Abstract

A novel microfabrication method for rapid printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators is presented. A 3D micro-printing technology based on high-speed optical spatial modulator (SLM) and high-power UV light source is developed to fabricate suspended-disk WGM resonator array using SU-8 photoresist. The optical spectral responses of the fabricated polymer WGM resonators were measured with a biconically tapered optical fiber. Experimental results reveal that the demonstrated method is very flexible and time-saving for rapid fabrication of complex polymer WGM resonators.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

S. C. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Eryürek, Y. Karadag, N. Taşaltın, N. Kılınç, and A. Kiraz, “Optical sensor for hydrogen gas based on a palladium-coated polymer microresonator,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 212, 78–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043704 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with whispering-gallery mode optical micro-resonators,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 58, 207–323 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Ma, L. Huang, Z. Guo, and T. Rossmann, “Spectral shift response of optical whispering-gallery modes due to water vapor adsorption and desorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 115206 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

M. Nordström, D. A. Zauner, A. Boisen, and J. Hübner, “Single-mode waveguides with SU-8 polymer core and cladding for MOEMS applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(5), 1284–1289 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite element simulation of the whispering gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

1996 (1)

Armani, D. K.

Arnold, S.

D. Keng, X. Tan, and S. Arnold, “Whispering gallery micro-global positioning system for nanoparticle sizing in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071105 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043704 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, T.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boisen, A.

Breunig, I.

Buse, K.

Chen, S.

A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Collodo, M. C.

Dalton, L. R.

Dantham, V. R.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eryürek, M.

M. Eryürek, Y. Karadag, N. Taşaltın, N. Kılınç, and A. Kiraz, “Optical sensor for hydrogen gas based on a palladium-coated polymer microresonator,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 212, 78–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

Foreman, M. R.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gohn-Kreuz, C.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Grossmann, T.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z.

Q. Ma, L. Huang, Z. Guo, and T. Rossmann, “Spectral shift response of optical whispering-gallery modes due to water vapor adsorption and desorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 115206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hauser, M.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, S.

A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holler, S.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hribar, K. C.

A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

Q. Ma, L. Huang, Z. Guo, and T. Rossmann, “Spectral shift response of optical whispering-gallery modes due to water vapor adsorption and desorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 115206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hübner, J.

Ilchenko, V.

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 453–455 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeon, S.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Karadag, Y.

M. Eryürek, Y. Karadag, N. Taşaltın, N. Kılınç, and A. Kiraz, “Optical sensor for hydrogen gas based on a palladium-coated polymer microresonator,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 212, 78–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

Karl, M.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keng, D.

D. Keng, X. Tan, and S. Arnold, “Whispering gallery micro-global positioning system for nanoparticle sizing in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kilinç, N.

M. Eryürek, Y. Karadag, N. Taşaltın, N. Kılınç, and A. Kiraz, “Optical sensor for hydrogen gas based on a palladium-coated polymer microresonator,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 212, 78–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

A. Schliesser and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with whispering-gallery mode optical micro-resonators,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 58, 207–323 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold microcavity Raman laser on a microelectronic chip,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1224–1226 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kiraz, A.

M. Eryürek, Y. Karadag, N. Taşaltın, N. Kılınç, and A. Kiraz, “Optical sensor for hydrogen gas based on a palladium-coated polymer microresonator,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 212, 78–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kolchenko, V.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

Li, J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, Q.

Q. Ma, L. Huang, Z. Guo, and T. Rossmann, “Spectral shift response of optical whispering-gallery modes due to water vapor adsorption and desorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 115206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mappes, T.

T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martin, A. L.

Matsko, A.

A. Matsko and V. Ilchenko, “Optical resonators with whispering-gallery modes-part I: basics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 3–14 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsko, A. B.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordström, M.

Oraevsky, A. N.

A. N. Oraevsky, “Whispering-gallery waves,” Quantum Electron. 32(5), 377–400 (2002).
[Crossref]

Oxborrow, M.

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite element simulation of the whispering gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qu, X.

A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rabiei, P.

Rossmann, T.

Q. Ma, L. Huang, Z. Guo, and T. Rossmann, “Spectral shift response of optical whispering-gallery modes due to water vapor adsorption and desorption,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 21(11), 115206 (2010).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A. A.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Nonlinear optics and crystalline whispering gallery mode cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 043903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21(7), 453–455 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser and T. J. Kippenberg, “Cavity optomechanics with whispering-gallery mode optical micro-resonators,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 58, 207–323 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schwefel, H. G. L.

Sedlmeir, F.

Soman, P.

A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold microcavity Raman laser on a microelectronic chip,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1224–1226 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sprenger, B.

Steier, W. H.

Stone, A. D.

Sturman, B.

Sun, H. D.

S. C. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1136–1162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Svitlov, S.

Swaim, J. D.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, X.

D. Keng, X. Tan, and S. Arnold, “Whispering gallery micro-global positioning system for nanoparticle sizing in real time,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(7), 071105 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tasaltin, N.

M. Eryürek, Y. Karadag, N. Taşaltın, N. Kılınç, and A. Kiraz, “Optical sensor for hydrogen gas based on a palladium-coated polymer microresonator,” Sens. Actuat. B Chem. 212, 78–83 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tureci, H. E.

Vahala, K. J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, D. K. Armani, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultralow-threshold microcavity Raman laser on a microelectronic chip,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1224–1226 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Martin, D. K. Armani, L. Yang, and K. J. Vahala, “Replica-molded high-Q polymer microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 29(6), 533–535 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
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T. Grossmann, M. Hauser, T. Beck, C. Gohn-Kreuz, M. Karl, H. Kalt, C. Vannahme, and T. Mappes, “High-Q conical polymeric microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(1), 013303 (2010).
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Vollmer, F.

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
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Wan, Z.

V. R. Dantham, S. Holler, V. Kolchenko, Z. Wan, and S. Arnold, “Taking whispering gallery-mode single virus detection and sizing to the limit,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(4), 043704 (2012).
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Wang, L. J.

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H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
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A. P. Zhang, X. Qu, P. Soman, K. C. Hribar, J. W. Lee, S. Chen, and S. He, “Rapid fabrication of complex 3D extracellular microenvironments by dynamic optical projection stereolithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(31), 4266–4270 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

S. C. Yang, Y. Wang, and H. D. Sun, “Advances and prospects for whispering gallery mode microcavities,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(9), 1136–1162 (2015).
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Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

M. R. Foreman, J. D. Swaim, and F. Vollmer, “Whispering gallery mode sensors,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 168–240 (2015).
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M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite element simulation of the whispering gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
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Nat. Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, K. Y. Yang, S. Jeon, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Chemically etched ultrahigh-Q wedge-resonator on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 369–373 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-high-Q toroid microcavity on a chip,” Nature 421(6926), 925–928 (2003).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Other (1)

A. Borreman, S. Musa, A. A. M. Kok, M. B. J. Diemeer, and A. Driessen, “Fabrication of polymeric multimode waveguides and devices in SU-8 photoresist using selective polymerization,” in IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter 2002 Annual Symposium, (IEEE, 2002), pp. 83–86.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the 3D µPrinting technology: UV light illuminates the DMD chip, which reflects light patterns according to the images sliced from a 3D model of suspended-disk WGM resonator. The polymer WGM resonator is fabricated by using a layer-by-layer polymerization process; (b) light coupling between a WGM resonator and tapered optical fiber; (c) WGM resonator array.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Microscope images of the fabricated SU-8 suspended-disk WGM resonators: (a) optical microscope image of the fabricated WGM resonators and its mirror image in the side view, (b) SEM image of a WGM resonator, and (c) SEM image of WGM resonator array.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic of a suspended-disk SU-8 WGM resonator with the diameter of 460 μm; (b) The radial field distribution of its fundamental mode; (c), (d), and (e) are the field distributions of WGMs at the cross section of the device. The characteristic indecs (q, m, l) = (1, 1490, 1490), (1, 1490, 1491) and (1, 1490, 1492), respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical microscope images of a SU-8 WGM resonator coupling with a tapered optical fiber: (a) the tapered optical fiber is out of coupled regime; (b) the tapered optical fiber is within coupled regime. A 650-nm-wavelength laser beam was launched into the fiber for observation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transmission spectra of the SU-8 WGM resonators with the radiuses of (a) 230 μm and (b) 160 μm. Additional subsidiary peaks are attributed to other radial or azimuthal modes.

Equations (2)

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Δ λ FSR λ 2 /(2πnR),
Q ω Δ ω FWHM λ Δ λ FWHM

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