Abstract

Using molecular diffusion as an approach to introduce organic luminescent dopants for making organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) of different colors on one substrate has the potential to overcome the yield and resolution limitations of the current OLED display technology. In this work, diffusion barriers made of MoO3 and a hole transport material mixture are introduced. The barriers effectively confine the diffusion of the dopants to only the desired depths. With the use of these barriers, OLEDs with highly controlled doping concentrations and performance are fabricated. The barriers thus allow utilizing simple diffusion methods for RGB patterning in OLEDs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectr. 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
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  3. B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Jin and J. C. Sturm, “Super-high resolution transfer printing for full-color OLED display patterning,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 141–145 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Choi, K.-H. Kim, S.-J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Whole device printing for full color displays with organic light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 17(9), 2246–2249 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  9. S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), 1143–1145 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  14. K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Kajiyama, K. Kajiyama, and H. Aziz, “Maskless RGB color patterning of vacuum-deposited small molecule OLED displays by diffusion of luminescent dopant molecules,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16650–16661 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  19. J.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, K.-B. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Origin of charge generation efficiency of metal oxide p-dopants in organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 950–954 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  21. T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. Tian, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials,” Thin Solid Films 536, 202–205 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

2013 (2)

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Tian, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials,” Thin Solid Films 536, 202–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, K.-B. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Origin of charge generation efficiency of metal oxide p-dopants in organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 950–954 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Jin and J. C. Sturm, “Super-high resolution transfer printing for full-color OLED display patterning,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 141–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Choi, K.-H. Kim, S.-J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Whole device printing for full color displays with organic light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 17(9), 2246–2249 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectr. 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), 1143–1145 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aziz, H.

Y. Kajiyama, K. Kajiyama, and H. Aziz, “Maskless RGB color patterning of vacuum-deposited small molecule OLED displays by diffusion of luminescent dopant molecules,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16650–16661 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Tian, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials,” Thin Solid Films 536, 202–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baetzold, J.

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ban, D.

B. Tian, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials,” Thin Solid Films 536, 202–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bellmann, E.

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bollman, B.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bulovic, V.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectr. 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, H. H.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. W.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

J. Choi, K.-H. Kim, S.-J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Whole device printing for full color displays with organic light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 17(9), 2246–2249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-J.

J. Choi, K.-H. Kim, S.-J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Whole device printing for full color displays with organic light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 17(9), 2246–2249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectr. 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gao, C.-H.

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Geffroy, B.

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Graves-Abe, T.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grigoropoulos, C. P.

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gu, G.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hirose, S.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hoffend, T. R.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ichiki, K.

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jin, H.

H. Jin and J. C. Sturm, “Super-high resolution transfer printing for full-color OLED display patterning,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 141–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jin, H. Z.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jones, V.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kajiyama, K.

Kajiyama, Y.

Kim, H.-M.

J.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, K.-B. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Origin of charge generation efficiency of metal oxide p-dopants in organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 950–954 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-J.

J.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, K.-B. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Origin of charge generation efficiency of metal oxide p-dopants in organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 950–954 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-B.

J.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, K.-B. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Origin of charge generation efficiency of metal oxide p-dopants in organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 950–954 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-H.

J. Choi, K.-H. Kim, S.-J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Whole device printing for full color displays with organic light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 17(9), 2246–2249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-S.

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ko, S. H.

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lamansky, S.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Le, H.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, P.

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. H.

J. Choi, K.-H. Kim, S.-J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Whole device printing for full color displays with organic light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 17(9), 2246–2249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, K.-B. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Origin of charge generation efficiency of metal oxide p-dopants in organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 950–954 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-Y.

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.-S.

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Long, K.

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, M. H.

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, J.

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Misra, N.

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mizukami, M.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, A.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Nakata, Y.

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ninomiya, S.

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Onoda, M.

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), 1143–1145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pan, H.

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, H. K.

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prat, C.

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pschenitzka, F.

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
[Crossref]

Register, R. A.

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

Roberts, R. R.

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ryu, S. G.

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Savvateev, V.

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Seki, T.

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shin, W.-J.

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, O.-K.

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

Staral, J. S.

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sturm, J. C.

H. Jin and J. C. Sturm, “Super-high resolution transfer printing for full-color OLED display patterning,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 141–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tada, K.

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), 1143–1145 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tada, T.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M.

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectr. 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials,” Thin Solid Films 536, 202–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tolbert, W. A.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.-K.

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wolk, M. B.

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yagyu, S.

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.-Y.

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.-Z.

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ko, H. Pan, S. G. Ryu, N. Misra, C. P. Grigoropoulos, and H. K. Park, “Nanomaterial enabled laser transfer for organic light emitting material direct writing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151110 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Three-color organic light-emitting diodes patterned by masked dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(13), 1913–1915 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, C. C. Yang, H. H. Chang, C. W. Chen, and C. C. Lee, “Finite-source dye-diffusion thermal transfer for doping and color integration of organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(6), 794–796 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Nakamura, T. Tada, M. Mizukami, S. Hirose, and S. Yagyu, “Three-color polymer light-emitting diodes by stamped dye diffusion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(12), 2189–2191 (2002).
[Crossref]

C.-H. Gao, X.-Z. Zhu, L. Zhang, D.-Y. Zhou, Z.-K. Wang, and L.-S. Liao, “Comparative studies on the inorganic and organic p-type dopants in organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced hole injection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153301 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Pschenitzka and J. C. Sturm, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(17), 2584–2586 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Spectr. (1)

S. Forrest, P. Burrows, and M. Thompson, “The dawn of organic electronics,” IEEE Spectr. 37(8), 29–34 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (2)

P. E. Burrows, G. Gu, V. Bulovic, Z. Shen, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Achieving full-color organic light-emitting devices for lightweight, flat-panel displays,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 44(8), 1188–1203 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Long, F. Pschenitzka, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Full-color OLEDs integrated by dry dye printing,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53(9), 2250–2258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Graves-Abe, F. Pschenitzka, H. Z. Jin, B. Bollman, J. C. Sturm, and R. A. Register, “Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(12), 7154–7163 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

H. Jin and J. C. Sturm, “Super-high resolution transfer printing for full-color OLED display patterning,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(2), 141–145 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Three-color polymer light-emitting devices patterned by maskless dye diffusion onto prepatterned electrode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), 1143–1145 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Tada and M. Onoda, “Color tuning of poly(N -vinylcarbazole)-based light-emitting devices through maskless dye-diffusion technique using phosphorescent dyes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(2), 1290–1292 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Choi, K.-H. Kim, S.-J. Choi, and H. H. Lee, “Whole device printing for full color displays with organic light emitting diodes,” Nanotechnology 17(9), 2246–2249 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Electron. (2)

W.-J. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, T.-S. Kim, and O.-K. Song, “Bulk and interface properties of molybdenum trioxide-doped hole transporting layer in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 333–338 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lee, H.-M. Kim, K.-B. Kim, and J.-J. Kim, “Origin of charge generation efficiency of metal oxide p-dopants in organic semiconductors,” Org. Electron. 12(6), 950–954 (2011).
[Crossref]

Polym. Int. (1)

B. Geffroy, P. Le Roy, and C. Prat, “Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology: materials, devices and display technologies,” Polym. Int. 55(6), 572–582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. B. Wolk, J. Baetzold, E. Bellmann, T. R. Hoffend, S. Lamansky, Y. Li, R. R. Roberts, V. Savvateev, J. S. Staral, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser thermal patterning of OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5519, 12–23 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Lamansky, T. R. Hoffend, H. Le, V. Jones, M. B. Wolk, and W. A. Tolbert, “Laser induced thermal imaging of vacuum-coated OLED materials,” Proc. SPIE 5937, 593702 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1)

S. Ninomiya, K. Ichiki, H. Yamada, Y. Nakata, T. Seki, T. Aoki, and J. Matsuo, “Molecular depth profiling of multilayer structures of organic semiconductor materials by secondary ion mass spectrometry with large argon cluster ion beams,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 23(20), 3264–3268 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

B. Tian, D. Ban, and H. Aziz, “Enhanced bulk conductivity and bipolar transport in mixtures of MoOx and organic hole transport materials,” Thin Solid Films 536, 202–205 (2013).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MPG (1220 KB)      Transition of PL

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme for the diffusion-based doping method without (a), and with (b) the diffusion barrier.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) and (d) the structure of the organic layer stacks without and with the diffusion barrier film, respectively; (b) and (e) spectra collected every 10 minutes from the organic stacks; and (c) and (f) PL images of the stacks before and after heating.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Spectra collected before (dotted traces) and after (solid lines) heating for 50minutes for various MoO3 concentrations of the NPB:MoO3. The PL spectra before heating are almost identical. (b) The corresponding difference in peak wavelength between before after heating vs MoO3 concentration.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (d) the structure of the organic layer stacks without and with the diffusion barrier film, respectively; (b) and (e) spectra collected from the organic stacks before and after solvent vapor exposure; and (e) and (f) PL images of the stacks before and after solvent vapor exposure. The transition is shown in Visualization 1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 A schematic diagram illustrating the steps of the procedure followed for the diffused-dopant OLEDs. (i)-(iii) illustrates the steps of introducing the dopant via diffusion and (iv) illustrates the subsequent heating step used for making the DCJTB concentration uniform across the layer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 EL spectra collected every few minutes from the “diffused-dopant” devices during the heating step [Fig. 5(iv)] for the device with the 15nm host NPB layer (a); and the device with the 10nm host NPB layer (b). The dotted lines represent the EL spectra of the corresponding control devices.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Current efficiencies collected every few minutes from the “diffused-dopant” devices during the heating step [Fig. 5(iv)] for the device with the 15nm host NPB layer (the blue solid line); and the device with the 10nm host NPB layer (the red solid line). The dotted lines represent the current efficiency of the corresponding control devices.

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