Abstract

High resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) is capable of providing detailed tissue microstructures that are critical for disease diagnosis, yet its sensitivity is usually degraded since the system key components are typically not working at their respective center wavelengths. We developed a novel imaging system that achieves enhanced sensitivity without axial resolution degradation by the use of a spectrally encoded extended source (SEES) technique; it allows larger sample power without exceeding the maximum permissible exposure (MPE). In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution extended source (HRES) OCT system, which is capable of providing a transverse resolution of 4.4 µm and an axial resolution of 2.1 µm in air with the SEES technique. We first theoretically show a sensitivity advantage of 6-dB of the HRES-OCT over that of its point source counterpart using numerical simulations, and then experimentally validate the applicability of the SEES technique to high-resolution OCT (HR-OCT) by comparing the HRES-OCT with an equivalent point-source system. In the HRES-OCT system, a dispersive prism was placed in the infinity space of the sample arm optics to spectrally extend the visual angle (angular subtense) of the light source to 10.3 mrad. This extended source allowed ~4 times larger MPE than its point source counterpart, which results in an enhancement of ~6 dB in sensitivity. Specifically, to solve the unbalanced dispersion between the sample and the reference arm optics, we proposed easy and efficient methods for system calibration and dispersion correction, respectively. With a maximum scanning speed reaching up to 60K A-lines/s, we further conducted imaging experiments with HRES-OCT using the human fingertip in vivo and the swine eye tissues ex vivo. Results demonstrate that the HRES-OCT is able to achieve significantly larger penetration depth than its conventional point source OCT counterpart.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

2014 (3)

D. J. Fechtig, T. Schmoll, B. Grajciar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source interferometric imaging at up to 1 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5333–5336 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Yu, H. Tang, D. Cui, M. R. Beotra, M. J. Girard, D. Sun, J. Gu, and L. Liu, “Spectrally encoded extended source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6803–6806 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

Y. Hori, Y. Yasuno, S. Sakai, M. Matsumoto, T. Sugawara, V. Madjarova, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yasui, T. Araki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Automatic characterization and segmentation of human skin using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1862–1877 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (6)

2003 (1)

1997 (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahsen, O. O.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Akasaka, T.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Araki, T.

Bajraszewski, T.

Baldwin, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bechara, F. G.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beotra, M. R.

Blatter, C.

Bonin, T.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colt, H.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, D.

Curatolo, A.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

Drexler, W.

D. J. Fechtig, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, C. Blatter, R. M. Werkmeister, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source MHz OCT for structural and functional retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(3), 716–735 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Fechtig, T. Schmoll, B. Grajciar, W. Drexler, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Line-field parallel swept source interferometric imaging at up to 1 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5333–5336 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duker, J.

Duker, J. S.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fechtig, D. J.

Fercher, A.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Figueiredo, M.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Franke, G.

Fujimoto, J.

Fujimoto, J. G.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, “State-of-the-art retinal optical coherence tomography,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 27(1), 45–88 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardecki, J. A.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gazdar, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giacomelli, M. G.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Girard, M. J.

Grajciar, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grulkowski, I.

Gu, J.

Guo, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagen-Eggert, M.

Hanna, N.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hariri, L. P.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
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R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hori, Y.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Q.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hüttmann, G.

Ikeda, N.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Jayaraman, V.

Jemec, G. B.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Joergensen, T. M.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, W.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kawamoto, T.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kirk, R. W.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ko, T.

Koch, P.

Kowalczyk, A.

Kume, T.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le, T.

Lee, H.-C.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

leRiche, J.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, K.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

X. Liu, X. Yu, H. Tang, D. Cui, M. R. Beotra, M. J. Girard, D. Sun, J. Gu, and L. Liu, “Spectrally encoded extended source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6803–6806 (2014).
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L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

Lu, C. D.

MacAulay, C.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V.

Makita, S.

Mashimo, H.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, M.

McLaughlin, R. A.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

McNally, J.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

McWilliams, A.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milliken, J.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mogensen, M.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morsy, H. A.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Mukai, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nadkarni, S. K.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, Y.

Nassif, N.

Neishi, Y.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noble, P. B.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nürnberg, B. M.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogasawara, Y.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlikov, A.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Pierce, M. C.

B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

Potsaid, B.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Grulkowski, J. J. Liu, B. Potsaid, V. Jayaraman, C. D. Lu, J. Jiang, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Retinal, anterior segment and full eye imaging using ultrahigh speed swept source OCT with vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2733–2751 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Považay, B.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

Regeniter, P.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadahira, Y.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, S.

Saltzman, D.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sasse, S.

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schmoll, T.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V.

Standish, B.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stücker, M.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sugawara, T.

Sukmawan, R.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

Swanson, E. A.

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, H.

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomsen, J. B.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toussaint, J. D.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyota, E.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, T.-H.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tumlinson, A. R.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Unterhuber, A.

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vasa, R.

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vitkin, A. I.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, N.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Werkmeister, R. M.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yagi, Y.

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, V.

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasui, T.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yoshida, K.

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Yun, S.

Yun, S.-H.

Am. J. Cardiol. (2)

M. E. Brezinski, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Imaging of coronary artery microstructure (in vitro) with optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 77(1), 92–93 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kume, T. Akasaka, T. Kawamoto, Y. Ogasawara, N. Watanabe, E. Toyota, Y. Neishi, R. Sukmawan, Y. Sadahira, and K. Yoshida, “Assessment of coronary arterial thrombus by optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Cardiol. 97(12), 1713–1717 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, J. F. Southern, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical biopsy in human gastrointestinal tissue using optical coherence tomography,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 92(10), 1800–1804 (1997).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Clin. Cancer Res. (1)

S. Lam, B. Standish, C. Baldwin, A. McWilliams, J. leRiche, A. Gazdar, A. I. Vitkin, V. Yang, N. Ikeda, and C. MacAulay, “In vivo optical coherence tomography imaging of preinvasive bronchial lesions,” Clin. Cancer Res. 14(7), 2006–2011 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

M. Mogensen, T. M. Joergensen, B. M. Nürnberg, H. A. Morsy, J. B. Thomsen, L. Thrane, and G. B. Jemec, “Assessment of optical coherence tomography imaging in the diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer and benign lesions versus normal skin: observer-blinded evaluation by dermatologists and pathologists,” Dermatol. Surg. 35(6), 965–972 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, K. Liang, M. G. Giacomelli, T.-H. Tsai, Z. Wang, M. Figueiredo, Q. Huang, B. Potsaid, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Ultrahigh speed optical coherence tomography with micromotor imaging probe enables three-dimensional visualization of mucosal surface patterns in the gastrointestinal tract,” Gastroenterology 146(5), S-519 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

T. Gambichler, P. Regeniter, F. G. Bechara, A. Orlikov, R. Vasa, G. Moussa, M. Stücker, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Characterization of benign and malignant melanocytic skin lesions using optical coherence tomography in vivo,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 57(4), 629–637 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

A. R. Tumlinson, B. Považay, L. P. Hariri, J. McNally, A. Unterhuber, J. K. Barton, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, and W. Drexler, “In vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of mouse colon with an achromatized endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064003 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. C. Quirk, R. A. McLaughlin, A. Curatolo, R. W. Kirk, P. B. Noble, and D. D. Sampson, “In situ imaging of lung alveoli with an optical coherence tomography needle probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 036009 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Drexler, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 47–74 (2004).
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B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. (1)

N. Hanna, D. Saltzman, D. Mukai, Z. Chen, S. Sasse, J. Milliken, S. Guo, W. Jung, H. Colt, and M. Brenner, “Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional optical coherence tomographic imaging of the airway, lung, and pleura,” J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 129(3), 615–622 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

L. Liu, J. A. Gardecki, S. K. Nadkarni, J. D. Toussaint, Y. Yagi, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, “Imaging the subcellular structure of human coronary atherosclerosis using micro-optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Med. 17(8), 1010–1014 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
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Opt. Express (9)

B. Cense, N. Nassif, T. Chen, M. Pierce, S.-H. Yun, B. Park, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, and J. de Boer, “Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2435–2447 (2004).
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Y. Hori, Y. Yasuno, S. Sakai, M. Matsumoto, T. Sugawara, V. Madjarova, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yasui, T. Araki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Automatic characterization and segmentation of human skin using three-dimensional optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(5), 1862–1877 (2006).
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B. Grajciar, M. Pircher, A. Fercher, and R. Leitgeb, “Parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo measurement of the human eye,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1131–1137 (2005).
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Y. Nakamura, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed three-dimensional human retinal imaging by line-field spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7103–7116 (2007).
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N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, M. Pierce, S. Yun, B. Bouma, G. Tearney, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo high-resolution video-rate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve,” Opt. Express 12(3), 367–376 (2004).
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R. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. Fercher, “Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2156–2165 (2004).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, T. Ko, J. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. Duker, “Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation,” Opt. Express 12(11), 2404–2422 (2004).
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S. Yun, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, B. Park, and J. de Boer, “High-speed spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 mum wavelength,” Opt. Express 11(26), 3598–3604 (2003).
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B. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S.-H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, and J. de Boer, “Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 microm,” Opt. Express 13(11), 3931–3944 (2005).
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Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Visualization 1: AVI (111712 KB)      in vivo HRES-OCT fingertip imaging

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of the HRES-OCT system. (a) The sample arm optics of a standard point source SD-OCT built for comparison purpose. SLD: super luminescent diode; SMF: signal mode fiber; BS: non-polarizing beam splitter; NDF: Neutral density filter; IMAQ: image acquisition board; CL: Camera Link cable; DAQ: data acquisition card; PC: personal computer; RM: reference mirror; L1-5: achromatic lens.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Theoretical sensitivity of the OCT system as a function of reference reflectivity. (a) The OCT system with the SEES technique. (b) The point-source system without the SEES technique.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calibration process for HRES-OCT. (a) The B-scan frame consisting of 512 consecutive spectral lines was acquired for system calibration. The spectrum data that was detected by camera pixels from 166 to 1970 within two horizontal yellow lines was used for calibration. (b) The obtained time-delay series corresponding to each of the effective camera pixel. Red-dashed-line with circle markers: the discrete time delay series; solid-blue-line: the obtained continuous curve that was used as a look-up table for spectral remapping. (c) The acquired B-scan frame after spectral remapping.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Remapping of interferogram from the CCD detector space to the wavenumber space. (a-b) The spectral interferograms of a single reflective surface at two different optical paths Δz1, Δz2 between the reference and sample arms (blue line). The phase curve (red line) was extracted from the interferogram curve. (c) The remapping process from the CCD detector space to the wavenumber space using a calculated mapping function. The mapping function was obtained by point-by-point subtraction of the two phase curves in (a) and (b). The subtraction process could eliminate the unbalanced dispersion of the reference arm and the sample arm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transverse resolution of HRES-OCT vs the point-source OCT system. (a) An en face 3D-image of the USAF 1951 resolution target acquired using HRES-OCT. (b) Cross-section profiles of the horizontal and vertical bars of group 6, element 6. Blue-solid line: cross-sectional profile of vertical bars; red-dashed lines: cross-sectional profile of the horizontal bars. Blue line represents the resolution power of the point source system, while red-line represents that of the HRES-OCT.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured axial PSF of the HRES-OCT as compared with that of the point-source OCT system. Blue-solid line: PSF of the HRES-OCT; red-dashed line: PSF of the point-source OCT.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The axial PSFs of an A-line signal at the different path-lengths of the reference arm optics for HRES-OCT.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Cross-sectional images of the human fingertip acquired in vivo at a frame rate of 20 fps with point source OCT and HRES-OCT, respectively. Both images consist of 700 axial × 512 transverse pixels, covering an area of 0.68 mm × 2.8 mm. (a) Image acquired by the point-source OCT system with illumination power of 1.2mW. (b) Image acquired using HRES-OCT with illumination power of 4.8mW.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Cross-sectional images of the human fingertip acquired in vivo at different A-line rate with HRES-OCT and the point source OCT, respectively. Both images consist of 700 axial × 512 transverse pixels, covering an area of 0.68 mm × 2.8 mm. (a) Image acquired using HRES-OCT with illumination power of 4.8mW at an A-line rate of 60K Hz, i.e., 117 fps (Visualization 1). (b) Image acquired by the point-source OCT system with illumination power of 1.2mW at an A-line rate of 10K Hz, i.e., 20 fps.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Cross-sectional and en face images of the swine optic nerve head (ONH) acquired with HRES-OCT and point-source OCT ex vivo. (a) Image acquired by HRES-OCT with a sample power of 2.8 mW. (b) Image acquired by point-source OCT with a sample power of 0.7 mW. (c) Image acquired by point-source OCT with a sample power of 2.8 mW. (a’-c’) the corresponding en face images of the swine ONH tissue. S: sclera; PL: pre-lamina; LC: lamina cribrosa; CRV: central retinal vessels.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M P E e x t = C 6 × M P E p o i n t s o u r c e = ( α + α min ) 2 α min × M P E p o i n t s o u r c e
S [ d B ] = 10 × log ( N r e f N S N s h 2 + N e l 2 + N R I N 2 )
N s h = N r e f 1 / 2
N R I N = ( f / Δ ν ) 1 / 2 N r e f
n = arg max m ( s ( p ) y ( m ) )
I ( k ) = e j Δ z k + j D ( k )
k = Φ ( n )
I ( n ) = e j Δ z Φ ( n ) + j D ( Φ ( n ) )
P ( n ) = a r g ( ( I ( n ) ) = Δ z Φ ( n ) + D ( Φ ( n ) )
P 1 ( n ) P 2 ( n ) = Δ z 1 Φ ( n ) Δ z 2 Φ ( n )
P ( k ) = a r g ( ( I ( k ) ) = Δ z k + D ( k )

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