H.

H. Z. Kang, T. H. Zhang, H. H. Ma, C. B. Lou, S. M. Liu, J. G. Tian, and J. J. Xu, “Giant enhancement of surface second-harmonic generation using photorefractive surface waves with diffusion and drift nonlinearities,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1605–1607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

N. Shahid, M. Amin, S. Naureen, and S. Anand, “Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides,” AIP Adv. 3(3), 032136 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Y. Cui, X. Feng, Y. D. Huang, Q. Zhao, Z. L. Huang, and W. Zhang, “Broadband switching functionality based on defect mode coupling in W2 photonic crystal waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(15), 151110 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Fratalocchi, G. Assanto, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, and M. A. Karpierz, “All-optical switching and beam steering in tunable waveguide arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(5), 051112 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Viasnoff-Schwoob, C. Weisbuch, H. Benisty, C. Cuisin, E. Derouin, O. Drisse, G. Duan, L. Legouézigou, O. Legouézigou, F. Pommereau, S. Golka, H. Heidrich, H. J. Hensel, and K. Janiak, “Compact wavelength monitoring by lateral out-coupling in wedged photonic crystal multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(10), 101107 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Ennser, M. N. Zervas, and R. I. Laming, “Optimization of apodized linearly chirped fiber gratings for optical communications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 770–778 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nature (1)

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices,” Nature 422(6928), 147–150 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. Shockley, “On the surface states associated with a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. 56(4), 317–323 (1939).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. H. Zhang, X. K. Ren, B. H. Wang, C. B. Lou, Z. J. Hu, W. W. Shao, Y. H. Xu, H. Z. Kang, J. Yang, D. P. Yang, L. Feng, and J. J. Xu, “Surface waves with photorefractive nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 76(1), 013827 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. Stepanov, “Nonlinear surface optical waves in photorefractive crystals with a diffusion mechanism of nonlinearity,” Phys. Rev. A 51(2), 1571–1577 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Olivier, M. Rattier, H. Benisty, C. Weisbuch, C. J. M. Smith, R. M. De La Rue, T. F. Krauss, U. Oesterle, and R. Houdré, “Mini-stopbands of a one-dimensional system: The channel waveguide in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 63(11), 113311 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

I. I. Smolyaninov, C. H. Lee, and C. C. Davis, “Giant enhancement of surface second harmonic generation in BaTiO3 due to photorefractive surface wave excitation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(12), 2429–2432 (1999).
[Crossref]

B. Alfassi, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Nonlocal surface-wave solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Z. Sowjetunion (1)

I. E. Tamm, “On the possible bound states of electrons on a crystal surface,” Phys. Z. Sowjetunion 1, 733–735 (1932).

Other (1)

J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystal: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) PR SW mode with neff = 0.999890119 and P = 456.5 m, (b) the induced refractive index change ∆n and (c) the fine-structure of (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Dispersion relation of the AWGAs and corresponding mode profiles; (a) Dispersion relation of the TE00-TE60 modes; (b) and (c)the fine-structure of the dashed box in the (a) and (b), respectively; (d) TE80 with neff = 1.000005499 and (e) TE70 with neff = 1.000029190 are the mode profiles of marked point 1 and 2 in (b) for ω/ω0 = 2 and 2.4630, respectively; (f) TE70 with neff = 1.000028415 and (g) TE80 with neff = 1.000011877 are the mode profiles for ω/ω0 = 2.3964, corresponding to the first and third intersections of the dispersion curves and the right vertical dotted line in (b) from top to bottom, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The remaining mode profiles for ω/ω0 = 2.3964, a(1)-(12) corresponding to intersections of dispersion curves and the vertical dotted line in Fig. 2(b) from top to bottom, respectively; index-guided modes: a(3) TE90 with neff = 1.000004330; a(4) TE10,0 with neff = 1.000001282; a(5) TE11,0 with neff = 1.000000298; first Bragg-guided modes: a(1) TE01 with neff = 1.000026972; a(2) TE11 with neff = 1.000009384; a(6) TE21 with neff = 0.999993666; a(7) TE31 with neff = 0.999964745; a(8) TE41 with neff = 0.999975992; Second Bragg-guided modes: a(9) TE02 with neff = 0.999923192; a(10) TE12 with neff = 0.999913323; a(11) TE22 with neff = 0.999902351; a(12) TE32 with neff = 0.999887535.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 E(x,z)+ k 2 E(x,z)=0.
E sc (x)= k B T q d dx ln[ I(x)+1 ],
d 2 A(x) d x 2 2 k 0 2 n 4 r eff k B T q A 2 (x) A 2 (x)+1 dA(x) dx +( k 0 2 n 2 β 2 )A(x)=0,
Δn= 1 2 n 3 r eff k B T q dI(x) [I(x)+1]dx .
2 E y (x) x 2 +[ k 0 2 n 2 (x) β 2 ] E y (x)=0.

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