Abstract

With the rapidly increasing aggregate bandwidth requirements of data centers there is a growing interest in the insertion of optically interconnected networks with high-radix transparent optical switch fabrics. Silicon photonics is a particularly promising and applicable technology due to its small footprint, CMOS compatibility, high bandwidth density, and the potential for nanosecond scale dynamic connectivity. In this paper we analyze the feasibility of building silicon photonic microring based switch fabrics for data center scale optical interconnection networks. We evaluate the scalability of a microring based switch fabric for WDM signals. Critical parameters including crosstalk, insertion loss and switching speed are analyzed, and their sensitivity with respect to device parameters is examined. We show that optimization of physical layer parameters can reduce crosstalk and increase switch fabric scalability. Our analysis indicates that with current state-of-the-art devices, a high radix 128 × 128 silicon photonic single chip switch fabric with tolerable power penalty is feasible. The applicability of silicon photonic microrings for data center switching is further supported via review of microring operations and control demonstrations. The challenges and opportunities for this technology platform are discussed.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

2013 (7)

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. E. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29374–29382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Cheng, A. Wonfor, R. V. Penty, and I. White, “Scalable, low-energy hybrid photonic space switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(18), 1385–1391 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Chen, A. Sohdi, J. E. Bowers, L. Theogarajan, J. Roth, and G. Fish, “Electronic and photonic integrated circuits for fast data center optical circuit switches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. Van Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral p-n junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Li, A. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Padmaraju and K. Bergman, “Resolving the thermal challenges for silicon microring resonator devices,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 269–281 (2013).

2012 (4)

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, Y. Min, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, Q. Li, J. Chan, A. Ahsan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “4 44 Gb/s packet-level switching in a second-order microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1555–1557 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, W. Zhang, Q. Li, J. Chan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “40-Gb/s DPSK data transmission through a silicon microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 473–475 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, L. Xu, Q. Li, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic packet-switching node for large-scale computing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(8), 688–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (5)

P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14474–14479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25225–25231 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 6–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power silicon photonic transceivers for inter/intra-chip interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7797, 779702 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

V. M. Menon, W. Tong, and S. R. Forrest, “Control of quality factor and critical coupling in microring resonators through integration of a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1343–1345 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321 (2000).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

T.-Y. Feng, “A survey of interconnection networks,” IEEE Computer 14(12), 12–27 (1981).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. Van Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral p-n junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ackert, J. J.

Ahsan, A.

X. Zhu, Q. Li, J. Chan, A. Ahsan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “4 44 Gb/s packet-level switching in a second-order microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1555–1557 (2012).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

Amberg, P.

X. X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power silicon photonic transceivers for inter/intra-chip interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7797, 779702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andersen, D. G.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagian-Naki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-through: part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIG COMM 2010 Conference (2010).

Asghari, M.

X. X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power silicon photonic transceivers for inter/intra-chip interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7797, 779702 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14474–14479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25225–25231 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Assefa, S.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, S. Yang, A. Novack, R. Ding, A. E. Lim, G. Q. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow loss single layer submicron silicon waveguide crossing for SOI optical interconnect,” Opt. Express 21(24), 29374–29382 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Calhoun, K. Wen, X. Zhu, S. Rumley, L. Luo, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Dynamic reconfiguration of silicon photonic circuit switched interconnection networks,” inProceedings of IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC) (2014).

Baks, C. W.

Barrios, C. A.

Barwicz, T.

Baz-Zaz, H. H.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Baz-Zaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” inProceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2010 Conference (2010).

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” Opt. Express 21(12), 14342–14350 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju and K. Bergman, “Resolving the thermal challenges for silicon microring resonator devices,” Nanophotonics 3(4–5), 269–281 (2013).

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A. Bianco, D. Cuda, R. Gaudino, G. Gavilanes, F. Neri, and M. Petracca, “Scalability of optical interconnects based on microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1081–1083 (2010).
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Green, W. M.

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L. Chen, E. Hall, L. Theogarajan, and J. Bowers, “Photonic switching for data center applications,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 834–844 (2011).
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S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, R. Hendry, Q. Li, D. Calhoun, and K. Bergman, “Silicon photonics for exascale systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

R. Hendry, D. Nikolova, S. Rumley, and K. Bergman, “Modeling and evaluation of chip-to-chip scale silicon photonic networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on High Performance Interconnects (Hot Interconnects) (2014).
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Jahnes, C. V.

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, Y. Min, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(1), 345–354 (2012).
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M. Yang, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Non-blocking 4x4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks,” Opt. Express 19(1), 47–54 (2011).
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A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, Y. Min, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Yang, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Non-blocking 4x4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks,” Opt. Express 19(1), 47–54 (2011).
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Khater, M. H.

Kiewra, E.

Kim, S.-H.

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Kozuch, M.

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Krishnamoorthy, A.

G. Li, A. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25225–25231 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14474–14479 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power silicon photonic transceivers for inter/intra-chip interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7797, 779702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuchta, D. M.

Kung, C.-C.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. V. Rylyakov, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, C. W. Baks, R. Rimolo-Donadio, D. M. Kuchta, M. H. Khater, T. Barwicz, C. Reinholm, E. Kiewra, S. M. Shank, C. L. Schow, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Monolithic silicon integration of scaled photonic switch fabrics, CMOS logic, and device driver circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 743–751 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Rylyakov, C. L. Schow, B. G. Lee, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, F. E. Doany, Y. Min, J. Van Campenhout, C. V. Jahnes, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon photonic switches hybrid-integrated with CMOS drivers,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(1), 345–354 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Yang, W. M. Green, S. Assefa, J. Van Campenhout, B. G. Lee, C. V. Jahnes, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, J. A. Kash, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Non-blocking 4x4 electro-optic silicon switch for on-chip photonic networks,” Opt. Express 19(1), 47–54 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, J. Chan, and K. Bergman, “High-performance modulators and switches for silicon photonic networks-on-chip,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 6–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless silicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Small, B. G. Lee, and K. Bergman, “On cascades of resonators for high-bandwidth integrated optical interconnection networks,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10811–10818 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lepage, G.

M. Pantouvaki, H. Yu, M. Rakowski, P. Christie, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, N. Van Hoovels, P. Absil, and J. Van Campenhout, “Comparison of silicon ring modulators with interdigitated and lateral p-n junctions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Phys. 19(2), 7900308 (2013).
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Levy, J. S.

Lexau, J.

X. X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power silicon photonic transceivers for inter/intra-chip interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7797, 779702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, A. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring resonator modulators in silicon for interchip photonic links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 95 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, J. Yao, R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, P. Dong, D. Feng, M. Asghari, A. Mekis, T. Pinguet, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low power silicon photonic transceivers for inter/intra-chip interconnects,” Proc. SPIE 7797, 779702 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Submilliwatt, ultrafast and broadband electro-optic silicon switches,” Opt. Express 18(24), 25225–25231 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

X. Zhu, Q. Li, J. Chan, A. Ahsan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “4 44 Gb/s packet-level switching in a second-order microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(17), 1555–1557 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, W. Zhang, Q. Li, J. Chan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “40-Gb/s DPSK data transmission through a silicon microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 473–475 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, L. Xu, Q. Li, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic packet-switching node for large-scale computing systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(8), 688–690 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, R. Hendry, Q. Li, D. Calhoun, and K. Bergman, “Silicon photonics for exascale systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.

Lipson, M.

L. Xu, W. Zhang, Q. Li, J. Chan, H. L. R. Lira, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “40-Gb/s DPSK data transmission through a silicon microring switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(6), 473–475 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 2 × 2 Switching element in (a) “drop” and (b) “through” state.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Transmission through the switch versus the round trip phase of the ring φ = (2π/λ) neff on the “through” (dashed line) and “drop” port (full line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Transmission at the resonances through a two rings switching element versus the detuning compared with the resonance response of a single microring.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Power penalty versus the field transmission coefficient t 1 at critical coupling for insertion loss (IL) of a switch in drop through state and crosstalk.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Power penalty versus the ring absorption coefficient for insertion loss (IL) of a switch in drop and through state, and including the through state crosstalk.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Power penalty versus the number of wavelengths supported by a switch element in the 50 nm spectrum around 1.55 μm. The field transmission coefficient is optimized for minimizing the power penalty incurred from the insertion losses (IL) and crosstalk.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The field transmission coefficient optimized for insertion loss (IL) and for crosstalk at critical coupling.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 8-by-8 multistage switch with Benes topology.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Schematic representation of the crossings crosstalk model.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Switch fabric power penalty versus the switch radix (4 wavelengths).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Number of wavelengths per port (filled bars) and the total wavelengths (empty bars) supported by a switch fabric versus its radix.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Silicon photonic computing architecture applicable to data centers, consisting of devices, network control and message passing, and application interfaces.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters for switch transmission description

Equations (6)

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P o u t 1 P i n 1 ( φ = 0 ) = D = l r 1 / 2 ( 1 t 2 2 ) 1 l r 2 t 2 2
P o u t 2 P i n 1 ( φ = π ) = T = l w g 4 ( l r t 1 + t 2 ) 2 ( t 1 + l r t 2 ) 2 t c 4 ( 1 + l r t 1 t 2 ) 4 + l r 3 l w g 4 ( 1 t 1 2 ) 2 ( 1 t 2 2 ) 2 t c 4
P o u t 1 P i n 1 ( φ = π ) = T X = l r 1 / 2 ( 1 t 1 2 ) 2 ( 1 t 2 2 ) 2 ( 1 + l r t 1 t 2 ) 2 ( 1 + l r l w g 4 t c 4 ) ( 1 + l r t 1 t 2 ) 4 + l r 3 l w g 4 ( 1 t 1 2 ) 2 ( 1 t 2 2 ) 2 t c 4
P S , i n m a x = I L N c ( P S 1 , o u t m a x + 2 P S 1 , o u t m a x N S P S 1 c r o s s i n g + N S P S 1 c r o s s i n g ) ,
P S , i n m i n = I L N c ( P S 1 , o u t m i n 2 P S 1 , i n m i n N S P S 1 c r o s s i n g + N S P S 1 c r o s s i n g ) .
P S , o u t m a x = ( P S , i n m a x + 2 P S , i n m a x P S X + P S X ) .

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