Abstract

We demonstrate machining of precision slots in silica with nanoscale roughness for applications in photonics. Using our in-house developed milling system we have achieved machined slots with surface roughness of 3.0 nm (Sa) and 17 µm depth of cut. This result represents eight times improvement in surface roughness and forty times increase in depth of cut than previously reported. We also demonstrate integration of these milled slots with UV-written waveguides and Bragg gratings to create optical refractometers, based on monitoring Fabry-Pérot spectral fringe changes.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  4. J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
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  6. D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
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  7. L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 379–382 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Ravindra and J. Patten, “Duc tile regime single point diamond turning of quartz resulting in an improved and damage-free surface,” Mach. Sci. Technol. 15(4), 357–375 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
  12. D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, and K. N. Tripathi, “Design and fabrication of multilayer metal-clad dielectric surface plasmon waveguide polarizers,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 054601 (2006).
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  14. C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. K. Foy, Z. Wei, T. Matsumura, and Y. Huang, “Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micromilling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 49(3-4), 315–324 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro-machining and micro-grinding with tools fabricated by micro electro-discharge machining,” Int. J. Nanomanuf. 1(2), 242–258 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, and R. Boswell, “Surface oxidation of Al masks for deep dry-etch of silica optical waveguides,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(9-11), 4979–4983 (2007).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

F. Yuan and L. Huang, “Brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass,” Sci Rep 4, 5035 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

C. Sima, J. C. Gates, H. L. Rogers, P. L. Mennea, C. Holmes, M. N. Zervas, and P. G. R. Smith, “Ultra-wide detuning planar Bragg grating fabrication technique based on direct UV grating writing with electro-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15747–15754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Parker, J. C. Gates, D. J. Wales, P. G. R. Smith, and M. C. Grossel, “An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor,” Lab Chip 13(3), 377–385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Nagarah and D. A. Wagenaar, “Ultradeep fused silica glass etching with an HF-resistant photosensitive resist for optical imaging applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22(3), 035011 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

M. Arif, M. Rahman, and W. Y. San, “Ultraprecision ductile mode machining of glass by micromilling process,” J. Manuf. Process. 13(1), 50–59 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Ravindra and J. Patten, “Duc tile regime single point diamond turning of quartz resulting in an improved and damage-free surface,” Mach. Sci. Technol. 15(4), 357–375 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, L. G. Carpenter, H. L. Rogers, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Planar waveguide tilted Bragg grating refractometer fabricated through physical micromachining and direct UV writing,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12462–12468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Watts, “Bragg gratings: optical microchip sensors,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 433–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

K. Foy, Z. Wei, T. Matsumura, and Y. Huang, “Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micromilling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 49(3-4), 315–324 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, and R. Boswell, “Surface oxidation of Al masks for deep dry-etch of silica optical waveguides,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(9-11), 4979–4983 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro-machining and micro-grinding with tools fabricated by micro electro-discharge machining,” Int. J. Nanomanuf. 1(2), 242–258 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. R. Doerr and K. Okamoto, “Advances in silica planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4763–4789 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, and K. N. Tripathi, “Design and fabrication of multilayer metal-clad dielectric surface plasmon waveguide polarizers,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 054601 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

T. G. Bifano, T. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113(2), 184–189 (1991).
[Crossref]

Arif, M.

M. Arif, M. Rahman, and W. Y. San, “Ultraprecision ductile mode machining of glass by micromilling process,” J. Manuf. Process. 13(1), 50–59 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, M.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. J.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berenschot, J. W.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bifano, T. G.

T. G. Bifano, T. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113(2), 184–189 (1991).
[Crossref]

Borel, P. I.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Boswell, R.

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, and R. Boswell, “Surface oxidation of Al masks for deep dry-etch of silica optical waveguides,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(9-11), 4979–4983 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bulla, D. A. P.

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, and R. Boswell, “Surface oxidation of Al masks for deep dry-etch of silica optical waveguides,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(9-11), 4979–4983 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carpenter, L. G.

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, L. G. Carpenter, H. L. Rogers, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Planar waveguide tilted Bragg grating refractometer fabricated through physical micromachining and direct UV writing,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12462–12468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassan, E.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Charles, C.

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, T.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Comley, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cryan, M. J.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Alessandro, G.

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Daly, K. R.

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Datta, A.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Man, S.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deladi, S.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deutsch, C.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Doerr, C. R.

Dow, T.

T. G. Bifano, T. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113(2), 184–189 (1991).
[Crossref]

Duchesne, D.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Elwenspoek, M. C.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ferrera, M.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Foy, K.

K. Foy, Z. Wei, T. Matsumura, and Y. Huang, “Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micromilling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 49(3-4), 315–324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gadgil, V. J.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gates, J. C.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Parker, J. C. Gates, D. J. Wales, P. G. R. Smith, and M. C. Grossel, “An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor,” Lab Chip 13(3), 377–385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sima, J. C. Gates, H. L. Rogers, P. L. Mennea, C. Holmes, M. N. Zervas, and P. G. R. Smith, “Ultra-wide detuning planar Bragg grating fabrication technique based on direct UV grating writing with electro-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15747–15754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, L. G. Carpenter, H. L. Rogers, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Planar waveguide tilted Bragg grating refractometer fabricated through physical micromachining and direct UV writing,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12462–12468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillot, F.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grossel, M. C.

R. M. Parker, J. C. Gates, D. J. Wales, P. G. R. Smith, and M. C. Grossel, “An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor,” Lab Chip 13(3), 377–385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heeck, K.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hibino, Y.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hida, Y.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1993).
[Crossref]

Holmes, C.

C. Sima, J. C. Gates, H. L. Rogers, P. L. Mennea, C. Holmes, M. N. Zervas, and P. G. R. Smith, “Ultra-wide detuning planar Bragg grating fabrication technique based on direct UV grating writing with electro-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15747–15754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, L. G. Carpenter, H. L. Rogers, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Planar waveguide tilted Bragg grating refractometer fabricated through physical micromachining and direct UV writing,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12462–12468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

F. Yuan and L. Huang, “Brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass,” Sci Rep 4, 5035 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

K. Foy, Z. Wei, T. Matsumura, and Y. Huang, “Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micromilling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 49(3-4), 315–324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hübner, J.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Humphreys, P. C.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunger, D.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iannuzzi, D.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, X.-M.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kolthammer, W. S.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kristensen, M.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kumar, D.

D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, and K. N. Tripathi, “Design and fabrication of multilayer metal-clad dielectric surface plasmon waveguide polarizers,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 054601 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kundys, D.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Langford, N. K.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W. T.

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, and R. Boswell, “Surface oxidation of Al masks for deep dry-etch of silica optical waveguides,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(9-11), 4979–4983 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liscidini, M.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Little, B. E.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Love, J.

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luther-Davies, B.

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Marsh, E. R.

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro-machining and micro-grinding with tools fabricated by micro electro-discharge machining,” Int. J. Nanomanuf. 1(2), 242–258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Matsumura, T.

K. Foy, Z. Wei, T. Matsumura, and Y. Huang, “Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micromilling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 49(3-4), 315–324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mennea, P. L.

Metcalf, B. J.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morandotti, R.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morantz, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morgan, C. J.

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro-machining and micro-grinding with tools fabricated by micro electro-discharge machining,” Int. J. Nanomanuf. 1(2), 242–258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Moss, D. J.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nagarah, J. M.

J. M. Nagarah and D. A. Wagenaar, “Ultradeep fused silica glass etching with an HF-resistant photosensitive resist for optical imaging applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22(3), 035011 (2012).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohmori, Y.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1993).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

Okazaki, H.

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1993).
[Crossref]

Painter, O.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, R. M.

R. M. Parker, J. C. Gates, D. J. Wales, P. G. R. Smith, and M. C. Grossel, “An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor,” Lab Chip 13(3), 377–385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pascal, D.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Patten, J.

D. Ravindra and J. Patten, “Duc tile regime single point diamond turning of quartz resulting in an improved and damage-free surface,” Mach. Sci. Technol. 15(4), 357–375 (2011).
[Crossref]

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Politi, A.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poulsen, M. R.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Povlsen, J. H.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rahman, M.

M. Arif, M. Rahman, and W. Y. San, “Ultraprecision ductile mode machining of glass by micromilling process,” J. Manuf. Process. 13(1), 50–59 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rarity, J. G.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ravindra, D.

D. Ravindra and J. Patten, “Duc tile regime single point diamond turning of quartz resulting in an improved and damage-free surface,” Mach. Sci. Technol. 15(4), 357–375 (2011).
[Crossref]

Razzari, L.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rector, J. H.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reichel, J.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rogers, H. L.

Rottwitt, K.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

San, W. Y.

M. Arif, M. Rahman, and W. Y. San, “Ultraprecision ductile mode machining of glass by micromilling process,” J. Manuf. Process. 13(1), 50–59 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sanders, R. G. P.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Scattergood, R. O.

T. G. Bifano, T. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113(2), 184–189 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schreuders, H.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharma, V. K.

D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, and K. N. Tripathi, “Design and fabrication of multilayer metal-clad dielectric surface plasmon waveguide polarizers,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 054601 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Z.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shore, P.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sima, C.

Sipe, J. E.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Slaman, M.

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Smith, B. J.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, P. G. R.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sima, J. C. Gates, H. L. Rogers, P. L. Mennea, C. Holmes, M. N. Zervas, and P. G. R. Smith, “Ultra-wide detuning planar Bragg grating fabrication technique based on direct UV grating writing with electro-optic phase modulation,” Opt. Express 21(13), 15747–15754 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Parker, J. C. Gates, D. J. Wales, P. G. R. Smith, and M. C. Grossel, “An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor,” Lab Chip 13(3), 377–385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, L. G. Carpenter, H. L. Rogers, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Planar waveguide tilted Bragg grating refractometer fabricated through physical micromachining and direct UV writing,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12462–12468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snow, B. D.

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sparrow, I. J. G.

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, L. G. Carpenter, H. L. Rogers, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Planar waveguide tilted Bragg grating refractometer fabricated through physical micromachining and direct UV writing,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12462–12468 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spring, J. B.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svalgaard, M.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Svendsen, W.

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thomas-Peter, N.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tonnellier, X.

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tripathi, K. N.

D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, and K. N. Tripathi, “Design and fabrication of multilayer metal-clad dielectric surface plasmon waveguide polarizers,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 054601 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vahala, K. J.

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallance, R. R.

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro-machining and micro-grinding with tools fabricated by micro electro-discharge machining,” Int. J. Nanomanuf. 1(2), 242–258 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wagenaar, D. A.

J. M. Nagarah and D. A. Wagenaar, “Ultradeep fused silica glass etching with an HF-resistant photosensitive resist for optical imaging applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22(3), 035011 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wales, D. J.

R. M. Parker, J. C. Gates, D. J. Wales, P. G. R. Smith, and M. C. Grossel, “An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor,” Lab Chip 13(3), 377–385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warburton, R. J.

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

Watts, S.

S. Watts, “Bragg gratings: optical microchip sensors,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 433–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z.

K. Foy, Z. Wei, T. Matsumura, and Y. Huang, “Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micromilling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 49(3-4), 315–324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, S.

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, F.

F. Yuan and L. Huang, “Brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass,” Sci Rep 4, 5035 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zervas, M. N.

AIP Adv. (1)

D. Hunger, C. Deutsch, R. J. Barbour, R. J. Warburton, and J. Reichel, “Laser micro-fabrication of concave, low-roughness features in silica,” AIP Adv. 2(1), 012119 (2012).
[Crossref]

CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. (1)

P. Comley, P. Morantz, P. Shore, and X. Tonnellier, “Grinding metre scale mirror segments for the E-ELT ground based telescope,” CIRP Ann.Manuf. Technol. 60(1), 379–382 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Hibino, H. Okazaki, Y. Hida, and Y. Ohmori, “Propagation loss characteristics of long silica-based optical waveguides on 5 inch Si wafers,” Electron. Lett. 29(21), 1847–1848 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Z. Sheng, B. Yang, L. Yang, J. Hu, D. Dai, and S. He, “Experimental demnstration of deeply-etched SiO2 ridge optical waveguides and devices,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(1), 28–34 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

L. G. Carpenter, C. Holmes, B. D. Snow, J. C. Gates, and P. G. R. Smith, “Photonic microcantilevers with interferometric Bragg grating interrogation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1387–1395 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Holmes, K. R. Daly, I. J. G. Sparrow, J. C. Gates, G. D’Alessandro, and P. G. R. Smith, “Excitation of surface plasmons using tilted planar-waveguide Bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1661–1663 (2004).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. (1)

K. Foy, Z. Wei, T. Matsumura, and Y. Huang, “Effect of tilt angle on cutting regime transition in glass micromilling,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. 49(3-4), 315–324 (2009).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Nanomanuf. (1)

C. J. Morgan, R. R. Vallance, and E. R. Marsh, “Micro-machining and micro-grinding with tools fabricated by micro electro-discharge machining,” Int. J. Nanomanuf. 1(2), 242–258 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Eng. Ind. (1)

T. G. Bifano, T. Dow, and R. O. Scattergood, “Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials,” J. Eng. Ind. 113(2), 184–189 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Manuf. Process. (1)

M. Arif, M. Rahman, and W. Y. San, “Ultraprecision ductile mode machining of glass by micromilling process,” J. Manuf. Process. 13(1), 50–59 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. M. Nagarah and D. A. Wagenaar, “Ultradeep fused silica glass etching with an HF-resistant photosensitive resist for optical imaging applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 22(3), 035011 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, J. Love, B. Luther-Davies, C. Charles, and R. Boswell, “Deep dry-etch of silica in a helicon plasma etcher for optical waveguide fabrication,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 23(1), 146–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lab Chip (1)

R. M. Parker, J. C. Gates, D. J. Wales, P. G. R. Smith, and M. C. Grossel, “An investigation into dispersion upon switching between solvents within a microfluidic system using a chemically resistant integrated optical refractive index sensor,” Lab Chip 13(3), 377–385 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mach. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Ravindra and J. Patten, “Duc tile regime single point diamond turning of quartz resulting in an improved and damage-free surface,” Mach. Sci. Technol. 15(4), 357–375 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

D. Iannuzzi, K. Heeck, M. Slaman, S. de Man, J. H. Rector, H. Schreuders, J. W. Berenschot, V. J. Gadgil, R. G. P. Sanders, M. C. Elwenspoek, and S. Deladi, “Fibre-top cantilevers: design, fabrication and applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3247–3252 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Lee, T. Chen, J. Li, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 3, 867 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Watts, “Bragg gratings: optical microchip sensors,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 433–434 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Ferrera, L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, R. Morandotti, Z. Yang, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “Low-power continuous-wave nonlinear optics in doped silica glass integrated waveguide structures,” Nat. Photonics 2(12), 737–740 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. Kumar, V. K. Sharma, and K. N. Tripathi, “Design and fabrication of multilayer metal-clad dielectric surface plasmon waveguide polarizers,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 054601 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. R. Poulsen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, J. Hübner, M. Kristensen, J. H. Povlsen, K. Rottwitt, M. Svalgaard, and W. Svendsen, “Advances in silica-based integrated optics,” Opt. Eng. 42(10), 2821–2834 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26(10), 977–986 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sci Rep (1)

F. Yuan and L. Huang, “Brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass,” Sci Rep 4, 5035 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

A. Politi, M. J. Cryan, J. G. Rarity, S. Yu, and J. L. O’Brien, “Silica-on-silicon waveguide quantum circuits,” Science 320(5876), 646–649 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, P. C. Humphreys, W. S. Kolthammer, X.-M. Jin, M. Barbieri, A. Datta, N. Thomas-Peter, N. K. Langford, D. Kundys, J. C. Gates, B. J. Smith, P. G. R. Smith, and I. A. Walmsley, “Boson sampling on a photonic chip,” Science 339(6121), 798–801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

W. T. Li, D. A. P. Bulla, and R. Boswell, “Surface oxidation of Al masks for deep dry-etch of silica optical waveguides,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 201(9-11), 4979–4983 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides, 2nd ed. (Elsevier Inc, 2006), pp. 342–343.

L. G. Carpenter, “Thesis: Precision dicing and micromilling of silica for photonics,” University of Southampton (2013).

H. Eda, “Ductile Grinding of Ceramics: Machine Tool and Process,” in Handbook of Advanced Ceramic Machining, I. Marinescu, ed. (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2007), pp. 1–4.

Supplementary Material (7)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) the main mechanisms that influence the interaction of evanescent field and mechanically defined features are propagation loss and slot/waveguide proximity. Propagation losses are caused by scattering from short and long range surface roughness. Waveguide proximity variation, such as waveguide offset, is caused by form errors. (b) photograph of an array of micromilled slots, with optical access via a pair of optical fiber pigtails. Red light has been launched to show the relative scattering from the waveguide and slot.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) schematic diagram of ductile regime slot milling. (b) illustrative stress/strain curve of silica. (c) micrograph of slot micromilled in the ductile regime, notice the similarity in smoothness between the machined and unmachined glass. (d) is a micrograph of a similar slot micromilled in the brittle regime, as can be seen from the image the slot bottom and edges are heavily chipped and pitted.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 waveguide structure and refractive indices used to model the effect of varying waveguide offset to optical power in the silica layer, denoted by the red line. All dimensions are in microns.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) and (b) shows the relationship between feed rate (nm/rev) and average surface roughness (Sa) of the slot bottom machined with each machining parameter. Figure 4(b) shows a zoom of the data highlighted by the box in Fig. 4(a). Each point uses the standard error for error bars.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) are 10 x 10 μm square grey scale plots from the white light interferometer samples used to calculate the surface roughnesses shown in Fig. 4. Figure 5 (a) is an example of brittle mode machining at a feed rate of 150 nm/rev while (b) is an example of ductile mode machining at a feed rate of 18.8 nm/rev.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 schematic of waveguide and Bragg grating integration of the milled slot. The spectrally matched Bragg gratings form a Fabry-Pérot cavity across the slot, allowing refractive index sensing by monitoring Fabry-Pérot spectral changes.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) normalized Fabry-Pérot spectra for an air and an oil filled slot, the respective indices being 1 and 1.45, respectively. (b) spectral shift of Fabry-Pérot fringe [fringe located at ~1550.6 nm on the blue curve of Fig. 7(a)] for different refractive index oils applied to the milled slot.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Techniques for three dimensional micro-structuring of silica on the tens of micron scale

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