Abstract

An ultraflat self-oscillating optical frequency comb generator based on an optoelectronic oscillator employing cascaded modulators was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By incorporating the optoelectronic oscillation loop with cascaded modulators into the optical frequency comb generator, 11 ultraflat comb lines would be generated, and the frequency spacing is equal to the oscillation frequency of the OEO. 10 and 12GHz optical frequency combs are demonstrated with the spectral power variation below 0.82dB and 0.93dB respectively. The corresponding spectral pure microwave source are also generated and evaluated. The corresponding single-sideband phase noise are as low as −122dBc/Hz and −115 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset frequency.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. L. Zhang, D. Hou, and J. Y. Zhao, “Long-term frequency stabilization of an optoelectronic oscillator using phase-locked loop,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(13), 2408–2414 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (2)

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. L. Li and P. K. L. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(9), 2010–2030 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multi-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Bergquist, J. C.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brasch, V.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chi, N.

Diddams, S. A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, Z.

Eliyahu, D.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 580–583 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fortier, T. M.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, R.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, C.

Herr, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hillerkuss, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L. W.

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F. L.

Hosaka, K.

Hou, D.

Inaba, H.

Izutsu, M.

Jiang, Y.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z.

Kamran, M.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 580–583 (2002).
[Crossref]

Katsuyama, T.

Kawanishi, T.

Kawato, S.

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirchner, M. S.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Kohno, T.

Koos, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauermann, M.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

Lemke, N.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G. L.

Li, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Long, C. M.

Ludlow, A.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multi-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

X. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Nakajima, Y.

Oates, C. W.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Onae, A.

Pan, M.

Pan, S.

Pan, W.

Pfeifle, J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quinlan, F.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rosenband, T.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

Sariri, K.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 580–583 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmogrow, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shao, Y.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Tao, L.

Taylor, J.

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tokhmakhian, M.

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 580–583 (2002).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, M.

M. Wang and J. Yao, “Tunable Optical Frequency Comb Generation Based on an Optoelectronic Oscillator,” in IEEE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2035–2038 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wegner, D.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weimann, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Wu, R.

Yao, J.

M. Wang and J. Yao, “Tunable Optical Frequency Comb Generation Based on an Optoelectronic Oscillator,” in IEEE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2035–2038 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zou, W. Pan, and J. Yao, “Tunable optical comb generation based on carrier-suppressed intensity modulation and phase modulation,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(5), 468–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multi-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yasuda, M.

Ye, J.

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Yu, P. K. L.

Yu, Y.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, Y. L.

Zhao, J. Y.

Zhao, Y.

Zhu, D.

Zou, X.

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Multi-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Ye, H. Schnatz, and L. W. Hollberg, “Optical frequency combs: from frequency metrology to optical phase control,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 1041–1058 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Wang and J. Yao, “Tunable Optical Frequency Comb Generation Based on an Optoelectronic Oscillator,” in IEEE,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(21), 2035–2038 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Fortier, M. S. Kirchner, F. Quinlan, J. Taylor, J. C. Bergquist, T. Rosenband, N. Lemke, A. Ludlow, Y. Jiang, C. W. Oates, and S. A. Diddams, etc., “Generation of ultrastable microwaves via optical frequency division,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 425–429 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature 416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Other (1)

D. Eliyahu, K. Sariri, M. Kamran, and M. Tokhmakhian, “Improving short and long term frequency stability of the opto-electronic oscillator,” in Proceedings of 2002 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, 580–583 (2002).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the proposed optical frequency comb generator. LD: laser diode. MZM: Mach-Zehnder modulator. PM: phase modulator. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. SMF: single mode fiber. PD: photodetector. EA: electrical amplifier. BPF: bandpass filter. PS: phase shifter. VA: variable attenuator. ESA: electrical spectrum analyzer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Optical spectra of the generated eleven-line optical frequency comb with frequency spacing of (a) 10 GHz and (b) 12 GHz.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electrical spectrum of the generated oscillation signals (a) 10 GHz and (b) 12 GHz.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Corresponding measured single-sideband phase noise versus offset frequency.

Equations (9)

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E 1 = 2 2 E o e i w o t [ e i( φ 1 + γ 1 cos w c t ) + e i γ 1 cos w c t ]
E 2 = E 1 e i γ 2 cos( ω c t+Δϕ ) = 2 2 E 0 e i w o t [ e i( φ 1 + γ 1 cos w c t ) + e i γ 1 cos w c t ] e i γ 2 cos( ω c t+Δϕ )
E 2 = 2 2 E o e i w o t n= ( e i φ 1 + e inπ ) i n J n ( γ 1 ) e in w c t k= i k J k ( γ 2 ) e ik( ω c t+Δϕ ) = 2 2 E o e i w o t n= k= ( e i φ 1 + e inπ ) i n J n ( γ 1 ) e in w c t i k J k ( γ 2 ) e ik( ω c t+Δϕ ) = 2 2 E o e i w o t n= k= e ikΔϕ ( e i φ 1 + e inπ ) i n+k J n ( γ 1 ) J k ( γ 2 ) e i( n+k ) w c t
P= 1 2 P o | M= ( e i(NM)Δϕ ( e i φ 1 + e iMπ ) i N J n ( γ 1 ) J NM ( γ 2 ) ) | 2
I 1 2 L o E 0 2 [ e i( φ 1 +2 γ 1 cos w c t ) + e i( φ 1 +2 γ 1 cos w c t ) ] = L o P 0 n= J n ( 2 γ 1 )cos[ ( φ 1 +n w c t )+ 1 2 nπ ]
I 1st L 0 P 0 [ J 1 ( 2 γ 1 )cos( φ 1 + w c t+ π 2 )+ J 1 ( 2 γ 1 )cos( φ 1 w c t π 2 ) ] =2 L 0 P 0 J 1 ( 2 γ 1 )sin φ 1 cos w c t
G o = 2 π 2 L 0 2 P 0 2 sin 2 φ 1 V π 2
G e > V π 2 2 π 2 L 0 2 P 0 2 sin 2 φ 1
w c ( τ o + τ e )=2mπ m=0,1,2.....

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