Abstract

In a study, involving laboratories from seven geographic regions, the memory colors of eleven familiar objects were investigated. Based on that study, one global and seven regional memory color rendition indices (MCRIs) are created and the impact of cross-regional differences on the evaluation of color rendition was investigated. A first analysis focuses on the impact on MCRI index values by comparing the regional index values, calculated for 401 light sources, with those of the global index. A second analysis examines the impact on predictive performance in terms of the visual appreciation and naturalness of rendered objects colors as evaluated in respectively twenty-one and fifteen experiments published in literature. Both analyses show that, although there are small differences in absolute level of color rendition, the regional metrics are generally comparable in terms of predicting light source rank order and correlation with visual data. Therefore, ànd considering between-region variability to be smaller than or of the same size as the within-region variability, a globally valid memory color rendition metric can be proposed without introducing substantial errors. Finally, Smet’s Rm index, obtained using real objects, is suggested as a good approximation to that globally valid metric.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours,” Lighting Res. Tech. 44(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of colour rendering,” Col. Res. Appl. 36(4), 272-285 (2010).

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

B. Oicherman, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and A. R. Robertson, “Adaptation and colour matching of display and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 34(3), 182–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

G. Y. Zou, “Toward using confidence intervals to compare correlations,” Psychol. Methods 12(4), 399–413 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, S. Berche, and G. Alquié, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and X. Hu, “Tuning the fluorescent spectrum for the trichromatic visual response: a pilot study,” Leukos 1(1), 7–23 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Narendran and L. Deng, “Color rendering properties of LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 61–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Q. Sun and M. D. Fairchild, “Statistical characterization of face spectral reflectances and its application to human portraiture spectral estimation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 498–506 (2002).

2001 (1)

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, “A physics-based face database for color research,” J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

D. H. Brainard, “Color constancy in the nearly natural image. 2. Achromatic loci,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(2), 307–325 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference index for japanese complexion color under illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 269–274 (1998).

1992 (1)

M. D. Fairchild, “Chromatic adaptation to image displays,” Proc. TAGA 2, 803–824 (1992).

1974 (1)

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. 4(1), 48–52 (1974).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” J. Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

1961 (1)

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photo. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

1959 (1)

C. L. Sanders, “Assessment of color rendition under an iIlluminant using color tolerances for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 640–646 (1959).

Allen, G. R.

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, G. R. Allen, and W. W. Beers, “Color preference under LEDs with diminished yellow emission,” Leukos 10(3), 119–131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alquié, G.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, S. Berche, and G. Alquié, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bartleson, C. J.

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photo. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

Beers, W. W.

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, G. R. Allen, and W. W. Beers, “Color preference under LEDs with diminished yellow emission,” Leukos 10(3), 119–131 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berche, S.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, S. Berche, and G. Alquié, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blanc-Gonnet, J.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Thurstone scalings for attractiveness of fruit and vegetables under nine 3000K and eight 4000K light sources. (personal communication),” (2009).

Blommaert, F. J. J.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of colour rendering,” Col. Res. Appl. 36(4), 272-285 (2010).

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boust, C.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, S. Berche, and G. Alquié, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brainard, D. H.

Brettel, H.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, S. Berche, and G. Alquié, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brückner, S.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of colour rendering,” Col. Res. Appl. 36(4), 272-285 (2010).

Chen, H.-S.

David, A.

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Ridder, H.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours,” Lighting Res. Tech. 44(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

N. Narendran and L. Deng, “Color rendering properties of LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 61–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Duque-Chica, G. L.

Fairchild, M. D.

Q. Sun and M. D. Fairchild, “Statistical characterization of face spectral reflectances and its application to human portraiture spectral estimation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 498–506 (2002).

M. D. Fairchild, “Chromatic adaptation to image displays,” Proc. TAGA 2, 803–824 (1992).

Fontoynont, M.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Thurstone scalings for attractiveness of fruit and vegetables under nine 3000K and eight 4000K light sources. (personal communication),” (2009).

Freyssinier, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fuchida, T.

Y. Imai, T. Kotani, and T. Fuchida, “A study of color rendering properties based on color preference of objects in adaptation to LED lighting,” in CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (CIE, 2013), pp. 62–67.

Hanselaer, P.

K. A. G. Smet, Y. Lin, B. V. Nagy, Z. Németh, G. L. Duque-Chica, J. M. Quintero, H.-S. Chen, R. M. Luo, M. Safi, and P. Hanselaer, “Cross-cultural variation of memory colors of familiar objects,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32308–32328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours,” Lighting Res. Tech. 44(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hashimoto, K.

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference index for japanese complexion color under illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 269–274 (1998).

Houser, K. W.

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, G. R. Allen, and W. W. Beers, “Color preference under LEDs with diminished yellow emission,” Leukos 10(3), 119–131 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. W. Houser, M. Wei, A. David, M. R. Krames, and X. S. Shen, “Review of measures for light-source color rendition and considerations for a two-measure system for characterizing color rendition,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10393–10411 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and X. Hu, “Tuning the fluorescent spectrum for the trichromatic visual response: a pilot study,” Leukos 1(1), 7–23 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and X. Hu, “Tuning the fluorescent spectrum for the trichromatic visual response: a pilot study,” Leukos 1(1), 7–23 (2005).
[Crossref]

Imai, Y.

Y. Imai, T. Kotani, and T. Fuchida, “A study of color rendering properties based on color preference of objects in adaptation to LED lighting,” in CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (CIE, 2013), pp. 62–67.

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jost-Boissard, S.

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Thurstone scalings for attractiveness of fruit and vegetables under nine 3000K and eight 4000K light sources. (personal communication),” (2009).

Judd, D. B.

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” J. Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

Khanh, T. Q.

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of colour rendering,” Col. Res. Appl. 36(4), 272-285 (2010).

Kotani, T.

Y. Imai, T. Kotani, and T. Fuchida, “A study of color rendering properties based on color preference of objects in adaptation to LED lighting,” in CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (CIE, 2013), pp. 62–67.

Krames, M. R.

Li, C.

C. Li, M. R. Luo, and C. Li, “Assessing colour rendering properties of daylight sources part ii: a new colour rendering index: CRI-CAM02UCS,” (2009).

C. Li, M. R. Luo, and C. Li, “Assessing colour rendering properties of daylight sources part ii: a new colour rendering index: CRI-CAM02UCS,” (2009).

Lin, Y.

Luo, M. R.

B. Oicherman, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and A. R. Robertson, “Adaptation and colour matching of display and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 34(3), 182–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. R. Luo, and C. Li, “Assessing colour rendering properties of daylight sources part ii: a new colour rendering index: CRI-CAM02UCS,” (2009).

Luo, R. M.

Marszalec, E.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, “A physics-based face database for color research,” J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martinkauppi, B.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, “A physics-based face database for color research,” J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nagy, B. V.

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran and L. Deng, “Color rendering properties of LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 61–67 (2002).
[Crossref]

Németh, Z.

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oicherman, B.

B. Oicherman, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and A. R. Robertson, “Adaptation and colour matching of display and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 34(3), 182–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pietikäinen, M.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, “A physics-based face database for color research,” J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M. R.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours,” Lighting Res. Tech. 44(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quintero, J. M.

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rigg, B.

B. Oicherman, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and A. R. Robertson, “Adaptation and colour matching of display and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 34(3), 182–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Robertson, A. R.

B. Oicherman, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and A. R. Robertson, “Adaptation and colour matching of display and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 34(3), 182–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W. R.

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours,” Lighting Res. Tech. 44(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Safi, M.

Sanders, C. L.

C. L. Sanders, “Assessment of color rendition under an iIlluminant using color tolerances for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 640–646 (1959).

Schanda, J.

K. A. G. Smet, J. Schanda, L. Whitehead, and R. M. Luo, “CRI2012: A proposal for updating the CIE colour rendering index,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(6), 689–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shen, X. S.

Shur, M. S.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smet, K. A. G.

K. A. G. Smet, Y. Lin, B. V. Nagy, Z. Németh, G. L. Duque-Chica, J. M. Quintero, H.-S. Chen, R. M. Luo, M. Safi, and P. Hanselaer, “Cross-cultural variation of memory colors of familiar objects,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32308–32328 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. G. Smet, J. Schanda, L. Whitehead, and R. M. Luo, “CRI2012: A proposal for updating the CIE colour rendering index,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(6), 689–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours,” Lighting Res. Tech. 44(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Memory colours and colour quality evaluation of conventional and solid-state lamps,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26229–26244 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soriano, M.

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, “A physics-based face database for color research,” J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sun, Q.

Q. Sun and M. D. Fairchild, “Statistical characterization of face spectral reflectances and its application to human portraiture spectral estimation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 498–506 (2002).

Tarczali, T.

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thornton, W. A.

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. 4(1), 48–52 (1974).
[Crossref]

Tiller, D. K.

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and X. Hu, “Tuning the fluorescent spectrum for the trichromatic visual response: a pilot study,” Leukos 1(1), 7–23 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsukitani, A.

A. Tsukitani and Y. Lin, “Research on FCI (presented at the meeting of TC1-91 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 23-26, 2014),” (2014).

A. Tsukitani, “Optimization of colour quality for landscape lighting based on feeling of contrast index,” in CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (CIE, 2013), pp. 68–71.

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vaitkevicius, H.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Viénot, F.

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, S. Berche, and G. Alquié, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vitta, P.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, M.

Whitehead, L.

K. A. G. Smet, J. Schanda, L. Whitehead, and R. M. Luo, “CRI2012: A proposal for updating the CIE colour rendering index,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(6), 689–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yano, T.

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference index for japanese complexion color under illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 269–274 (1998).

Yendrikhovskij, S. N.

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zou, G. Y.

G. Y. Zou, “Toward using confidence intervals to compare correlations,” Psychol. Methods 12(4), 399–413 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zukauskas, A.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

Col. Res. Appl. (1)

P. Bodrogi, S. Brückner, and T. Q. Khanh, “Ordinal scale based description of colour rendering,” Col. Res. Appl. 36(4), 272-285 (2010).

Color Res. Appl. (7)

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Color reproduction and the naturalness constraint,” Color Res. Appl. 24(1), 52–67 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Bodrogi and T. Tarczali, “Colour memory for various sky, skin, and plant colours: Effect of the image context,” Color Res. Appl. 26(4), 278–289 (2001).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: a tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Oicherman, M. R. Luo, B. Rigg, and A. R. Robertson, “Adaptation and colour matching of display and surface colours,” Color Res. Appl. 34(3), 182–193 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. N. Yendrikhovskij, F. J. J. Blommaert, and H. de Ridder, “Representation of memory prototype for an object color,” Color Res. Appl. 24(6), 393–410 (1999).
[Crossref]

Energy Build. (1)

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “A memory colour quality metric for white light sources,” Energy Build. 49, 216–225 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

E. Marszalec, B. Martinkauppi, M. Soriano, and M. Pietikäinen, “A physics-based face database for color research,” J. Electron. Imaging 9(1), 32–38 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Illum. Eng. (3)

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color-preference index,” J. Illum. Eng. 4(1), 48–52 (1974).
[Crossref]

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” J. Illum. Eng. 62, 593–598 (1967).

C. L. Sanders, “Assessment of color rendition under an iIlluminant using color tolerances for natural objects,” J. Illum. Eng. 54, 640–646 (1959).

J. Imaging Sci. (1)

C. Boust, H. Brettel, F. Viénot, S. Berche, and G. Alquié, “Color enhancement of digital images by experts and preference judgments by observers,” J. Imaging Sci. 50(1), 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (1)

Q. Sun and M. D. Fairchild, “Statistical characterization of face spectral reflectances and its application to human portraiture spectral estimation,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 46, 498–506 (2002).

J. Light Vis. Env. (1)

T. Yano and K. Hashimoto, “Preference index for japanese complexion color under illumination,” J. Light Vis. Env. 22, 269–274 (1998).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Perceived lighting quality of LED sources for the presentation of fruit and vegetables,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1420–1432 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Leukos (2)

M. Wei, K. W. Houser, G. R. Allen, and W. W. Beers, “Color preference under LEDs with diminished yellow emission,” Leukos 10(3), 119–131 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. W. Houser, D. K. Tiller, and X. Hu, “Tuning the fluorescent spectrum for the trichromatic visual response: a pilot study,” Leukos 1(1), 7–23 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lighting Res. Tech. (2)

K. A. G. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimization of colour quality of LED lighting with reference to memory colours,” Lighting Res. Tech. 44(1), 7–15 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. A. G. Smet, J. Schanda, L. Whitehead, and R. M. Luo, “CRI2012: A proposal for updating the CIE colour rendering index,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(6), 689–709 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Photo. Sci. Eng. (1)

C. J. Bartleson, “Color in memory in relation to photographic reproduction,” Photo. Sci. Eng. 5, 327–331 (1961).

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Narendran and L. Deng, “Color rendering properties of LED light sources,” Proc. SPIE 4776, 61–67 (2002).
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Proc. TAGA (1)

M. D. Fairchild, “Chromatic adaptation to image displays,” Proc. TAGA 2, 803–824 (1992).

Psychol. Methods (1)

G. Y. Zou, “Toward using confidence intervals to compare correlations,” Psychol. Methods 12(4), 399–413 (2007).
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Y. Imai, T. Kotani, and T. Fuchida, “A study of color rendering properties based on color preference of objects in adaptation to LED lighting,” in CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (CIE, 2013), pp. 62–67.

A. Tsukitani, “Optimization of colour quality for landscape lighting based on feeling of contrast index,” in CIE Centenary Conference “Towards a New Century of Light” (CIE, 2013), pp. 68–71.

R. W. G. Hunt, The Reproduction of Colour (John Wiley and Sons, 2004).

J. Schanda and G. Madár, “Light Source Quality Assessment,” in CIE 26th Session 2007(CIE, 2007), pp. 72–75.

F. Szabó, P. Csuti, and J. Schanda, “Colour preference under different illuminants – new approach of light source colour quality,” in Light and Lighting Conference with Special Emphasis on LEDs and Solid State Lighting (CIE, 2009), pp. PWDAS-43.

J. Vanrie, “Appendix 4: Technical report to the user committee of the IWT-TETRA project (80163): the effect of the spectral composition of a light source on the visual appreciation of a composite objectset,” (PHL, 2009), p. 11.

A. Tsukitani and Y. Lin, “Research on FCI (presented at the meeting of TC1-91 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 23-26, 2014),” (2014).

Y. Imai, T. Kotani, and T. Fuchida, “A study of color rendering properties based on color preference in adaptation to LED lighting ” in CIE2012 Lighting Quality & Energy Efficiency (CIE, 2012), pp. 369–374.

Y. Ohno and W. Davis, “Visual evaluation experiment on chroma enhancement effects in color rendering of light sources, report submitted to TC1-69,” National Institute of Standards and Technology (2010).

K. Smet and P. Hanselaer, “Memory and preferred colours and the colour rendition of white light sources,” Lighting Res. Technol., in press (2015).

J. E. Hunter and F. L. Schmidt, Methods of Meta-Analysis:Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings (Sage Publications, Inc, 2004).

S. Jost-Boissard, M. Fontoynont, and J. Blanc-Gonnet, “Thurstone scalings for attractiveness of fruit and vegetables under nine 3000K and eight 4000K light sources. (personal communication),” (2009).

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S. Xue, M. Tan, A. McNamara, J. Dorsey, and H. Rushmeier, “Exploring the use of memory colors for image enhancement,” in SPIE: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XIX(2014), pp. 901411.

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H. Zeng and R. Luo, “Modelling memory colour region for preference colour reproduction,” in SPIE: Color Imaging XV: Displaying, Processing, Hardcopy, and Applications (2010), pp. 752808.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Bivariate Gaussian models for the observer rating data of a ripe banana.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Spectral reflectance of the familiar objects.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison between the regional Rm,reg index scores (reg: BE, HU, BR, CO, TW, CN, IR) and the global Rm,reg index scores (reg: GL) for a set of 401 light sources.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Performance of the regional MCRIs evaluated as the weighted average artefact corrected Spearman correlation coefficient in terms of visual appreciation and naturalness. The performance of the CIE Ra and Smet’s Rm are shown as well.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measures of agreement between the regional Rm,reg index scores (reg: BE, HU, BR, CO, TW, CN, IR) and the global Rm,reg index scores (reg: GL) for a set of 401 light sources [25].

Tables Icon

Table 2 Metric performances (i.e. weighted average artefact corrected Spearman correlations, <rS> ) for the subjective aspects of visual appreciation and naturalness.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results for the cross-comparisons of metric performance (H0: r c i ¯ r c j ¯ = 0 ). The values are the confidence interval bound closest to zero. Red underlined values signify statistically significant differences, i.e. zero was within the CI bounds. Results for visual appreciation and naturalness are respectively shown in the upper and lower triangles of the table.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d i,reg ( u 10 ' , v 10 ' )= { [ ( u 10 ' v 10 ' )( a 3,i,reg a 4,i,reg ) ] T [ a 1,i,reg a 5,i,reg a 5,i,reg a 2,i,reg ][ ( u 10 ' v 10 ' )( a 3,i,reg a 4,i,reg ) ] } 1 2
R i,reg ( u 10 ' , v 10 ' )= a 7,i,reg + a 6,i,reg e 1 2 d i,reg ( u 10 ' , v 10 ' ) 2

Metrics