Abstract

We report the first experimental observation of an energy oscillation between two coupled ultra-high Q whispering gallery modes in the time domain. Two counter-propagating whispering gallery modes in a silica toroid microcavity were employed for this purpose. The combination of a large coupling coefficient between the two modes and an ultra-high Q factor, which creates a large Γ value of > 10, results in a clear energy oscillation. Our measurement is based on a drop-port measurement technique, which enables us to observe the light energy in the two modes directly. The oscillation period measured in the time domain precisely matched that inferred from mode splitting in the frequency domain, and the measured results showed excellent agreement with results calculated with the developed numerical model.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2015 (3)

P. Hamel, S. Haddadi, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, and A. M. Yacomotti, “Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in coupled photonic-crystal nanolasers,” Nat. Photonics 9, 311–315 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, C. Qian, K. Qiu, Y. Gao, and X. Xu, “Ultrafast optical switching using photonic molecules in photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 23, 9211–9220 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

R. Bose, T. Cai, K. R. Choudhury, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 858–864 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Yoshiki and T. Tanabe, “All-optical switching using Kerr effect in a silica toroid microcavity,” Opt. Express 22, 24332–24341 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (6)

2011 (1)

J. B. Jager, V. Calvo, E. Delamadeleine, E. Hadji, P. Noe, T. Ricart, D. Bucci, and A. Morand, “High-Q silica microcavities on a chip: From microtoroid to microsphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181123 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2009 (4)

I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Purcell-factor-enhanced scattering from Si nanocrystals in an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

A. Mazzei, S. Goetzinger, L. d. S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: A classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Modal spectroscopy of optoexcited vibrations of a micron-scale on-chip resonator at greater than 1 GHz frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Probing the dispersive and spatial properties of photonic crystal waveguides via highly efficient coupling from fiber tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

D. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424, 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1669–1671 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

J. Knight, G. Cheung, F. Jacques, and T. Birks, “Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery-mode resonances by a fiber taper,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1129–1131 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Abedin, K.

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armani, D.

D. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6, 56–61 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atlasov, K. A.

Barclay, P.

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Probing the dispersive and spatial properties of photonic crystal waveguides via highly efficient coupling from fiber tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, G.

P. Hamel, S. Haddadi, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, and A. M. Yacomotti, “Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in coupled photonic-crystal nanolasers,” Nat. Photonics 9, 311–315 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bender, C. M.

B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Benson, O.

A. Mazzei, S. Goetzinger, L. d. S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: A classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

Borselli, M.

P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Probing the dispersive and spatial properties of photonic crystal waveguides via highly efficient coupling from fiber tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4–6 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bose, R.

R. Bose, T. Cai, K. R. Choudhury, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 858–864 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bowen, W. P.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bucci, D.

J. B. Jager, V. Calvo, E. Delamadeleine, E. Hadji, P. Noe, T. Ricart, D. Bucci, and A. Morand, “High-Q silica microcavities on a chip: From microtoroid to microsphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181123 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, T.

R. Bose, T. Cai, K. R. Choudhury, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 858–864 (2014).
[Crossref]

Calvo, V.

J. B. Jager, V. Calvo, E. Delamadeleine, E. Hadji, P. Noe, T. Ricart, D. Bucci, and A. Morand, “High-Q silica microcavities on a chip: From microtoroid to microsphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181123 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carmon, T.

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Modal spectroscopy of optoexcited vibrations of a micron-scale on-chip resonator at greater than 1 GHz frequency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 123901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, L.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zheng, X. Jiang, S. Hua, L. Chang, G. Li, H. Fan, and M. Xiao, “Controllable optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled high-Q microtoroid cavities,” Opt. Express 20, 18319–18325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.-R.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cheung, G.

Choudhury, K. R.

R. Bose, T. Cai, K. R. Choudhury, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 858–864 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delamadeleine, E.

J. B. Jager, V. Calvo, E. Delamadeleine, E. Hadji, P. Noe, T. Ricart, D. Bucci, and A. Morand, “High-Q silica microcavities on a chip: From microtoroid to microsphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181123 (2011).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dulashko, Y.

Dwir, B.

Fan, H.

Fan, S.

B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fini, J. M.

Finley, J. J.

S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Friedlein, J.

Gao, Y.

Gianfreda, M.

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B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
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J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
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J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
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L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
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C. Zheng, X. Jiang, S. Hua, L. Chang, G. Li, H. Fan, and M. Xiao, “Controllable optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled high-Q microtoroid cavities,” Opt. Express 20, 18319–18325 (2012).
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C. Junge, D. O’Shea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 213604 (2013).
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S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
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Karlsson, K. F.

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T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
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T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Purcell-factor-enhanced scattering from Si nanocrystals in an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
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T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
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T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
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D. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Modal coupling in traveling-wave resonators,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1669–1671 (2002).
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Krenner, H. J.

S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
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A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
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Kwong, D.-L.

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B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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P. Hamel, S. Haddadi, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, and A. M. Yacomotti, “Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in coupled photonic-crystal nanolasers,” Nat. Photonics 9, 311–315 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Zheng, X. Jiang, S. Hua, L. Chang, G. Li, H. Fan, and M. Xiao, “Controllable optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled high-Q microtoroid cavities,” Opt. Express 20, 18319–18325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
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S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
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B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
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B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
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I. S. Grudinin, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Brillouin lasing with a CaF2 whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 043902 (2009).
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A. Mazzei, S. Goetzinger, L. d. S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: A classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
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B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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J. B. Jager, V. Calvo, E. Delamadeleine, E. Hadji, P. Noe, T. Ricart, D. Bucci, and A. Morand, “High-Q silica microcavities on a chip: From microtoroid to microsphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181123 (2011).
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S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
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Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6, 56–61 (2012).
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J. B. Jager, V. Calvo, E. Delamadeleine, E. Hadji, P. Noe, T. Ricart, D. Bucci, and A. Morand, “High-Q silica microcavities on a chip: From microtoroid to microsphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181123 (2011).
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B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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C. Junge, D. O’Shea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 213604 (2013).
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Ozdemir, S. K.

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, L. He, and L. Yang, “Controlled manipulation of mode splitting in an optical microcavity by two Rayleigh scatterers,” Opt. Express 18, 23535–23543 (2010).
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J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
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P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Probing the dispersive and spatial properties of photonic crystal waveguides via highly efficient coupling from fiber tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4–6 (2004).
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T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
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B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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M. Pöllinger and A. Rauschenbeutel, “All-optical signal processing at ultra-low powers in bottle microresonators using the Kerr effect,” Opt. Express 18, 17764–17775 (2010).
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M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
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T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Purcell-factor-enhanced scattering from Si nanocrystals in an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
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P. Hamel, S. Haddadi, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, and A. M. Yacomotti, “Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in coupled photonic-crystal nanolasers,” Nat. Photonics 9, 311–315 (2015).
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C. Junge, D. O’Shea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 213604 (2013).
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M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
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S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
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J. B. Jager, V. Calvo, E. Delamadeleine, E. Hadji, P. Noe, T. Ricart, D. Bucci, and A. Morand, “High-Q silica microcavities on a chip: From microtoroid to microsphere,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181123 (2011).
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T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
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A. Mazzei, S. Goetzinger, L. d. S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: A classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
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T. J. Kippenberg, H. Rokhsari, T. Carmon, A. Scherer, and K. J. Vahala, “Analysis of radiation-pressure induced mechanical oscillation of an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 033901 (2005).
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Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
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D. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
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S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
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P. Barclay, K. Srinivasan, M. Borselli, and O. Painter, “Probing the dispersive and spatial properties of photonic crystal waveguides via highly efficient coupling from fiber tapers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4–6 (2004).
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Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6, 56–61 (2012).
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T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Purcell-factor-enhanced scattering from Si nanocrystals in an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
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T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Purcell-factor-enhanced scattering from Si nanocrystals in an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
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C. Junge, D. O’Shea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 213604 (2013).
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R. Bose, T. Cai, K. R. Choudhury, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 858–864 (2014).
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Wang, G.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
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Warken, F.

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
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Wen, J.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
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Wilcut, E.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
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S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
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Wong, C. W.

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
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Xiao, M.

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
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C. Zheng, X. Jiang, S. Hua, L. Chang, G. Li, H. Fan, and M. Xiao, “Controllable optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled high-Q microtoroid cavities,” Opt. Express 20, 18319–18325 (2012).
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J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
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P. Hamel, S. Haddadi, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, and A. M. Yacomotti, “Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in coupled photonic-crystal nanolasers,” Nat. Photonics 9, 311–315 (2015).
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L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
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B. Peng, S. K. Oezdemir, F. Lei, F. Monifi, M. Gianfreda, G. L. Long, S. Fan, F. Nori, C. M. Bender, and L. Yang, “Parity-time-symmetric whispering-gallery microcavities,” Nat. Phys. 10, 394–398 (2014).
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J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
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Yang, X.

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
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X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
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A. Mazzei, S. Goetzinger, L. d. S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: A classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
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F. Monifi, J. Friedlein, S. K. Oezdemir, and L. Yang, “A robust and tunable add-drop filter using whispering gallery mode microtoroid resonator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 3306–3315 (2012).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

S. Kapfinger, T. Reichert, S. Lichtmannecker, K. Müller, J. J. Finley, A. Wixforth, M. Kaniber, and H. J. Krenner, “Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8540 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (5)

J. Zhu, S. K. Ozdemir, Y.-F. Xiao, L. Li, L. He, D.-R. Chen, and L. Yang, “On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator,” Nat. Photonics 4, 46–49 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Hamel, S. Haddadi, F. Raineri, P. Monnier, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes, A. Levenson, and A. M. Yacomotti, “Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in coupled photonic-crystal nanolasers,” Nat. Photonics 9, 311–315 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, X. Jiang, S. Hua, C. Yang, J. Wen, L. Jiang, G. Li, G. Wang, and M. Xiao, “Parity-time symmetry and variable optical isolation in active-passive-coupled microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 524–529 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Bose, T. Cai, K. R. Choudhury, G. S. Solomon, and E. Waks, “All-optical coherent control of vacuum Rabi oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8, 858–864 (2014).
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Y. Sato, Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Strong coupling between distant photonic nanocavities and its dynamic control,” Nat. Photonics 6, 56–61 (2012).
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T. Carmon and K. J. Vahala, “Visible continuous emission from a silica microphotonic device by third-harmonic generation,” Nat. Phys. 3, 430–435 (2007).
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Nature (4)

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. P. Bowen, A. S. Parkins, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, and H. J. Kimble, “Observation of strong coupling between one atom and a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 443, 671–674 (2006).
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S. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold Raman laser using a spherical dielectric microcavity,” Nature 415, 621–623 (2002).
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D. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421, 925–928 (2003).
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Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Tchebotareva, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Purcell-factor-enhanced scattering from Si nanocrystals in an optical microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 027406 (2009).
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A. Mazzei, S. Goetzinger, L. d. S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled coupling of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes by a single Rayleigh scatterer: A classical problem in a quantum optical light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 173603 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, and C. W. Wong, “All-optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 173902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pöllinger, D. O’Shea, F. Warken, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Ultrahigh-Q tunable whispering-gallery-mode microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 053901 (2009).
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C. Junge, D. O’Shea, J. Volz, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Strong coupling between single atoms and nontransversal photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 213604 (2013).
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Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic illustration of the developed numerical model. (b) Calculated transmission (blue) and reflection (red) spectra of the cavity with (κ, γ0, γtaper)/2π = (100, 10, 2.5) MHz. (c) and (d) Calculated light energy in the CW (solid blue line) and CCW (solid red line) modes when symmetric (c) and asymmetric (d) excitations are employed. The inset shows the cavity mode (blue) and Fourier transform of a rectangular input pulse with the width of 10 ns (green).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup for the reflection measurement. (b) The reflected signals from the cavity for different modes. Black (solid), gray (solid) and red (dashed) lines are the reflected signals with and without the cavity and the fitting curve, respectively. The input pulse widths were 10, 8 and 5 ns for the top, middle and bottom panels, respectively. It should be noted that the detected signals were offset by the remaining ASE noise and it was removed from the figure. (c) The transmission spectra of the modes that are employed in (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The signal reflected from the cavity and the oscillation period for different input pulse widths Δtpulse. The black solid and red dashed lines are the experimental and numerical results, respectively. The blue dots are the oscillation period. The numerical results were calculated using equations in §2. The fitting parameters are (κ, γ0, γtaper)/2π = (75, 6.4, 1.3) MHz. (b) The Fourier transform of the theoretical input pulses (green) and their spectral overlap with the cavity mode (red). All the lines are normalized by the peak power of the Fourier transform of the input signal with Δtpulse = 100 ns. Note that the gray solid and dashed lines indicate the position of the split cavity mode and the DC component, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Experimental setup for the drop-port measurement. (b) Outputted power measured at the drop port. The blue and red solid lines represent the output from the CW and CCW modes, respectively. Note that the timings of the CW and CCW signals were calibrated by measuring the delays between the two signals.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d a CW d t = ( j ω 0 γ 0 + γ taper 2 ) a CW + j κ 2 a CCW + γ taper s in ,
d a CW d t = ( j ω 0 γ 0 + γ taper 2 ) a CCW + j κ 2 a CW ,
s out t = s in γ taper a CW ,
s out r = γ taper a CCW ,
d a H d t = { j ( ω 0 + κ 2 ) γ 0 + γ taper 2 } a H + γ taper 2 s in ,
d a L d t = { j ( ω 0 κ 2 ) γ 0 + γ taper 2 } a L + γ taper 2 s in .
U CW = 1 2 ( a H 2 + a L 2 + 2 a H 2 a L 2 cos ( κ t + ϕ H ϕ L ) ) ,
U CCW = 1 2 ( a H 2 + a L 2 + 2 a H a L cos ( κ t + ϕ H ϕ L + π ) ) .

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