Abstract

Abstract: We propose an alignment method for the near-zero pretilt angle of liquid crystals (LCs) using polyimide films doped with a UV-curable polymer. The near-zero pretilt angle can be obtained by UV curing of reactive mesogen monomers mixed with planar alignment material while a vertical electric field is applied to an LC cell assembled after the rubbing process. We demonstrated that the pretilt angle can be decreased from 2.390° to 0.082° by employing the proposed method.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Single cell-gap transflective liquid crystal device created by controlling the pretilt angle using a liquid crystalline reactive monomer

Eun-Young Jeon, Ki-Han Kim, Ji-Hoon Lee, and Tae-Hoon Yoon
Opt. Express 19(25) 25617-25622 (2011)

Surface-controlled patterned vertical alignment mode with reactive mesogen

You-Jin Lee, Young-Ki Kim, Soo In Jo, Jin Seog Gwag, Chang-Jae Yu, and Jae-Hoon Kim
Opt. Express 17(12) 10298-10303 (2009)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Oh-E, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528–535 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Chen, Z. Luo, F. Peng, and S.-T. Wu, “Fringe-field switching with a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal,” J. Display Technol. 9(2), 74–77 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. O. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. Q. Guo, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Polymer and azo-dye composite: a photo-alignment layer for liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(10), 1465–1472 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. W. Woo, D. C. Shin, E. J. Lim, H. J. Park, and H. H. Shin, “UV photoalignment technology comparable to the rubbing alignment method in terms of the azimuthal anchoring energy,” Proc IDW ’08, 37–38 (2008).
  14. O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. J. Ahn, C. S. Lim, D. J. Kim, J. H. Lee, H. J. Park, S. B. Lee, J. W. Woo, W. S. Shin, and M. C. Jun, UV aligned IPS-LCD for high resolution smart displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 43(1), 1432–1435 (2012).
  16. J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Design of an electrode structure for the elimination of the off-axis gamma shift in a multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 19–23 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  19. M.-P. Cuminal and M. Brunet, “A technique for measurement of pretilt angles arising from alignment layers,” Liq. Cryst. 22(2), 185–192 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 5A), L579–L581 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  21. S.-W. Oh, B. Wok Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Achromatic optical compensation using dispersion of uniaxial films for elimination of off-axis light leakage in a liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Opt. 52(32), 7785–7790 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. S.-W. Oh and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of light leakage over the entire viewing cone in a homogeneously-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5808–5817 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Novel wide viewing angle polarizer with high achromaticity,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 1094–1097 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  24. K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor and Francis, 2000).

2014 (4)

Q. Guo, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Polymer and azo-dye composite: a photo-alignment layer for liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(10), 1465–1472 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Design of an electrode structure for the elimination of the off-axis gamma shift in a multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 19–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of light leakage over the entire viewing cone in a homogeneously-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5808–5817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2009 (2)

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

M.-P. Cuminal and M. Brunet, “A technique for measurement of pretilt angles arising from alignment layers,” Liq. Cryst. 22(2), 185–192 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Oh-E, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528–535 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 5A), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahn, S. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baek, J.-I.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brunet, M.

M.-P. Cuminal and M. Brunet, “A technique for measurement of pretilt angles arising from alignment layers,” Liq. Cryst. 22(2), 185–192 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cai, C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callegari, A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, S. S.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chaudhari, P.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T.-J.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chigrinov, V.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chigrinov, V. G.

Q. Guo, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Polymer and azo-dye composite: a photo-alignment layer for liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(10), 1465–1472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.-H.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, T.-H.

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Design of an electrode structure for the elimination of the off-axis gamma shift in a multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 19–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, K.-L.

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cuminal, M.-P.

M.-P. Cuminal and M. Brunet, “A technique for measurement of pretilt angles arising from alignment layers,” Liq. Cryst. 22(2), 185–192 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dobrovolskyy, A.

O. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Doyle, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galligan, E.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Q.

Q. Guo, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Polymer and azo-dye composite: a photo-alignment layer for liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(10), 1465–1472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hasebe, H.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hougham, G.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.-Y.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeon, B. K.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

John, R.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, B.-K.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. E.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. Y.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. C.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. S.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-W.

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Design of an electrode structure for the elimination of the off-axis gamma shift in a multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 19–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

M. Oh-E, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528–535 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

Q. Guo, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Polymer and azo-dye composite: a photo-alignment layer for liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(10), 1465–1472 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kyrychenko, V.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lacey, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, N. D.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-H.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh, B. Wok Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Achromatic optical compensation using dispersion of uniaxial films for elimination of off-axis light leakage in a liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Opt. 52(32), 7785–7790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. L.

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lien, S.-C. A.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, E. J.

J. W. Woo, D. C. Shin, E. J. Lim, H. J. Park, and H. H. Shin, “UV photoalignment technology comparable to the rubbing alignment method in terms of the azimuthal anchoring energy,” Proc IDW ’08, 37–38 (2008).

Lim, S. K.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lim, Y. J.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

Myoung, J.-M.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakagaki, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odahara, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, B.-Y.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.-W.

Oh-E, M.

M. Oh-E, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528–535 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

J. W. Woo, D. C. Shin, E. J. Lim, H. J. Park, and H. H. Shin, “UV photoalignment technology comparable to the rubbing alignment method in terms of the azimuthal anchoring energy,” Proc IDW ’08, 37–38 (2008).

Park, J. H.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pavlov, S.

O. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peng, F.

Purushothaman, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rho, S. J.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ritsko, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saitoh, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samant, M.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, K.

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 5A), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 5A), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

Satoh, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Seo, D.-S.

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shin, D. C.

J. W. Woo, D. C. Shin, E. J. Lim, H. J. Park, and H. H. Shin, “UV photoalignment technology comparable to the rubbing alignment method in terms of the azimuthal anchoring energy,” Proc IDW ’08, 37–38 (2008).

Shin, H. H.

J. W. Woo, D. C. Shin, E. J. Lim, H. J. Park, and H. H. Shin, “UV photoalignment technology comparable to the rubbing alignment method in terms of the azimuthal anchoring energy,” Proc IDW ’08, 37–38 (2008).

Shin, S. T.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shiota, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, P. K.

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Souk, J. H.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Speidell, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, A. K.

Q. Guo, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Polymer and azo-dye composite: a photo-alignment layer for liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(10), 1465–1472 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stöhr, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takatsu, H.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tao, D.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Uchida, T.

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 5A), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

Wok Park, B.

Woo, H. S.

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Woo, J. W.

J. W. Woo, D. C. Shin, E. J. Lim, H. J. Park, and H. H. Shin, “UV photoalignment technology comparable to the rubbing alignment method in terms of the azimuthal anchoring energy,” Proc IDW ’08, 37–38 (2008).

Wu, S.-T.

Yang, K.-H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaroschchuk, O.

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yaroshchuk, O.

O. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yoneya, M.

M. Oh-E, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528–535 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T.-H.

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Design of an electrode structure for the elimination of the off-axis gamma shift in a multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 19–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Oh and T.-H. Yoon, “Elimination of light leakage over the entire viewing cone in a homogeneously-aligned liquid crystal cell,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5808–5817 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Oh, B. Wok Park, J.-H. Lee, and T.-H. Yoon, “Achromatic optical compensation using dispersion of uniaxial films for elimination of off-axis light leakage in a liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Opt. 52(32), 7785–7790 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.-J.

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zakrevskyy, Y.

O. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Oh-e and K. Kondo, “Electro-optical characteristics and switching behavior of the in-plane switching mode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(26), 3895–3897 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. K. Son, J. H. Park, S. S. Cha, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, S. J. Rho, B. K. Jeon, J. S. Kim, S. K. Lim, and K. H. Kim, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystal on a-SiOx thin film using the ion beam exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 263512 (2006).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Chen and K.-L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[Crossref]

O. Yaroschchuk, V. Kyrychenko, D. Tao, V. Chigrinov, H. S. Kwok, H. Hasebe, and H. Takatsu, “Stabilization of liquid crystal photoaligning layers by reactive mesogens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(2), 021902 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, S. L. Lee, and H. Y. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics and switching principle of a nematic liquid crystal cell controlled by fringe-field switching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2881–2883 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Oh-E, M. Yoneya, and K. Kondo, “Switching of negative and positive dielectro-anisotropic liquid crystals by in-plane electric fields,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(2), 528–535 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Inf. Disp. (2)

D. H. Kim, Y. J. Lim, D. E. Kim, H. Ren, S. H. Ahn, and S. H. Lee, “Past, present, and future of fringe-field switching-liquid crystal display,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(2), 99–106 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Kim, T.-H. Choi, and T.-H. Yoon, “Design of an electrode structure for the elimination of the off-axis gamma shift in a multi-domain vertical-alignment liquid crystal cell,” J. Inf. Disp. 15(1), 19–23 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Kim, Y.-J. Lee, D.-H. Kim, J.-H. Baek, J.-H. Lee, B.-K. Kim, C.-J. Yu, and J.-H. Kim, “Fast response time of fringe-field switching liquid crystal mode devices with reactive mesogens in a planar alignment layer,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(48), 485306 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

J.-I. Baek, K.-H. Kim, J. C. Kim, T.-H. Yoon, H. S. Woo, S. T. Shin, and J. H. Souk, “Fast in-plane switching of a liquid crystal cell triggered by a vertical electric field,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(10), 104505 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Sato, K. Sato, and T. Uchida, “Relationship between rubbing strength and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 2, No. 5A), L579–L581 (1992).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Choi, J.-Y. Hwang, S. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, J.-M. Myoung, and D.-S. Seo, “Liquid crystal alignment and electrooptical characteristics of vertical alignment liquid crystal display on SiOx thin film obliquely deposited by sputtering,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(48), L1280–L1282 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid crystals by linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (2)

Q. Guo, A. K. Srivastava, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Polymer and azo-dye composite: a photo-alignment layer for liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 41(10), 1465–1472 (2014).
[Crossref]

M.-P. Cuminal and M. Brunet, “A technique for measurement of pretilt angles arising from alignment layers,” Liq. Cryst. 22(2), 185–192 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S.-C. A. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K.-H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Yaroshchuk, Y. Zakrevskyy, A. Dobrovolskyy, and S. Pavlov, “Liquid crystal alignment on the polymer substrates irradiated by plasma beam,” Proc. SPIE 4418, 49–53 (2001).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

J. W. Woo, D. C. Shin, E. J. Lim, H. J. Park, and H. H. Shin, “UV photoalignment technology comparable to the rubbing alignment method in terms of the azimuthal anchoring energy,” Proc IDW ’08, 37–38 (2008).

H. J. Ahn, C. S. Lim, D. J. Kim, J. H. Lee, H. J. Park, S. B. Lee, J. W. Woo, W. S. Shin, and M. C. Jun, UV aligned IPS-LCD for high resolution smart displays,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 43(1), 1432–1435 (2012).

T. Ishinabe, T. Miyashita, and T. Uchida, “Novel wide viewing angle polarizer with high achromaticity,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 31(1), 1094–1097 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Takatoh, M. Hasegawa, M. Koden, N. Itoh, R. Hasegawa, and M. Sakamoto, Alignment Technologies and Applications of Liquid Crystal Devices (Taylor and Francis, 2000).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Device structure for the proposed LC alignment method.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagrams of the proposed alignment method.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Pretilt angle vs UV exposure time with the RM concentration in the planar alignment layer as a parameter.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 AFM images of the (a) pure PI and 1.0 wt% PI-RM mixture cured for (b) 10 min, (c) 20 min, and (d) 30 min. The z-axis range was the same in all graphs (from −10 to + 10 nm).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Voltage-transmittance curves of the fabricated FFS cells fabricated using the conventional rubbing and proposed methods.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured luminance distributions of the dark state in a homogeneously aligned LC cell fabricated using (a) the conventional rubbing method and (b) the proposed method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated luminance distributions of the dark state in a homogeneously aligned LC cell with a pretilt angle of (a) 2.3° and (b) 0°.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Calculated iso-luminance contours of the dark states in a homogeneously aligned LC cell compensated using the double biaxial structure. We assumed a pretilt angle of (a) 0°, (b) 1°, and (c) 2° of the LC layer.

Metrics