Abstract

A contact poling technique for domain engineering of ferroelectrics using a micro-structured silicon electrode is demonstrated on Rb:KTiOPO4. High quality QPM gratings were reproducibly fabricated. The silicon electrode is reusable and the technique potentially suitable when complex structures with sub-μm features are to be domain engineered, which otherwise is incompatible with conventional photolithography. A non-negligible domain broadening was seen and attributed to a low nucleation rate using this type of electrode. However, under the appropriate poling conditions, this could be exploited to obtain a QPM grating with a short pitch (2 μm), equal to half of the electrode period.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. D. Plummer, M. D. Deal, and P. B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology (Prentice Hall, 2000).
  5. K. Kintaka, M. Fujimura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, “Fabrication of ferroelectric-domain-inverted grating in LiNbO3 by applying voltage using etched-Si stamper electrode,” Electon. Lett. 34(9), 880–881 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Zukauskas, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and C. Canalias, “5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 201–206 (2011).
  10. A. Zukauskas, V. Pasiskevicius, and C. Canalias, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO₄ below 400 nm at high peak-intensities,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1395–1403 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, and L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1519–1521 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Zeil, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Efficient spectral control and tuning of a high-power narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber laser using a transversely chirped volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4027–4035 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. G. D. Miller, “Periodically poled lithium niobate modeling, fabrication and nonlinear optical performance,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University (1998).
  16. J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2013 (2)

2011 (1)

2007 (2)

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, and L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1519–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

K. Kintaka, M. Fujimura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, “Fabrication of ferroelectric-domain-inverted grating in LiNbO3 by applying voltage using etched-Si stamper electrode,” Electon. Lett. 34(9), 880–881 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Bierlein, J. D.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bindloss, W.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Canalias, C.

A. Zukauskas, V. Pasiskevicius, and C. Canalias, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO₄ below 400 nm at high peak-intensities,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1395–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zukauskas, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and C. Canalias, “5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 201–206 (2011).

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L. K.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, and L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1519–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

De Natale, P.

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ferraro, P.

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fujimura, M.

K. Kintaka, M. Fujimura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, “Fabrication of ferroelectric-domain-inverted grating in LiNbO3 by applying voltage using etched-Si stamper electrode,” Electon. Lett. 34(9), 880–881 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grilli, S.

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hirohashi, J.

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hsiung, H.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hum, D. S.

J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hutton, K. B.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Q.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Karlsson, H.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, and L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1519–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kintaka, K.

K. Kintaka, M. Fujimura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, “Fabrication of ferroelectric-domain-inverted grating in LiNbO3 by applying voltage using etched-Si stamper electrode,” Electon. Lett. 34(9), 880–881 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kurz, J. R.

J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

P. Zeil, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Efficient spectral control and tuning of a high-power narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber laser using a transversely chirped volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4027–4035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zukauskas, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and C. Canalias, “5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 201–206 (2011).

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, and L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1519–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nishihara, H.

K. Kintaka, M. Fujimura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, “Fabrication of ferroelectric-domain-inverted grating in LiNbO3 by applying voltage using etched-Si stamper electrode,” Electon. Lett. 34(9), 880–881 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pasiskevicius, V.

A. Zukauskas, V. Pasiskevicius, and C. Canalias, “Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO₄ below 400 nm at high peak-intensities,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1395–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zeil, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Efficient spectral control and tuning of a high-power narrow-linewidth Yb-doped fiber laser using a transversely chirped volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4027–4035 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zukauskas, N. Thilmann, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, and C. Canalias, “5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 201–206 (2011).

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Roelofs, M. G.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[Crossref]

Saltzman, A. J.

J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schober, A. M.

J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

Suhara, T.

K. Kintaka, M. Fujimura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, “Fabrication of ferroelectric-domain-inverted grating in LiNbO3 by applying voltage using etched-Si stamper electrode,” Electon. Lett. 34(9), 880–881 (1998).
[Crossref]

Suna, A.

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

Thilmann, N.

Thomas, P. A.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ward, R. C. C.

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[Crossref]

Zeil, P.

Zukauskas, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(5), 435–436 (1993).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson and F. Laurell, “Electric field poling of flux grown KTiOPO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(24), 3474–3476 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, and L. K. Cheng, “Periodic poling of RbTiOPO4 for quasi-phase matched blue light generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1519–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Electon. Lett. (1)

K. Kintaka, M. Fujimura, T. Suhara, and H. Nishihara, “Fabrication of ferroelectric-domain-inverted grating in LiNbO3 by applying voltage using etched-Si stamper electrode,” Electon. Lett. 34(9), 880–881 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. R. Kurz, A. M. Schober, D. S. Hum, A. J. Saltzman, and M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear physical optics with transversely patterned quasi-phase-matching gratings,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 660–664 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, F. Laurell, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, and P. De Natale, “In situ visualization of domain kinetics in flux grown KTiOPO4 by digital holography,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(6), 064105 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Laurell, M. G. Roelofs, W. Bindloss, H. Hsiung, A. Suna, and J. D. Bierlein, “Detection of ferroelectric domain reversal in KTiOPO4 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(10), 4664 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Canalias, J. Hirohashi, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “Polarization-switching characteristics of flux-grown KTiOPO4 and RbTiOPO4 at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 124105 (2005).
[Crossref]

Q. Jiang, P. A. Thomas, K. B. Hutton, and R. C. C. Ward, “Rb-doped potassium titanyl phosphate for periodic ferroelectric domain inversion,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(5), 2717–2723 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, “High-efficiency frequency converters with periodically-poled Rb-doped KTiOPO4,” Opt. Mater. 30(4), 594–599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

J. D. Plummer, M. D. Deal, and P. B. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology (Prentice Hall, 2000).

G. D. Miller, “Periodically poled lithium niobate modeling, fabrication and nonlinear optical performance,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University (1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fabrication process for the Si contact electrode: wafer oxidation (a), photolithography (b), isotropic dry etching (c), photoresist and oxide layer removal (d).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Side view of the 9.01 μm period Si-contact electrode.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical microscope image of domain structure on the former c- face (a) and the former c+ face (b) of a Si-contact electrode poled PPRKTP sample with 9.01 µm period.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical microscope image of domain structure on the former c- face of two RKTP crystals poled in the low field regime with the Si contact electrode (a), and the corresponding structure poled with a standard aluminum-photoresist grating electrode (b). For clarification the patterned electrode is drawn on the top of the images. The silicon and metal electrodes are shown in black and air and photoresist in light gray.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross-section of the 4 μm period Si-contact electrode. The top width of the electrode ribs was 1.13 µm. The ribs were separated by 2.87 µm wide and f 2.61 µm deep valleys . The dimensions of the electrode chip were 4 × 8 mm2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Optical microscope image of domain structure on the former c- face (a) and former c+ face (b) of RKTP crystal, poled with Si contact electrode with period of 4 μm. The insets in both figures show the magnified images.

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