Abstract

Laser direct writing (LDW) as a significant maskless lithography technique has been widely applied in scientific research and industrial manufacture. However, low fabrication resolution restricts its application in nanofabrication due to optical diffraction limit. This work presents a simple and novel way to improve the LDW fabrication resolution by multiple-exposure method with a low energy laser beam. Experiments indicate that the method could increase the fabrication resolution by 33.3% for the same exposure depth, and is close to simulation results. It should be pointed out that principle of the method is universal, and may be instructive to improve the fabrication resolution of other maskless energy beam lithography techniques such as EBL and FIB.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. C. F. Guo, S. Cao, P. Jiang, Y. Fang, J. Zhang, Y. Fan, Y. Wang, W. Xu, Z. Zhao, and Q. Liu, “Grayscale photomask fabricated by laser direct writing in metallic nano-films,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19981–19987 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. C. F. Guo, J. Zhang, J. Miao, Y. Fan, and Q. Liu, “MTMO grayscale photomask,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2621–2631 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. Privitera, S. Lombardo, C. Bongiorno, E. Rimini, and A. Pirovano, “Phase change mechanisms in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013516 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Bhattacharya, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, “Laser-target interactions during pulsed laser deposition of superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5433–5439 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. N. Tokarev and A. F. H. Kaplan, “An analytical modeling of time dependent pulsed laser melting,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2836–2846 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. Xia, X. Zhang, M. Wang, S. Yi, Q. Liu, and J. Xu, “Numerical analysis of the sub-wavelength fabrication of MTMO grayscale photomasks by direct laser writing,” Opt. Express 22(14), 16889–16896 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Atomic force microscopy study of laser induced phase transitions in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(10), 5879–5887 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Liu, S. Liu, and J. Wei, “Origin of the giant optical nonlinearity of Sb2Te3 phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261903 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (4)

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, X. Zhang, M. Wang, S. Yi, Q. Liu, and J. Xu, “Numerical analysis of the sub-wavelength fabrication of MTMO grayscale photomasks by direct laser writing,” Opt. Express 22(14), 16889–16896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. F. Guo, J. Zhang, J. Miao, Y. Fan, and Q. Liu, “MTMO grayscale photomask,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2621–2631 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, S. Liu, and J. Wei, “Origin of the giant optical nonlinearity of Sb2Te3 phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261903 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Privitera, S. Lombardo, C. Bongiorno, E. Rimini, and A. Pirovano, “Phase change mechanisms in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013516 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Atomic force microscopy study of laser induced phase transitions in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(10), 5879–5887 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. N. Tokarev and A. F. H. Kaplan, “An analytical modeling of time dependent pulsed laser melting,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2836–2846 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Bhattacharya, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, “Laser-target interactions during pulsed laser deposition of superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5433–5439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abrutis, A.

W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Afonso, C. N.

W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bai, N.

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, D.

D. Bhattacharya, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, “Laser-target interactions during pulsed laser deposition of superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5433–5439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bongiorno, C.

S. Privitera, S. Lombardo, C. Bongiorno, E. Rimini, and A. Pirovano, “Phase change mechanisms in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cai, B. C.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, S.

Chen, B.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. M.

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
[Crossref]

Decker, U.

X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

Fang, Y.

Feng, J.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, I.

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Atomic force microscopy study of laser induced phase transitions in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(10), 5879–5887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gawelda, W.

W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gerlach, J. W.

X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, C. F.

Han, X. X.

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Holloway, P. H.

D. Bhattacharya, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, “Laser-target interactions during pulsed laser deposition of superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5433–5439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S.-J.

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, P.

Kaplan, A. F. H.

V. N. Tokarev and A. F. H. Kaplan, “An analytical modeling of time dependent pulsed laser melting,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2836–2846 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koh, C. Y.

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, Y. F.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, X.

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. Y.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, F. R.

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, S. Liu, and J. Wei, “Origin of the giant optical nonlinearity of Sb2Te3 phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Liu, S.

J. Liu, S. Liu, and J. Wei, “Origin of the giant optical nonlinearity of Sb2Te3 phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lombardo, S.

S. Privitera, S. Lombardo, C. Bongiorno, E. Rimini, and A. Pirovano, “Phase change mechanisms in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, P.

X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maldovan, M.

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mansuripur, M.

C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
[Crossref]

Miao, J.

Peng, C. B.

C. B. Peng, L. Cheng, and M. Mansuripur, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of laser-induced crystallization and amorphization in phase-change optical recording media,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(9), 4183–4191 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pirovano, A.

S. Privitera, S. Lombardo, C. Bongiorno, E. Rimini, and A. Pirovano, “Phase change mechanisms in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Plausinaitiene, V.

W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Privitera, S.

S. Privitera, S. Lombardo, C. Bongiorno, E. Rimini, and A. Pirovano, “Phase change mechanisms in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qiao, B. W.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rauschenbach, B.

X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rimini, E.

S. Privitera, S. Lombardo, C. Bongiorno, E. Rimini, and A. Pirovano, “Phase change mechanisms in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013516 (2007).
[Crossref]

Siegel, J.

W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Singer, J. P.

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, R. K.

D. Bhattacharya, R. K. Singh, and P. H. Holloway, “Laser-target interactions during pulsed laser deposition of superconducting thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 70(10), 5433–5439 (1991).
[Crossref]

Stein, O.

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, N. X.

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, T. A.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Thelander, E.

X. Sun, E. Thelander, P. Lorenz, J. W. Gerlach, U. Decker, and B. Rauschenbach, “Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 116(13), 133501 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomas, E. L.

J.-H. Lee, C. Y. Koh, J. P. Singer, S.-J. Jeon, M. Maldovan, O. Stein, and E. L. Thomas, “25th Anniversary Article: Ordered Polymer Structures for the Engineering of Photons and Phonons,” Adv. Mater. 26(4), 532–569 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokarev, V. N.

V. N. Tokarev and A. F. H. Kaplan, “An analytical modeling of time dependent pulsed laser melting,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(5), 2836–2846 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Wang, Y.

Wei, J.

J. Liu, S. Liu, and J. Wei, “Origin of the giant optical nonlinearity of Sb2Te3 phase change materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261903 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weidenhof, V.

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Atomic force microscopy study of laser induced phase transitions in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(10), 5879–5887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wiemer, C.

W. Gawelda, J. Siegel, C. N. Afonso, V. Plausinaitiene, A. Abrutis, and C. Wiemer, “Dynamics of laser-induced phase switching in GeTe films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 123102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wuttig, M.

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Atomic force microscopy study of laser induced phase transitions in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(10), 5879–5887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

Xu, J.

Xu, W.

Yamada, N.

M. Wuttig and N. Yamada, “Phase-change materials for rewriteable data storage,” Nat. Mater. 6(11), 824–832 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, S.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J. J.

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Zhou, W. P.

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, S.

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Atomic force microscopy study of laser induced phase transitions in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(10), 5879–5887 (1999).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

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[Crossref]

F. R. Liu, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, X. X. Han, W. P. Zhou, X. Lin, and N. X. Sun, “An explanation of the crystallization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by a short Gaussian laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(5), 051905 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

J. Feng, Y. Zhang, B. W. Qiao, Y. F. Lai, Y. Y. Lin, B. C. Cai, T. A. Tang, and B. Chen, “Si doping in Ge2Sb2Te5 film to reduce the writing current of phase change memory,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 87(1), 57–62 (2007).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

V. Weidenhof, I. Friedrich, S. Ziegler, and M. Wuttig, “Atomic force microscopy study of laser induced phase transitions in Ge2Sb2Te5,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(10), 5879–5887 (1999).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Opt. Express (3)

Thin Solid Films (1)

F. R. Liu, X. X. Han, N. Bai, J. J. Zhao, J. M. Chen, and X. Lin, “Numerical simulation on the temperature field induced by a nanosecond pulsed excimer laser in the phase-change film,” Thin Solid Films 551, 102–109 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmittivity and reflectivity spectrum in visible region of the amorphous 50 nm-Ge2Sb2Te5 film.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Local temperature field distribution of a single point after one-time exposure by a 50 ns laser pulse with different powers: (a) 5 mW; (b) 4.5 mW (c) 4 mW; (d) 3.5 mW.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Local temperature field distribution of a single point after multiple exposures by a 50 ns laser pulse with different powers and numbers of exposure: (a) 4.5 mW, two-time exposures; (b) 4.5 mW, three-time exposures; (c-f) 4 mW, two to five-time exposures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Multiple exposures result on 50 nm-Ge2Sb2Te5 film with different laser powers and numbers of exposure: (a) and (b) optical and AFM images of the line array after one-time exposure with power from 3 mW to 6 mW; (c) and (d) optical and AFM images of the line array after two to four-time exposures with the power of 4 mW.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The cross section of the exposure lines: (a) one-time exposure with the power of 5 mW; (b) four-time exposures with the power of 4 mW.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical and thermal parameters [11–13]

Equations (4)

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I( r,t )={ 0,t<0 2p π ω 2 exp( 2 r 2 ω 2 ),0t τ p 0,t> τ p
ρc T t =( kT )+( 1R )αI( r,t ) e αz
{ k i T i r = h i ( T i T 0 )=0 k i T i z = h i ( T i T 0 )=0 ,i=1,2
{ k 1 T 1 z | z=d = k 2 T 2 z | z=d T 1 | z=d = T 2 | z=d

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