Abstract

The surface plasmon (SP) coupling behaviors of an embedded light emitter or radiating dipole in GaN with a surface Ag nanoparticle (NP) in four structures of different added dielectric geometries, including an extended dielectric interlayer (DI) and a DI of a finite width between the Ag NP and GaN, a dielectric coating on the Ag NP, and no dielectric addition, are numerically compared. Either an added DI or dielectric coating can lead to the blue shift of localized surface plasmon (LSP) dipole resonance peak or the spectral peak of radiated power enhancement ratio with respect to that of the structure without dielectric addition. A smaller dielectric refractive-index or a larger dielectric thickness results in a larger blue-shift range. Under the condition of the same dielectric refractive-index and thickness, the structure of a DI with a finite width leads to the largest blue-shift range, followed by the structure of an extended DI and then the structure of a dielectric coating. In a practical application, for a given emission wavelength of a blue-emitting quantum well, the emission enhancement effect through SP coupling depends on the LSP resonance strength at this wavelength. Our study also shows that although the LSP resonance peak can be blue-shifted by reducing the size of a surface Ag NP, its SP coupling strength is dramatically reduced. Adding a DI or dielectric coating is a more practical approach for shifting the major LSP resonance mode of a surface Ag NP from the green into blue range.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (5)

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lu, S. E. Wu, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Improved light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by efficient surface plasmon coupling with silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 585, 460–464 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baek, J. H.

Chang, W. Y.

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. S.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. T.

Cho, Y. H.

Chuang, W. H.

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fan, Q.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[Crossref]

He, G. R.

Hsieh, C.

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. C.

Huang, C. F.

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, J. J.

Iveland, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, L. W.

Jeon, D. W.

Jeon, J. W.

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jo, D. S.

L. W. Jang, D. W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D. S. Jo, J. W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J. H. Baek, J. K. Yang, J. H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ju, J. W.

Khurgin, J. B.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kiang, Y. W.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. K.

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Köhler, K.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kunzer, M.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuo, Y.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuroda, T.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lai, C. H.

Lai, Y. L.

C. H. Lu, S. E. Wu, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Improved light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by efficient surface plasmon coupling with silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 585, 460–464 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. W.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lee, I. H.

Lee, S. J.

Lee, S. M.

L. W. Jang, J. W. Ju, D. W. Jeon, J. W. Park, A. Y. Polyakov, S. J. Lee, J. H. Baek, S. M. Lee, Y. H. Cho, and I. H. Lee, “Enhanced light output of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes with Ag nano-particles embedded in nano-needle layer,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6036–6041 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. L.

C. H. Lu, S. E. Wu, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Improved light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by efficient surface plasmon coupling with silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 585, 460–464 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. H.

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C. P.

C. H. Lu, S. E. Wu, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Improved light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by efficient surface plasmon coupling with silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 585, 460–464 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, C. F.

Lu, C. H.

C. H. Lu, S. E. Wu, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Improved light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by efficient surface plasmon coupling with silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 585, 460–464 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. C.

Maier, M.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morkoç, H.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neogi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ni, X.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Özgür, Ü.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, J. W.

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peretti, J.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pletschen, W.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polyakov, A. Y.

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sahoo, T.

L. W. Jang, D. W. Jeon, T. Sahoo, D. S. Jo, J. W. Ju, S. J. Lee, J. H. Baek, J. K. Yang, J. H. Song, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum wells by Ag/SiO2 nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2116–2123 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shen, K. C.

Shih, P. Y.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shimada, R.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Song, J. H.

Soref, R. A.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, C. Y.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, G.

J. B. Khurgin, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Enhancement of luminescence efficiency using surface plasmon polaritons: Figures of merit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24(8), 1968–1980 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tackeuchi, A.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ting, S. Y.

Tsai, F. J.

Tu, C. G.

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wagner, J.

M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Y.

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S. E.

C. H. Lu, S. E. Wu, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Improved light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by efficient surface plasmon coupling with silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 585, 460–464 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yablonvitch, E.

A. Neogi, C. W. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonvitch, “Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling,” Phys. Rev. B 66(15), 153305 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yang, C. C.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, H. T. Chen, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. C. Yang, and Y. W. Kiang, “Enhancements of the emission and light extraction of a radiating dipole coupled with localized surface plasmon induced on a surface metal nanoparticle in a light-emitting device,” Opt. Express 22(S1), A155–A166 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lin, C. Hsieh, C. G. Tu, Y. Kuo, H. S. Chen, P. Y. Shih, C. H. Liao, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, C. H. Lai, G. R. He, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Efficiency improvement of a vertical light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling and grating scattering,” Opt. Express 22(S3), A842–A856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, J. Y. Wang, F. J. Tsai, Y. C. Lu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Fabrication of sphere-like Au nanoparticles on substrate with laser irradiation and their polarized localized surface plasmon behaviors,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14186–14198 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. K.

Yao, Y. F.

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yeh, D. M.

Yeh, J. H.

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y. T.

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

D. M. Yeh, C. F. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. C. Lu, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling effect in an InGaN/GaN single-quantum-well light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(17), 171103 (2007).
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G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, “Practicable enhancement of spontaneous emission using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111107 (2007).
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C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction of the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
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C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(4), 041102 (2008).
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J. Xie, X. Ni, Q. Fan, R. Shimada, Ü. Özgür, and H. Morkoç, “On the efficiency droop in InGaN multiple quantum well blue light emitting diodes and its reduction with p-doped quantum well barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(12), 121107 (2008).
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M. Maier, K. Köhler, M. Kunzer, W. Pletschen, and J. Wagner, “Reduced nonthermal rollover of wide-well GaInN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041103 (2009).
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Y. Kuo, W. Y. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with a radiating dipole near an Ag nanoparticle embedded in GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(16), 161103 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, Y. Kuo, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Yao, P. Y. Shih, H. S. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(10), 101106 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. W. Jang, T. Sahoo, D. W. Jeon, M. Kim, J. W. Jeon, D. S. Jo, M. K. Kim, Y. T. Yu, A. Y. Polyakov, and I. H. Lee, “Quantum efficiency control of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well structures using Ag/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251114 (2011).
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K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191109 (2009).
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C. H. Lu, S. E. Wu, Y. L. Lai, Y. L. Li, and C. P. Liu, “Improved light emission of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by efficient surface plasmon coupling with silver nanoparticles,” J. Alloys Compd. 585, 460–464 (2014).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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Y. Kuo, S. Y. Ting, C. H. Liao, J. J. Huang, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. C. Lu, C. Y. Chen, K. C. Shen, C. F. Lu, D. M. Yeh, J. Y. Wang, W. H. Chuang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Surface plasmon coupling with radiating dipole for enhancing the emission efficiency of a light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A914–A929 (2011).
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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a)-(d): Structures of samples A-D, respectively, with different dielectric geometries around Ag NPs. In each sample, the radiating dipole, which is represented by the thick (pink) arrow, is embedded in GaN with a depth at d.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectra of normalized absorbed power of the three Ag NP sizes (L, M, and S) in the structure of sample A. The radiating dipole is located at x = 0.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectra of normalized radiated power corresponding to the cases in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectra of normalized absorbed power when Ag NP S (the small NP) is used in the structure of sample B under four conditions of different dielectric thicknesses (h = 5 and 10 nm, indicated by the number before the slash in a curve label) and different dielectric refractive-indices (1.8 and 1.5, indicated by the number after the slash in a curve label). For comparison, the corresponding result in the structure of sample A (No-DI) is also shown here. The radiating dipole is located at x = 0.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra of normalized radiated power corresponding to the cases in Fig. 4.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectra of normalized radiated power similar to those in Fig. 5 except that the large-sized Ag NP (L) is used in the structure of sample B.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectra of normalized radiated power with DI refractive-index at 1.5 and thicknesses at 5 and 10 nm for the comparison between the structures of samples B and C. For comparison, the corresponding result in the structure of sample A (No-DI) is also shown here. The radiating dipole is located at x = 0.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectra of normalized radiated power when an x-oriented radiating dipole is located at different positions along the x-axis for samples B and C. Here, x0 is equal to one-quarter the diameter of the circular base of the Ag NP. Also, we use the large-sized NP (a = 30 nm, b = 40 nm, and t = 20 nm), DI thickness at h = 10 nm, and DI refractive-index at 1.5.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Similar results to those in Fig. 8 except for a y-oriented radiating dipole.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Similar results to those in Fig. 8 except for samples A and D.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Similar results to those in Fig. 10 except for a y-oriented radiating dipole.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a)-(d): Distributions of normalized field magnitude (in log scale) of samples A-D in the x-z plane around the Ag NP and radiating dipole at 565, 453, 429, and 469 nm, respectively, under the same conditions of Ag NP geometry and dielectric refractive-index and thickness as those for Figs. 8-11. The radiating dipoles at x = 0 are represented by the horizontal (pink) arrows.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 (a)-(d): Surface charge distributions of samples A-D corresponding to the field magnitude distributions in Figs. 12(a)-12(d), respectively. The color coding for parts (a)-(d) is shown right to part (d). (e) and (f): Same charge distributions as those in parts (b) and (c) (for samples B and C), respectively, except that the color coding range is decreased, as shown in the color coding right to part (f).
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 (a)-(d): Distributions of normalized field magnitude (in log scale) of samples A-D in the x-z plane at 540, 458, 425, and 464 nm, respectively, with x-oriented radiating dipoles at x = 2x0 represented by the horizontal (pink) arrows under the same conditions of Ag NP geometry and dielectric refractive-index and thickness as those for Figs. 8-11. (e)-(h): Similar to parts (a)-(d) for y-oriented dipoles at x = 2x0 to show normalized field magnitude (in log scale) of samples A-D in the y-z plane at 570, 461, 430, and 470 nm, respectively.

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