Abstract

Multiple sidemodes have been observed in a coupled optoelectronic oscillator (COEO) when the contained actively mode-locked fiber ring laser employs erbium-doped fiber (EDF). We propose that such sidemodes can be suppressed significantly by an optical pulse power feedforward scheme, through which the mode-locked optical pulse is reversely intensity-modulated by itself, resulting in a fast power limiting. Experimentally we show that sidemodes are suppressed as much as 40 dB in a 10-GHz COEO. The additional noise induced by the power feedforward technique is analyzed numerically. We show that for a COEO with a typical cavity length, the feedforward contribution to final single-side band (SSB) noise is minor and neglectable.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.
    [Crossref]
  6. A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by selfphase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).
    [Crossref]
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  19. K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H. Liu, “Noise Characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H. Liu, “Noise Characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by selfphase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).
[Crossref]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

Burdge, G. L.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).
[Crossref]

Byrd, J.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Dai, Y. T.

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Delfyett, P. J.

Doerr, C. R.

Eliyahu, D.

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, P. Koonath, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator I: expectation values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1023–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Modulation Response (S21) of the Coupled Opto-Electronic Oscillator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 850–856.
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra-low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.
[Crossref]

Goldhar, J.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gupta, K. K.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H. Liu, “Noise Characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[Crossref]

Harvey, G. T.

Haus, H. A.

Hoghooghi, N.

Horowitz, M.

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Ippen, E. P.

Ji, Y. F.

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koonath, P.

Levy, E. C.

Li, J. Q.

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, W.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Lin, J. T.

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H. Liu, “Noise Characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, P. Koonath, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator I: expectation values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1023–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra-low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Modulation Response (S21) of the Coupled Opto-Electronic Oscillator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 850–856.
[Crossref]

Mandridis, D.

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator II: phase noise,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3316–3323 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, P. Koonath, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator I: expectation values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1023–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Menyuk, C. R.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by selfphase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).
[Crossref]

Novak, D.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H. Liu, “Noise Characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[Crossref]

Onodera, N.

N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ozdur, I.

Salik, E.

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Seeds, A. J.

Seidel, D.

A. B. Matsko, D. Eliyahu, P. Koonath, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Theory of coupled optoelectronic microwave oscillator I: expectation values,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(5), 1023–1031 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra-low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

Shirasaki, M.

Tamura, K.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by selfphase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, M. Shirasaki, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse limiting,” Opt. Lett. 19(1), 31–33 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. X.

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wey, J. S.

J. S. Wey, J. Goldhar, and G. L. Burdge, “Active harmonic modelocking of an erbium fiber laser with intracavity Fabry–Perot filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(7), 1171–1180 (1997).
[Crossref]

Williams, K. J.

Xu, K.

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yao, X. S.

Yin, F. F.

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by selfphase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Nakazawa, K. Tamura, and E. Yoshida, “Supermode noise suppression in a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser by selfphase modulation and spectral filtering,” Electron. Lett. 32(5), 461–463 (1996).
[Crossref]

N. Onodera, “Supermode beat suppression in harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring lasers with composite cavity structure,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 962–963 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H. Liu, “Noise Characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Xu, R. X. Wang, Y. T. Dai, F. F. Yin, J. Q. Li, Y. F. Ji, and J. T. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward and a dual-drive MZM,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Maleki, “The optoelectronic oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 728–730 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (7)

E. Keysight Technologies, PXA X-Series Signal Analyzer http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf/5990-3952EN.pdf

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Phase noise of a high performance OEO and an ultra-low noise floor cross-correlation microwave photonic homodyne system,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 811–814.
[Crossref]

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Low phase noise and spurious level in multi-loop opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2003), pp. 405–410.
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, W. Liang, D. Eliyahu, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Whispering-gallery mode based opto-electronic oscillators,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), pp. 554–557.

D. Eliyahu and L. Maleki, “Modulation Response (S21) of the Coupled Opto-Electronic Oscillator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2005), pp. 850–856.
[Crossref]

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books, 1986), Chap. 5.

R. Wang, K. Xu, Y. Dai, F. Yin, J. Li, Y. Ji, and J. Lin, “Supermode noise suppression in an actively mode-locked fiber laser with pulse intensity feed-forward,” in Proceedings of CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CM1I.2.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The proposed COEO structure, as well as experiment setup, based on optical power feedforward technique. The red line shows the feedforward path. One can select mode-locked laser or COEO through the switch.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The measured SSB noise spectrum when the 200-m fiber ring laser is driven by an external ~10-GHz microwave tone without the feedforward path. Inset: the measured 30-MHz-span spectrum around the carrier; the resolution bandwidth (RBW) of the electronic spectrum analyzer is 3 kHz. (b) SSB noise spectrum with feedforward. Inset: 30-MHz-span spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The measured SSB noise spectrum when COEO oscillates with feedforward path. Inset: the measured 100-MHz-span spectrum around oscillation carrier; the RBW is 3 kHz. (b) SSB noise spectrum without feedforward. Inset: 100-MHz-span spectrum.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulated SSB noise spectrums of COEO under optical power feedforward. (a) Blue line: all noises are considered; red line: the noise from feedforward path is ignored. (b) Blue line: only the noise from OEO path is considered; red line: only the noise from feedforward path is considered.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Simulated SSB noise contribution from feedforward path only with enlarged G2. (b) Total SSB noise with 10-ps feedforward delay mismatch.

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