Abstract

We describe a Fabry-Perot etalon spectrometer with a novel light recirculation scheme to generate simultaneous parallel wavelength channels with no moving parts. This design uses very simple optics to recirculate light reflected from near normal incidence from the etalon at successively higher angles of incidence. The spectrometer has the full resolution of a Fabry-Perot with significantly improved photon efficiency in a compact, simple design with no moving parts. We present results from a conceptual prototype and a corresponding model.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Vaughan, The Fabry-Perot Interferometer: History, Theory, Practice, and Applications (CRC, 1989).
  2. P. Jacquinot, “The luminosity of spectrometers with prisms, gratings, or Fabry-Perot etalons,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44(10), 761–765 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, and L. L. Cogger, “A spatial spectral scanning technique for the Fabry-Perot spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 4(3), 267–272 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Hecht, Optics (Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1998).
  5. S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a Virtually Imaged Phased-Array (VIPA),” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. E. Jennings and R. J. Boyle, “Multichannel Fabry-Perot spectrometer for infrared astronomy,” Appl. Opt. 25(24), 4520–4522 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Mayor, C. Lovis, and N. C. Santos, “Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets,” Nature 513(7518), 328–335 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, and M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221(5179), 456–457 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. L. Korb, B. M. Gentry, and S. X. Li, “Edge technique Doppler lidar wind measurements with high vertical resolution,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5976–5983 (1997).
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2014 (1)

M. Mayor, C. Lovis, and N. C. Santos, “Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets,” Nature 513(7518), 328–335 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a Virtually Imaged Phased-Array (VIPA),” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1986 (1)

1969 (1)

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, and M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221(5179), 456–457 (1969).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

1954 (1)

Bowman, M. R.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, and M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221(5179), 456–457 (1969).
[Crossref]

Boyle, R. J.

Cogger, L. L.

Gentry, B. M.

Gibson, A. J.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, and M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221(5179), 456–457 (1969).
[Crossref]

Jacquinot, P.

Jennings, D. E.

Korb, C. L.

Lake, C. W.

Li, S. X.

Lin, C.

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a Virtually Imaged Phased-Array (VIPA),” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lovis, C.

M. Mayor, C. Lovis, and N. C. Santos, “Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets,” Nature 513(7518), 328–335 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mayor, M.

M. Mayor, C. Lovis, and N. C. Santos, “Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets,” Nature 513(7518), 328–335 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, J. R.

Sandford, M. C.

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, and M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221(5179), 456–457 (1969).
[Crossref]

Santos, N. C.

M. Mayor, C. Lovis, and N. C. Santos, “Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets,” Nature 513(7518), 328–335 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scarcelli, G.

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shepherd, G. G.

Weiner, A. M.

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a Virtually Imaged Phased-Array (VIPA),” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a Virtually Imaged Phased-Array (VIPA),” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yun, S. H.

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, and C. Lin, “An eight-channel hyperfine wavelength demultiplexer using a Virtually Imaged Phased-Array (VIPA),” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17(2), 372–374 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Scarcelli and S. H. Yun, “Confocal Brillouin microscopy for three-dimensional mechanical imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 39–43 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

M. Mayor, C. Lovis, and N. C. Santos, “Doppler spectroscopy as a path to the detection of Earth-like planets,” Nature 513(7518), 328–335 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Bowman, A. J. Gibson, and M. C. Sandford, “Atmospheric sodium measured by a tuned laser radar,” Nature 221(5179), 456–457 (1969).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. M. Vaughan, The Fabry-Perot Interferometer: History, Theory, Practice, and Applications (CRC, 1989).

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Modeled transmission vs. wavelength at normal incidence (left) and transmission vs. angle of an etalon at multiple wavelengths (right) showing the dependence of these parameters.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Conceptual drawing of angle-dependent etalon transmission in a relevant optical configuration. Light of several wavelengths, shown here as red, purple, blue and green, enters from the left, is collimated and is incident on the etalon. In the top drawing, red light is transmitted and the remaining colors are reflected back to the left. In the bottom drawing, the input source focal spot is farther from the optical axis so after collimation it is incident on the etalon at a larger angle. In this configuration, the purple light is transmitted and the remaining light reflected.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Conceptual drawing of the novel recirculating etalon spectrometer. As in Fig. 2, a beam of light containing several wavelengths shines from the left, entering the spectrometer via a slit between two mirrors at ± 45° relative to the optical axis. The light is collimated and hits the etalon. The red light is transmitted and focused on the right focal plane. Purple, blue and green light are reflected back to the left, focused by the collimating lens, hits the top mirror, comes to a focus, hits the bottom mirror and then re-enters the system from the left at a virtual image point farther from the optical axis than the first pass. The light is then re-collimated and hits the etalon. Now the purple light is transmitted and focused on the right focal plane. The blue and green light is reflected back to the left and repeats the process with a virtual image point even farther from the optical axis than the second pass. With each successive pass, the beam is incident on the etalon at a higher angle and a different wavelength is transmitted.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Diagram of test set-up showing a fiber-coupled light source being analyzed by a commercial wavelength measurement system and by our novel apparatus.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 This is a graph that shows the output of the spectrometer with (left) a broad spectral input and (right) at 5 different wavelengths (solid lines) with the modeled results for the same wavelengths (dashed lines).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of sodium lamp spectra from (left) conventional scanning grating spectrometer and (right) Recirculating Etalon Spectrometer
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Diagram of saw-tooth retro-reflector. In this figure, an array of reflectors replace the bulk mirrors so that each recirculation has its own retroreflector.

Equations (4)

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θ i = x offset f 1 (1+2i); i=0,1...
2 x offset slitwidth w 0
x i =( f 2 f 1 )( 1+2i ) x offset ; i=0,1...
E n (λ)={ E input T SP ( T RT ) n [ i=0 n1 1 T E ( θ i ,λ) Α E ] T E ( θ n ,λ); n>0 E input T SP ( T RT ) n T E ( θ n ,λ); n=0 }

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