Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate wireless transmission of optical intensity modulation/direct detection-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IM/DD-OFDM) signals in an underwater channel using a field programmable gate array based real-time transmitter. The real-time transmission of a 405 nm 1.45 Gbit/s optical OFDM signal through a 4.8 m underwater channel with an error vector magnitude of approximately 10% was successfully achieved.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. M. Law, R. Bradbeer, L. F. Yeung, L. Bin, and G. Zhongguo, “Communication with an underwater ROV using ultrasonic transmission,” in Mechatronics and Machine Vision 2002: current practice, R. Bradbeer and J. Billingsley, ed. (Research Studies Press, 2002).
  2. A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res.100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge 2000 Events. 2(1), 27-29 (2004).
  4. F. Schul, U. R. Zimmer, and J. Trumpf, “Visible spectrum optical communication and distance sensing for underwater applications,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation6–8 (2004).
  5. M. A. Chancey, Short range underwater communication links, Master thesis, North Carolina State University, (2005).
  6. B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, A. Laux, and T. Curran, “Effects of multiple scattering on the implementation of an underwater wireless optical communications link,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2006, (IEEE, 2006), pp.1–6.
  7. B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, “Phase coherent digital communications for wireless optical links in turbid underwater environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2007, (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.
  8. M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.
  9. J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.
  10. J. W. Bales and C. Chryssostomidis, “High bandwidth, low-power, short-range optical communications underwater,” International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology9, 406–415 (1995).
  11. W. C. Cox, A 1 Mbps Underwater Communication System Using a 405 nm Laser Diode and Photomultiplier Tube, Master thesis, North Carolina State University, (2007).
  12. F. Hanson and S. Radic, “High bandwidth underwater optical communication,” Appl. Opt.47(2), 277–283 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Ocean OpticsXII, 174–183 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  14. V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhilov, L. L. Alperovich, and S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc.27, 430–432 (1969).
  15. T. I. Quickenden and J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys.72(8), 4416–4428 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  16. M. N. Berberan-Santos, “Beer’s law revisited,” P. J. Chem. Educ.67(9), 757–759 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. C. Smith and K. S. Baker, “Optical properties of the clearest natural waters (200-800 nm),” Appl. Opt.20(2), 177–184 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. J. Armstrong, “OFDM for optical communications,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 189–204 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

1995 (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res.100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Ocean OpticsXII, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. N. Berberan-Santos, “Beer’s law revisited,” P. J. Chem. Educ.67(9), 757–759 (1990).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

T. I. Quickenden and J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys.72(8), 4416–4428 (1980).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhilov, L. L. Alperovich, and S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc.27, 430–432 (1969).

Alperovich, L. L.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhilov, L. L. Alperovich, and S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc.27, 430–432 (1969).

Armstrong, J.

Babin, M.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res.100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

Baker, K. S.

Bales, J. W.

J. W. Bales and C. Chryssostomidis, “High bandwidth, low-power, short-range optical communications underwater,” International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology9, 406–415 (1995).

Berberan-Santos, M. N.

M. N. Berberan-Santos, “Beer’s law revisited,” P. J. Chem. Educ.67(9), 757–759 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res.100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

Buiteveld, H.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Ocean OpticsXII, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chitre, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Chryssostomidis, C.

J. W. Bales and C. Chryssostomidis, “High bandwidth, low-power, short-range optical communications underwater,” International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology9, 406–415 (1995).

Claustre, H.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res.100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cochenour, B.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, A. Laux, and T. Curran, “Effects of multiple scattering on the implementation of an underwater wireless optical communications link,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2006, (IEEE, 2006), pp.1–6.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, “Phase coherent digital communications for wireless optical links in turbid underwater environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2007, (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.

Cox, W. C.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.

Curran, T.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, A. Laux, and T. Curran, “Effects of multiple scattering on the implementation of an underwater wireless optical communications link,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2006, (IEEE, 2006), pp.1–6.

Detweiler, C.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Doniec, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Donze, M.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Ocean OpticsXII, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hakvoort, J. M. H.

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Ocean OpticsXII, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hanson, F.

Hoffmann-Kuhnt, M.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Huges, B. L.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.

Irvin, J. A.

T. I. Quickenden and J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys.72(8), 4416–4428 (1980).
[Crossref]

Krier, J. R.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.

Laux, A.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, “Phase coherent digital communications for wireless optical links in turbid underwater environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2007, (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, A. Laux, and T. Curran, “Effects of multiple scattering on the implementation of an underwater wireless optical communications link,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2006, (IEEE, 2006), pp.1–6.

Mikhilov, B. A.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhilov, L. L. Alperovich, and S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc.27, 430–432 (1969).

Morel, A.

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res.100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

Mullen, L.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, A. Laux, and T. Curran, “Effects of multiple scattering on the implementation of an underwater wireless optical communications link,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2006, (IEEE, 2006), pp.1–6.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, “Phase coherent digital communications for wireless optical links in turbid underwater environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2007, (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

Muth, J. F.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.

Popov, S. I.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhilov, L. L. Alperovich, and S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc.27, 430–432 (1969).

Quickenden, T. I.

T. I. Quickenden and J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys.72(8), 4416–4428 (1980).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

Rus, D.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Schul, F.

F. Schul, U. R. Zimmer, and J. Trumpf, “Visible spectrum optical communication and distance sensing for underwater applications,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation6–8 (2004).

Simpson, J. A.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.

Smith, R. C.

Trumpf, J.

F. Schul, U. R. Zimmer, and J. Trumpf, “Visible spectrum optical communication and distance sensing for underwater applications,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation6–8 (2004).

Vasilescu, I.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

Zimmer, U. R.

F. Schul, U. R. Zimmer, and J. Trumpf, “Visible spectrum optical communication and distance sensing for underwater applications,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation6–8 (2004).

Zolotarev, V. M.

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhilov, L. L. Alperovich, and S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc.27, 430–432 (1969).

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. I. Quickenden and J. A. Irvin, “The ultraviolet absorption spectrum of liquid water,” J. Chem. Phys.72(8), 4416–4428 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

A. Bricaud, M. Babin, A. Morel, and H. Claustre, “Variability in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of natural phytoplankton: analysis and parameterization,” J. Geophys. Res.100(C7), 13321–13332 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Ocean Optics (1)

H. Buiteveld, J. M. H. Hakvoort, and M. Donze, “The optical properties of pure water,” Ocean OpticsXII, 174–183 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

V. M. Zolotarev, B. A. Mikhilov, L. L. Alperovich, and S. I. Popov, “Dispersion and absorption of liquid water in the infrared and radio regions of the spectrum,” Opt. Spectrosc.27, 430–432 (1969).

P. J. Chem. Educ. (1)

M. N. Berberan-Santos, “Beer’s law revisited,” P. J. Chem. Educ.67(9), 757–759 (1990).
[Crossref]

Other (10)

T. M. Law, R. Bradbeer, L. F. Yeung, L. Bin, and G. Zhongguo, “Communication with an underwater ROV using ultrasonic transmission,” in Mechatronics and Machine Vision 2002: current practice, R. Bradbeer and J. Billingsley, ed. (Research Studies Press, 2002).

M. Tivey, P. Fucile, and E. Sichel, “A low power, low cost, underwater optical communication system,” Ridge 2000 Events. 2(1), 27-29 (2004).

F. Schul, U. R. Zimmer, and J. Trumpf, “Visible spectrum optical communication and distance sensing for underwater applications,” in Proceedings of the 2004 Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation6–8 (2004).

M. A. Chancey, Short range underwater communication links, Master thesis, North Carolina State University, (2005).

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, A. Laux, and T. Curran, “Effects of multiple scattering on the implementation of an underwater wireless optical communications link,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2006, (IEEE, 2006), pp.1–6.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, “Phase coherent digital communications for wireless optical links in turbid underwater environments,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2007, (IEEE, 2007), pp.1–5.

M. Doniec, I. Vasilescu, M. Chitre, C. Detweiler, M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt, and D. Rus, “AquaOptical: a lightweight device for high-rate long-range underwater point-to-point communication,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2009, (IEEE, 2009), pp.1–6.

J. A. Simpson, W. C. Cox, J. R. Krier, B. Cochenour, B. L. Huges, and J. F. Muth, “5 Mbps optical wireless communication with error correction coding for underwater sensor nodes,” in Proceedings of IEEE OCEANS 2010, (IEEE, 2010), pp.1–4.

J. W. Bales and C. Chryssostomidis, “High bandwidth, low-power, short-range optical communications underwater,” International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology9, 406–415 (1995).

W. C. Cox, A 1 Mbps Underwater Communication System Using a 405 nm Laser Diode and Photomultiplier Tube, Master thesis, North Carolina State University, (2007).

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