Abstract

In this paper, we study the service provisioning schemes for dynamic advance reservation (AR) multicast requests in elastic optical networks (EONs). We first propose several algorithms that can handle the service scheduling and routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) of AR multicast requests jointly, including an integrated two-dimensional fragmentation-aware RSA (2D-FMA) that can alleviate the 2D fragmentation caused by light-tree provisioning. Then, we leverage the idea of software-defined EONs (SD-EONs) that utilizes OpenFlow (OF) in the control plane to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed algorithms. Specifically, we build an SD-EON control plane testbed, implement the algorithms in it, and perform control plane experiments on dynamic AR multicast provisioning. The results indicate that 2D-FMA achieves the best blocking performance and provides the shortest average setup delay.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S12–S20 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-datacenter networks,” IEEE Network, in press (2015).
  3. L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67–73 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 621–629 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2012, pp. 1–3 (2012).
  6. L. Gong, X. Zhou, X. Liu, W. Zhao, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Efficient resource allocation for all-optical multicasting over spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 836–847 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “Static routing and wavelength assignment for multicast advance reservation in all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 20, 1–14 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Entel, A. Gadkar, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast overlay for slotted optical WDM networks,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2012, pp. 3007–3012 (2012).
  9. Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 15–22 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. Lu and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic service provisioning of advance reservation requests in elastic optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 1621–1627 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. W. Shi, Z. Zhu, M. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “On the effect of bandwidth fragmentation on blocking probability in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61, 2970–2978 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Shen, W. Lu, X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast in data center networks over elastic optical infrastructure,” Proc. of ECOC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).
  13. L. Liu, R. Munoz, R. Casellas, T. Tsuritani, R. Martinez, and I. Morita, “OpenSlice: an OpenFlow-based control plane for spectrum sliced elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Express 21, 4194–4204 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  15. W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Zhu, X. Chen, C. Chen, S. Ma, M. Zhang, L. Liu, and B. Yoo, “OpenFlow-assisted online defragmentation in single-/multi-domain software-defined elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 901–910 (2015).
  17. X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Design integrated RSA for multicast in elastic optical networks with a layered approach,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2013, pp. 2346–2351 (2013).
  18. Y. Yin, M. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and B. Yoo, “Fragmentation-aware routing, modulation and spectrum assignment algorithms in elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).
  19. M. Zhang, W. Shi, L. Gong, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Bandwidth defragmentation in dynamic elastic optical networks with minimum traffic disruptions,” Proc. of ICC 2013, pp. 3894–3898 (2013).
  20. Wireshark [Online]. Available: http://www.wireshark.org/ .

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (2)

N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “Static routing and wavelength assignment for multicast advance reservation in all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 20, 1–14 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S12–S20 (2012).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 621–629 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67–73 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ansari, N.

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 15–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Shi, Z. Zhu, M. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “On the effect of bandwidth fragmentation on blocking probability in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61, 2970–2978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Casellas, R.

Charbonneau, N.

N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “Static routing and wavelength assignment for multicast advance reservation in all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 20, 1–14 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, C. Chen, S. Ma, M. Zhang, L. Liu, and B. Yoo, “OpenFlow-assisted online defragmentation in single-/multi-domain software-defined elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 901–910 (2015).

W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2012, pp. 1–3 (2012).

Chen, X.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, C. Chen, S. Ma, M. Zhang, L. Liu, and B. Yoo, “OpenFlow-assisted online defragmentation in single-/multi-domain software-defined elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 901–910 (2015).

W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
[Crossref]

Entel, T.

T. Entel, A. Gadkar, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast overlay for slotted optical WDM networks,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2012, pp. 3007–3012 (2012).

Gadkar, A.

T. Entel, A. Gadkar, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast overlay for slotted optical WDM networks,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2012, pp. 3007–3012 (2012).

Gerstel, O.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S12–S20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gong, L.

L. Gong, X. Zhou, X. Liu, W. Zhao, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Efficient resource allocation for all-optical multicasting over spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 836–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Design integrated RSA for multicast in elastic optical networks with a layered approach,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2013, pp. 2346–2351 (2013).

S. Shen, W. Lu, X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast in data center networks over elastic optical infrastructure,” Proc. of ECOC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

M. Zhang, W. Shi, L. Gong, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Bandwidth defragmentation in dynamic elastic optical networks with minimum traffic disruptions,” Proc. of ICC 2013, pp. 3894–3898 (2013).

Jinno, M.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S12–S20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Libeskind-Hadas, R.

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 621–629 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

L. Gong, X. Zhou, X. Liu, W. Zhao, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Efficient resource allocation for all-optical multicasting over spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 836–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-datacenter networks,” IEEE Network, in press (2015).

S. Shen, W. Lu, X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast in data center networks over elastic optical infrastructure,” Proc. of ECOC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Design integrated RSA for multicast in elastic optical networks with a layered approach,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2013, pp. 2346–2351 (2013).

Lord, A.

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S12–S20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, P.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-datacenter networks,” IEEE Network, in press (2015).

Lu, W.

W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Gong, X. Zhou, X. Liu, W. Zhao, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Efficient resource allocation for all-optical multicasting over spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 836–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Lu and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic service provisioning of advance reservation requests in elastic optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 1621–1627 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 15–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Shen, W. Lu, X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast in data center networks over elastic optical infrastructure,” Proc. of ECOC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

M. Zhang, W. Shi, L. Gong, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Bandwidth defragmentation in dynamic elastic optical networks with minimum traffic disruptions,” Proc. of ICC 2013, pp. 3894–3898 (2013).

Ma, S.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, C. Chen, S. Ma, M. Zhang, L. Liu, and B. Yoo, “OpenFlow-assisted online defragmentation in single-/multi-domain software-defined elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 901–910 (2015).

W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
[Crossref]

Martinez, R.

Melhem, R.

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 621–629 (2002).
[Crossref]

Morita, I.

Mukherjee, B.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67–73 (1999).
[Crossref]

Munoz, R.

Sahasrabuddhe, L.

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67–73 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shen, S.

S. Shen, W. Lu, X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast in data center networks over elastic optical infrastructure,” Proc. of ECOC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

Shi, W.

W. Shi, Z. Zhu, M. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “On the effect of bandwidth fragmentation on blocking probability in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61, 2970–2978 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, W. Shi, L. Gong, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Bandwidth defragmentation in dynamic elastic optical networks with minimum traffic disruptions,” Proc. of ICC 2013, pp. 3894–3898 (2013).

Tsuritani, T.

Vilalta, R.

Vokkarane, V.

N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “Static routing and wavelength assignment for multicast advance reservation in all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 20, 1–14 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Entel, A. Gadkar, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast overlay for slotted optical WDM networks,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2012, pp. 3007–3012 (2012).

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2012, pp. 1–3 (2012).

Yao, J.

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-datacenter networks,” IEEE Network, in press (2015).

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, M. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and B. Yoo, “Fragmentation-aware routing, modulation and spectrum assignment algorithms in elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

Yoo, B.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, C. Chen, S. Ma, M. Zhang, L. Liu, and B. Yoo, “OpenFlow-assisted online defragmentation in single-/multi-domain software-defined elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 901–910 (2015).

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S12–S20 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, M. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and B. Yoo, “Fragmentation-aware routing, modulation and spectrum assignment algorithms in elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

Zhang, L.

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 15–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-datacenter networks,” IEEE Network, in press (2015).

Zhang, M.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, C. Chen, S. Ma, M. Zhang, L. Liu, and B. Yoo, “OpenFlow-assisted online defragmentation in single-/multi-domain software-defined elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 901–910 (2015).

W. Shi, Z. Zhu, M. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “On the effect of bandwidth fragmentation on blocking probability in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61, 2970–2978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, M. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and B. Yoo, “Fragmentation-aware routing, modulation and spectrum assignment algorithms in elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

M. Zhang, W. Shi, L. Gong, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Bandwidth defragmentation in dynamic elastic optical networks with minimum traffic disruptions,” Proc. of ICC 2013, pp. 3894–3898 (2013).

Zhao, W.

Zhou, X.

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, X. Chen, C. Chen, S. Ma, M. Zhang, L. Liu, and B. Yoo, “OpenFlow-assisted online defragmentation in single-/multi-domain software-defined elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6, 901–910 (2015).

W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Lu and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic service provisioning of advance reservation requests in elastic optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 1621–1627 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Shi, Z. Zhu, M. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “On the effect of bandwidth fragmentation on blocking probability in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61, 2970–2978 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, W. Lu, L. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “Dynamic service provisioning in elastic optical networks with hybrid single-/multi-path routing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 15–22 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Gong, X. Zhou, X. Liu, W. Zhao, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Efficient resource allocation for all-optical multicasting over spectrum-sliced elastic optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5, 836–847 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-datacenter networks,” IEEE Network, in press (2015).

Y. Yin, M. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and B. Yoo, “Fragmentation-aware routing, modulation and spectrum assignment algorithms in elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Design integrated RSA for multicast in elastic optical networks with a layered approach,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2013, pp. 2346–2351 (2013).

S. Shen, W. Lu, X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast in data center networks over elastic optical infrastructure,” Proc. of ECOC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

M. Zhang, W. Shi, L. Gong, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Bandwidth defragmentation in dynamic elastic optical networks with minimum traffic disruptions,” Proc. of ICC 2013, pp. 3894–3898 (2013).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

W. Lu, S. Ma, C. Chen, X. Chen, and Z. Zhu, “Implementation and demonstration of revenue-driven provisioning for advance reservation requests in OpenFlow-controlled SD-EONs,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18, 1727–1730 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (2)

O. Gerstel, M. Jinno, A. Lord, and B. Yoo, “Elastic optical networking: a new dawn for the optical layer?” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, S12–S20 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37, 67–73 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

W. Shi, Z. Zhu, M. Zhang, and N. Ansari, “On the effect of bandwidth fragmentation on blocking probability in elastic optical networks,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 61, 2970–2978 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (2)

N. Charbonneau and V. Vokkarane, “Static routing and wavelength assignment for multicast advance reservation in all-optical wavelength-routed WDM networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 20, 1–14 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Libeskind-Hadas and R. Melhem, “Multicast routing and wavelength assignment in multihop optical networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 10, 621–629 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. Lu and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic service provisioning of advance reservation requests in elastic optical networks,” J. Lightw. Technol. 31, 1621–1627 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (8)

X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Design integrated RSA for multicast in elastic optical networks with a layered approach,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2013, pp. 2346–2351 (2013).

Y. Yin, M. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and B. Yoo, “Fragmentation-aware routing, modulation and spectrum assignment algorithms in elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

M. Zhang, W. Shi, L. Gong, W. Lu, and Z. Zhu, “Bandwidth defragmentation in dynamic elastic optical networks with minimum traffic disruptions,” Proc. of ICC 2013, pp. 3894–3898 (2013).

Wireshark [Online]. Available: http://www.wireshark.org/ .

Q. Wang and L. Chen, “Performance analysis of multicast traffic over spectrum elastic optical networks,” Proc. of OFC 2012, pp. 1–3 (2012).

P. Lu, L. Zhang, X. Liu, J. Yao, and Z. Zhu, “Highly-efficient data migration and backup for big data applications in elastic optical inter-datacenter networks,” IEEE Network, in press (2015).

T. Entel, A. Gadkar, and V. Vokkarane, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast overlay for slotted optical WDM networks,” Proc. of GLOBECOM 2012, pp. 3007–3012 (2012).

S. Shen, W. Lu, X. Liu, L. Gong, and Z. Zhu, “Dynamic advance reservation multicast in data center networks over elastic optical infrastructure,” Proc. of ECOC 2013, pp. 1–3 (2013).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Six-node topology, and (b) Example on provisioning an AR multicast request.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Example on integrated multicast RSA using LAGs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example for 2D fragmentation in an EON.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Example of cut calculation and light-tree calculation
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Functional modules in (a) OF-AG and (b) OF-C.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental setup: (a) control plane topology according to NSFNET, and (b) testbed built with high-performance servers.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Procedure for provisioning an AR multicast request (the blue circles contains step numbers).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 OF messages involved in provisioning an AR multicast request.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 FlowMod messages received by (a) the source node, (b) an intermediate light-splitting node, and (c) a destination node for setting up a light-tree.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Results on (a) request blocking probability and (b) average setup delay.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Algorithm 1 Integrated 2D Fragmentation-aware RSA (2D-FMA)

Metrics