Abstract

We perform heterodyned optical Kerr gated (HOKG) ballistic imaging of an object hidden behind a turbid medium using a femtosecond laser. The experimental results show that an optimum heterodyning angle should be selected to acquire the highest spatial resolution of the HOKG imaging system. The optimum heterodyning angle depends on the scattering parameters of the turbid media, and it decreases with increasing optical density or decreasing thickness of the turbid medium.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. D. Sedarsky, E. Berrocal, and M. Linne, “Quantitative image contrast enhancement in time-gated transillumination of scattering media,” Opt. Express 19(3), 1866–1883 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. E. Zevallos L, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011115 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. Tan, Z. Zhou, A. Lin, J. Si, P. Zhan, B. Wu, and X. Hou, “High contrast ballistic imaging using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7740–7747 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “Ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. B. Schmidt, Z. D. Schaefer, T. R. Meyer, S. Roy, S. A. Danczyk, and J. R. Gord, “Ultrafast time-gated ballistic-photon imaging and shadowgraphy in optically dense rocket sprays,” Appl. Opt. 48(4), B137–B144 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. D. L. Sedarsky, J. Gord, C. Carter, T. Meyer, and M. A. Linne, “Fast-framing ballistic imaging of velocity in an aerated spray,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2748–2750 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Idlahcen, L. Méès, C. Rozé, T. Girasole, and J. B. Blaisot, “Time gate, optical layout, and wavelength effects on ballistic imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 26(9), 1995–2004 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. E. Paciaroni and M. Linne, “Single-shot, two-dimensional ballistic imaging through scattering media,” Appl. Opt. 43(26), 5100–5109 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H. Purwar, S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, D. Sedarsky, and J.-B. Blaisot, “Collinear, two-color optical Kerr effect shutter for ultrafast time-resolved imaging,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15778–15790 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  13. F.-X. d’Abzac, M. Kervella, L. Hespel, and T. Dartigalongue, “Experimental and numerical analysis of ballistic and scattered light using femtosecond optical Kerr gating: a way for the characterization of strongly scattering media,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9604–9615 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. P. Yang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Dynamic evolution of light-induced orientation of dye-doped liquid crystals in liquid phase studied by time-resolved optically heterodyned optical Kerr effect technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(8), 084710 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase-tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(7), 1541–1550 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H. Purwar, S. Idlahcen, C. Rozé, D. Sedarsky, and J.-B. Blaisot, “Collinear, two-color optical Kerr effect shutter for ultrafast time-resolved imaging,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15778–15790 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “Ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

P. Yang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Dynamic evolution of light-induced orientation of dye-doped liquid crystals in liquid phase studied by time-resolved optically heterodyned optical Kerr effect technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(8), 084710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Calba, L. Méès, C. Rozé, and T. Girasole, “Ultrashort pulse propagation through a strongly scattering medium: simulation and experiments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(7), 1541–1550 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. E. Zevallos L, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011115 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase-tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

M. E. Zevallos L, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011115 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alrubaiee, M.

M. E. Zevallos L, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berrocal, E.

Blaisot, J. B.

Blaisot, J.-B.

Calba, C.

Carter, C.

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “Ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. L. Sedarsky, J. Gord, C. Carter, T. Meyer, and M. A. Linne, “Fast-framing ballistic imaging of velocity in an aerated spray,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2748–2750 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

d’Abzac, F.-X.

Danczyk, S. A.

Dartigalongue, T.

Gayen, S. K.

M. E. Zevallos L, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Girasole, T.

Gord, J.

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “Ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. L. Sedarsky, J. Gord, C. Carter, T. Meyer, and M. A. Linne, “Fast-framing ballistic imaging of velocity in an aerated spray,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2748–2750 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gord, J. R.

Hespel, L.

Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hou, X.

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, Z. Zhou, A. Lin, J. Si, P. Zhan, B. Wu, and X. Hou, “High contrast ballistic imaging using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7740–7747 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Idlahcen, S.

Kenney-Wallace, G. A.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kervella, M.

Kitchenham, R.

W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lin, A.

Lin, L.

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Linne, M.

Linne, M. A.

Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

P. Yang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Dynamic evolution of light-induced orientation of dye-doped liquid crystals in liquid phase studied by time-resolved optically heterodyned optical Kerr effect technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(8), 084710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lotshaw, W. T.

W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

McMorrow, D.

W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Méès, L.

Melinger, J. S.

W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T.

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “Ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. L. Sedarsky, J. Gord, C. Carter, T. Meyer, and M. A. Linne, “Fast-framing ballistic imaging of velocity in an aerated spray,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2748–2750 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meyer, T. R.

Paciaroni, M. E.

Prasad, P. N.

M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase-tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Purwar, H.

Qian, W.

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Roy, S.

Rozé, C.

Samoc, M.

M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase-tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schaefer, Z. D.

Schmidt, J. B.

Sedarsky, D.

Sedarsky, D. L.

Si, J.

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, Z. Zhou, A. Lin, J. Si, P. Zhan, B. Wu, and X. Hou, “High contrast ballistic imaging using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7740–7747 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swiatkiewicz, J.

M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase-tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tan, W.

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, Z. Zhou, A. Lin, J. Si, P. Zhan, B. Wu, and X. Hou, “High contrast ballistic imaging using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7740–7747 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thantu, N.

W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
[Crossref]

Tong, J.

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. F.

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, Z. Zhou, A. Lin, J. Si, P. Zhan, B. Wu, and X. Hou, “High contrast ballistic imaging using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7740–7747 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, L.

P. Yang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Dynamic evolution of light-induced orientation of dye-doped liquid crystals in liquid phase studied by time-resolved optically heterodyned optical Kerr effect technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(8), 084710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, S.

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Dynamic evolution of light-induced orientation of dye-doped liquid crystals in liquid phase studied by time-resolved optically heterodyned optical Kerr effect technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(8), 084710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zevallos L, M. E.

M. E. Zevallos L, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhan, P.

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Tan, Z. Zhou, A. Lin, J. Si, P. Zhan, B. Wu, and X. Hou, “High contrast ballistic imaging using femtosecond optical Kerr gate of tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7740–7747 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z.

Zou, Y. H.

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Zhan, W. Tan, J. Si, S. Xu, J. Tong, and X. Hou, “Optical imaging of objects in turbid media using heterodyned optical Kerr gate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(21), 211907 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. E. Zevallos L, S. K. Gayen, M. Alrubaiee, and R. R. Alfano, “Time-gated backscattered ballistic light imaging of objects in turbid water,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011115 (2005).
[Crossref]

Exp. Fluids (1)

M. Linne, D. Sedarsky, T. Meyer, J. Gord, and C. Carter, “Ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray,” Exp. Fluids 49(4), 911–923 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

P. Yang, L. Liu, and L. Xu, “Dynamic evolution of light-induced orientation of dye-doped liquid crystals in liquid phase studied by time-resolved optically heterodyned optical Kerr effect technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 128(8), 084710 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Samoc, J. Swiatkiewicz, and P. N. Prasad, “Dynamics of third-order nonlinearity of canthaxanthin carotenoid by the optically heterodyned phase-tuned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(4), 2524–2533 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

L. Lin, W. Qian, C. F. Wang, Y. H. Zou, Q. Wang, and H. Y. Chen, “Investigation of third-order nonlinearity of polybenzonitriles by heterodyned femtosecond optical Kerr gate,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8(03), 419–429 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

W. T. Lotshaw, D. McMorrow, N. Thantu, J. S. Melinger, and R. Kitchenham, “Intermolecular vibrational coherence in molecular liquids,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 26(7), 571–583 (1995).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (1)

P. Zhan, J. Si, W. Tan, X. Liu, B. Wu, S. Xu, F. Chen, and X. Hou, “The influences of turbid media properties on object visibility in optical Kerr gated imaging,” Laser Phys. 24(1), 015401 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-d imaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical kerr gate,” Science 253(5021), 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comparison of the images of the object under different conditions: (a) direct imaging without the OKG, (b) conventional OKG imaging, (c)–(f) HOKG imaging with different heterodyning angles: (c) 2°, (d) 4°, (e) 6°, and (f) 8°. The dependence of the SNR on the heterodyning angle is shown on the right of Fig. 1.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 MTFs of the system measured at different heterodyning angles for HOKG imaging.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optimum heterodyning angle versus the scattering parameters of the turbid medium for HOKG imaging: (a) OD and (b) thickness of the turbid medium.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the images using HOKG imaging of different Kerr media: (a) tellurite glass and (b) CS2.

Equations (1)

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I origin 0 T E 2 ( t )dt+sinθ 0 T Re [ E*( t ) E b ( t )+E( t ) E b * ( t ) ]dt + sin 2 θ[ 0 T E b 2 (t)dt+ T E s 2 (t)dt ] .

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