Abstract

We demonstrate data transmission of unfiltered white light generated by direct modulation of a blue gallium nitride (GaN) laser diode (LD) exciting YAG:Ce phosphors. 1.1 GHz of modulation bandwidth was measured without a limitation from the slow 3.8 MHz phosphor response. A high data transmission rate of 2 Gbit/s was achieved without an optical blue-filter using a non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK) modulation scheme. The measured bit error rate (BER) of 3.50 × 10−3 was less than the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8 × 10−3. The generated white light exhibits CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates of (0.3628, 0.4310) with a color rendering index (CRI) of 58 and a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 4740 K when the LD was operated at 300 mA. The demonstrated laser-based lighting system can be used simultaneously for indoor broadband access and illumination applications with good color stability.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

2014 (4)

H. Li, X. Chen, B. Huang, D. Tang, and H. Chen, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Ledru, C. Catalano, P. Dupuis, and G. Zissis, “Efficiency and stability of a phosphor-conversion white light source using a blue laser diode,” AIP Adv. 4(10), 107134 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar 20-2-1 InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 1–9 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Indirect auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 1–3 (2011).

2010 (4)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi: Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu and D.-H. Kim, “High-brightness phosphor-conversion white light source using InGaN blue laser diode,” J. Opt. Soc. Korea 14(4), 415–419 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, and P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 245–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “P-GaN/N-InGaN/N-GaN double heterostructure blue Light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No.1A/B), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cantore, M.

Catalano, C.

G. Ledru, C. Catalano, P. Dupuis, and G. Zissis, “Efficiency and stability of a phosphor-conversion white light source using a blue laser diode,” AIP Adv. 4(10), 107134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Li, X. Chen, B. Huang, D. Tang, and H. Chen, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

H. Li, X. Chen, B. Huang, D. Tang, and H. Chen, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chi, Y.-C.

Chun, H.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawson, H.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Delaney, K. T.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Indirect auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 1–3 (2011).

Denault, K. A.

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar 20-2-1 InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 1–9 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, P.

G. Ledru, C. Catalano, P. Dupuis, and G. Zissis, “Efficiency and stability of a phosphor-conversion white light source using a blue laser diode,” AIP Adv. 4(10), 107134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Enyuan Xie,

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Erdan Gu, M. D.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

Faulkner, G.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, J. W. Walewski, and S. Randel, “Visible Light Communications: Challenges and possibilities,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun. PIMRC (IEEE, 2008), 1–5.

Feezell, D.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar 20-2-1 InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 1–9 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z. G. Z.

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Green, R. P.

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haas, G. A.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, J.-H.

Henderson, R. K.

Huang, B.

H. Li, X. Chen, B. Huang, D. Tang, and H. Chen, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iwasa, N.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Iza, M.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Janjua, B.

Jung, D.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kelchner, K.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kelly, E.

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

Kioupakis, E.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Indirect auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 1–3 (2011).

Kruglov, R.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H.-C.

Kuritzky, L. Y.

L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(3), 463–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Le Minh, H.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ledru, G.

G. Ledru, C. Catalano, P. Dupuis, and G. Zissis, “Efficiency and stability of a phosphor-conversion white light source using a blue laser diode,” AIP Adv. 4(10), 107134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

Lee, K.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Le-Minh, H.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, J. W. Walewski, and S. Randel, “Visible Light Communications: Challenges and possibilities,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun. PIMRC (IEEE, 2008), 1–5.

Li, H.

H. Li, X. Chen, B. Huang, D. Tang, and H. Chen, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. L.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. L.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. W.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.-R.

Manousiadis, P.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Margalith, T.

Massoubre, D.

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J. D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, D. Massoubre, S. Zhang, B. R. Rae, R. P. Green, E. Gu, R. K. Henderson, E. Kelly, and M. D. Dawson, “Visible-light communications using a CMOS-controlled micro-light emitting diode array,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(1), 61–67 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “P-GaN/N-InGaN/N-GaN double heterostructure blue Light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No.1A/B), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar 20-2-1 InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 1–9 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “P-GaN/N-InGaN/N-GaN double heterostructure blue Light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No.1A/B), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ng, T. K.

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, and P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 245–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, J. W. Walewski, and S. Randel, “Visible Light Communications: Challenges and possibilities,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun. PIMRC (IEEE, 2008), 1–5.

Oh, S. H.

Oh, Y.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ooi, B. S.

Oubei, H. M.

Pan, C.-C.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parry, G.

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, and P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 245–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pfaff, N.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pimputkar, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piprek, J.

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi: Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rae, B. R.

Rajbhandari, S.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Randel, S.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, J. W. Walewski, and S. Randel, “Visible Light Communications: Challenges and possibilities,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun. PIMRC (IEEE, 2008), 1–5.

Retamal, J. R. D.

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Indirect auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 1–3 (2011).

Ryu, H.-Y.

Samuel,

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “P-GaN/N-InGaN/N-GaN double heterostructure blue Light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No.1A/B), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

Seshadri, R.

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sheu, J. K.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, J. W.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(3), 463–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lee, C. Zhang, M. Cantore, R. M. Farrell, S. H. Oh, T. Margalith, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, J. E. Bowers, and S. P. DenBaars, “4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16232–16237 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar 20-2-1 InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 1–9 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stavrinou, P.

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, and P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 245–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

H. Li, X. Chen, B. Huang, D. Tang, and H. Chen, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.-T.

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Turnbull, I. D. W.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van De Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Indirect auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 1–3 (2011).

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, S. Videv, and H. Haas, “Towards a 100 Gb/s visible light wireless access network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1627–1637 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vinogradov, J.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vithanage, D. A.

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Walewski, J. W.

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, J. W. Walewski, and S. Randel, “Visible Light Communications: Challenges and possibilities,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun. PIMRC (IEEE, 2008), 1–5.

Wang, H.-Y.

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wun, J. M.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yen, C.-C.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, J. W. Walewski, and S. Randel, “Visible Light Communications: Challenges and possibilities,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun. PIMRC (IEEE, 2008), 1–5.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, Y.

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ziemann, O.

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zissis, G.

G. Ledru, C. Catalano, P. Dupuis, and G. Zissis, “Efficiency and stability of a phosphor-conversion white light source using a blue laser diode,” AIP Adv. 4(10), 107134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Acta Mater. (1)

S. P. DenBaars, D. Feezell, K. Kelchner, S. Pimputkar, C.-C. Pan, C.-C. Yen, S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, N. Pfaff, R. Farrell, M. Iza, S. Keller, U. Mishra, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Development of gallium-nitride-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes for energy-efficient lighting and displays,” Acta Mater. 61(3), 945–951 (2013).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (2)

K. A. Denault, M. Cantore, S. Nakamura, S. P. Denbaars, and R. Seshadri, “Efficient and stable laser-driven white lighting,” AIP Adv. 3(7), 072107 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Ledru, C. Catalano, P. Dupuis, and G. Zissis, “Efficiency and stability of a phosphor-conversion white light source using a blue laser diode,” AIP Adv. 4(10), 107134 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Indirect auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 1–3 (2011).

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

J. M. Wun, C. W. Lin, W. Chen, J. K. Sheu, C. L. Lin, Y. L. Li, J. E. Bowers, J. W. Shi, J. Vinogradov, R. Kruglov, and O. Ziemann, “GaN-based miniaturized cyan light-emitting diodes on a patterned sapphire substrate with improved fiber coupling for very high-speed plastic optical fiber communication,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(5), 1520–1529 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. E. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. D. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a gallium nitride μ LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Li, X. Chen, B. Huang, D. Tang, and H. Chen, “High bandwidth visible light communications based on a post-equalization circuit,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(2), 119–122 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chun, P. Manousiadis, S. Rajbhandari, D. A. Vithanage, G. Faulkner, D. Tsonev, J. J. D. McKendry, S. Videv, Enyuan Xie, M. D. Erdan Gu, H. Dawson, G. A. Haas, I. D. W. Turnbull, Samuel, and D. C. O’Brien, “Visible light communication using a blue GaN μ LED and fluorescent polymer color converter,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(20), 2035–2038 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. J. D. McKendry, R. P. Green, E. Kelly, Z. G. Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

D. F. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar 20-2-1 InGaN / GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 1–9 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Korea (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(35), 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, and T. Mukai, “P-GaN/N-InGaN/N-GaN double heterostructure blue Light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32(Part 2, No.1A/B), L8–L11 (1993).
[Crossref]

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, and S. Nagahama, “High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 7A), L797–L799 (1995).
[Crossref]

MRS Commun. (1)

L. Y. Kuritzky and J. S. Speck, “Lighting for the 21st century with laser diodes based on non-basal plane orientations of GaN,” MRS Commun. 5(3), 463–473 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, and S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, G. Parry, and P. Stavrinou, “Optical hotspots speed up wireless communication,” Nat. Photonics 1(5), 245–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Status Solidi: Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi: Appl. Mater. Sci. 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

D. C. O’Brien, L. Zeng, H. Le-Minh, G. Faulkner, J. W. Walewski, and S. Randel, “Visible Light Communications: Challenges and possibilities,” in IEEE Int. Symp. Pers. Indoor Mob. Radio Commun. PIMRC (IEEE, 2008), 1–5.

J. Vucic, C. Kottke, S. Nerreter, K. Habel, A. Buttner, K. D. Langer, and J. W. Walewski, “230 Mbit/s via a wireless visible-light link based on OOK modulation of phosphorescent white LEDs,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OThH3.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2006).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) 450 nm GaN laser diode mounted on thermo-electric cooler (TEC) and heat sink. (b) LIV characteristic curves by front-end measurement.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic diagram of white light communication setup for direct OOK modulation. (b) Photograph of YAG:Ce single crystal phosphor (SCP). (c) Photograph of the experimental setup.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) CIE chromaticity coordinates, (b) Optical spectra, and (c) luminous flux and luminous efficacy of laser-based white lighting system. (d) Time resolved photoluminescence lifetime of single crystal YAG:Ce with exponential fitting.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured small signal frequency response of (a) blue laser emission only, (b) phosphor-converted white emission, and (c) white emission with blue-filter installed in front of the APD to filter out the phosphor-converted yellow components.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison of the modulation bandwidth of commercial blue LEDs and blue LDs with and without phosphor conversion.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured BERs at different data rates with (a) white emission and (b) blue-filtered emission from white emission. Eye diagrams of (c) white emission and (d) blue-filtered emission at 1 Gbit/s and 2 Gbit/s.

Equations (2)

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H 2 PL (ω)= 1 1+jωτ
f 3dB = 3 2πτ

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