Abstract

Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors are widely used in mobile-phone and cameras. Hence, it is attractive if these image sensors can be used as the visible light communication (VLC) receivers (Rxs). However, using these CMOS image sensors are challenging. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a VLC link using mobile-phone camera with data rate higher than frame rate of the CMOS image sensor. We first discuss and analyze the features of using CMOS image sensor as VLC Rx, including the rolling shutter effect, overlapping of exposure time of each row of pixels, frame-to-frame processing time gap, and also the image sensor “blooming” effect. Then, we describe the procedure of synchronization and demodulation. This includes file format conversion, grayscale conversion, column matrix selection avoiding blooming, polynomial fitting for threshold location. Finally, the evaluation of bit-error-rate (BER) is performed satisfying the forward error correction (FEC) limit.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).
  2. H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. Z. Wang, W. D. Zhong, C. Yu, J. Chen, C. P. Francois, and W. Chen, “Performance of dimming control scheme in visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18861–18868 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Is blue optical filter necessary in high speed phosphor-based white light LED visible light communications?” Opt. Express 22(17), 20646–20651 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, J. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Adaptive 84.44 - 190 Mbit/s phosphor-LED wireless communication utilizing no blue filter at practical transmission distance,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9783–9788 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) for simultaneous color control and high speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7538–7543 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Opt. Wireless Comm. (OWC, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
    [Crossref]
  12. I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (1)

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

2008 (1)

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Afgani, M.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Opt. Wireless Comm. (OWC, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Andoh, M.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, J. H.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, M. C.

Chen, W.

Cheng, C. J.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chow, C. W.

Danakis, C.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Opt. Wireless Comm. (OWC, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Francois, C. P.

Haas, H.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Opt. Wireless Comm. (OWC, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Ito, S.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jhang, T. W.

Jung, D.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kagawa, K.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kawahito, S.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Le-Minh, H.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. Y.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

Lin, W. Y.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, Y.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. F.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. L.

Lu, H. H.

O’Brien, D.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Povey, G.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Opt. Wireless Comm. (OWC, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Sung, J. Y.

Takai, I.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Underwood, I.

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Opt. Wireless Comm. (OWC, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

Wan, Z. W.

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wu, H. W.

Wu, P. Y.

Yasutomi, K.

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C. H.

Yu, C.

Zeng, L.

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W. D.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Le-Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

I. Takai, S. Ito, K. Yasutomi, K. Kagawa, M. Andoh, and S. Kawahito, “LED and CMOS image sensor based optical wireless communication system for automotive applications,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(5), 6801418 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photonics Soc. Newslett. 26, 9–13 (2012).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

C. H. Chang, C. Y. Li, H. H. Lu, C. Y. Lin, J. H. Chen, Z. W. Wan, and C. J. Cheng, “A 100-Gb/s multiple-input multiple-output visible laser light communication system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(24), 4723–4729 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, W. D. Zhong, C. Yu, J. Chen, C. P. Francois, and W. Chen, “Performance of dimming control scheme in visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18861–18868 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) for simultaneous color control and high speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7538–7543 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, J. Chen, and Y. L. Liu, “Adaptive 84.44 - 190 Mbit/s phosphor-LED wireless communication utilizing no blue filter at practical transmission distance,” Opt. Express 22(8), 9783–9788 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Is blue optical filter necessary in high speed phosphor-based white light LED visible light communications?” Opt. Express 22(17), 20646–20651 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

C. Danakis, M. Afgani, G. Povey, I. Underwood, and H. Haas, “Using a CMOS camera sensor for visible light communication,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Opt. Wireless Comm. (OWC, 2012), pp. 1244–1248.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagrams to show the idea of rolling shutter effect in CMOS image sensor, in (a) expected ideal case and (b) real case.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup of the VLC using mobile-phone camera as Rx.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Structure of the data packet, in which each packet consists of two sets of headers and payloads. Image frame showing bright and dark fringes representing the packet header and payload is also included.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Flow chat showing the procedure of the demodulation process. (b) One image frame illustrating the blooming at the center of the image.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Column matrix of grayscale values (0 to 255) (blue curve) and the 2nd order polynomial fitting used as the threshold to distinguish the logic 1 and 0 (red curve).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Image frame received at different illuminance. The vertical column of converted grayscale level is pasted at the center showing the blooming effect is mitigated with enhanced contrast ratio.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 BER measurement at different illuminance when using 60-bit and 30-bit payload.

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