Abstract

The Purcell effect in GaN-based flip-chip (FC) light-emitting diode (LED) structures is investigated numerically using finite-difference time-domain simulations. Depending on the thickness of the p-GaN layer, the variation of the Purcell factor of FC LEDs is obtained to be as high as 20%, which results in the relative modification of the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) as large as 8% and 2.5% for the unmodified IQE of 0.4 and 0.8, respectively. Since the influence of the Purcell effect becomes more conspicuous as the IQE decreases, the Purcell enhancement can be advantageously used to mitigate the efficiency droop problem to some extent. When the Purcell effect is positively applied to the blue LED with the peak IQE of 0.8 and the droop ratio of 29.1%, the peak IQE and the droop ratio are found to be improved to 0.82 and 26.3%. This small but non-negligible effect on IQE is expected to be importantly adopted for industry development of high efficiency LEDs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Highly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121112 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (6)

W. Yang, Y. He, L. Liu, and X. Hu, “Practicable alleviation of efficiency droop effect using surface plasmon coupling in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” GaN-based light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241111 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, G. H. Ryu, S. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Evaluation of the internal quantum efficiency in blue and green light-emitting diodes using the rate equation model,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 63(2), 180–184 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu and W. J. Choi, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN superlattice structures for high-efficiency vertical blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. K. Kim and E. F. Schubert, “Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21835–21842 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of processes limiting quantum efficiency of AlGaInN LEDs at high pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu and M. Notomi, “Enhancement of spontaneous emission from the resonant modes of a photonic crystal slab single-defect cavity,” Opt. Lett. 28(23), 2390–2392 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

Y. Xu, J. Vučković, R. K. Lee, O. J. Painter, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Finite-difference time-domain calculation of spontaneous emission lifetime in a microcavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(3), 465 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4688–4695 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, “Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu 31 ions close to a thin metal mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 55(11), 7249–7254 (1997).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

H. Morawitz, “Self-coupling of a two-level system by a mirror,” Phys. Rev. 187(5), 1792–1796 (1969).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Ahmed, F.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

Amos, R. M.

R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, “Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu 31 ions close to a thin metal mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 55(11), 7249–7254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, A.

A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

R. M. Amos and W. L. Barnes, “Modification of the spontaneous emission rate of Eu 31 ions close to a thin metal mirror,” Phys. Rev. B 55(11), 7249–7254 (1997).
[Crossref]

Baur, J.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bellotti, E.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bergbauer, W.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhat, J. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

Calciati, M.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Camras, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. S.

Chen, H. T.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, W. J.

H.-Y. Ryu and W. J. Choi, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN superlattice structures for high-efficiency vertical blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. S.

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Craven, M.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Crawford, M. H.

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Drexhage, K. H.

K. H. Drexhage, “Influence of a dielectric interface on fluorescence decay time,” J. Lumin. 1–2, 693–701 (1970).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D. F.

Fred Schubert, E.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Highly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ghione, G.

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F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
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A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
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M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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He, Y.

W. Yang, Y. He, L. Liu, and X. Hu, “Practicable alleviation of efficiency droop effect using surface plasmon coupling in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” GaN-based light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241111 (2013).
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Hsu, T. C.

Hu, E. L.

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

W. Yang, Y. He, L. Liu, and X. Hu, “Practicable alleviation of efficiency droop effect using surface plasmon coupling in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” GaN-based light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241111 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4688–4695 (1999).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
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Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
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Kawakami, Y.

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Highly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kiang, Y. W.

Kim, A.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, A. Y.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

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H. Y. Ryu, G. H. Ryu, S. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Evaluation of the internal quantum efficiency in blue and green light-emitting diodes using the rate equation model,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 63(2), 180–184 (2013).
[Crossref]

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H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

Kim, M.-H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
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Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
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Koslow, I.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
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Lai, C. H.

Laubsch, A.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, R. K.

Lee, S. H.

H. Y. Ryu, G. H. Ryu, S. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Evaluation of the internal quantum efficiency in blue and green light-emitting diodes using the rate equation model,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 63(2), 180–184 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. H.

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B 60(7), 4688–4695 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. H.

Lin, C. H.

Lin, G.-B.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

W. Yang, Y. He, L. Liu, and X. Hu, “Practicable alleviation of efficiency droop effect using surface plasmon coupling in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” GaN-based light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241111 (2013).
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[Crossref]

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Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matioli, E.

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, M.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
[Crossref]

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A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meneghesso, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

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D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
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J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
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B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
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A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
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Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
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Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
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Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
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S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
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Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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Okamoto, K.

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Highly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121112 (2015).
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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
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Pan, C. C.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
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H. Y. Ryu, G. H. Ryu, S. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Evaluation of the internal quantum efficiency in blue and green light-emitting diodes using the rate equation model,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 63(2), 180–184 (2013).
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H. Y. Ryu, “Strong modification of spontaneous emission rate in nanorod light-emitting diode structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8377–8381 (2014).
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H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
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H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
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Ryu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Ryu and W. J. Choi, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN superlattice structures for high-efficiency vertical blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173101 (2013).
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M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(6), 1125–1129 (2009).
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Saguatti, D.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
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Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
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Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
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Shim, H.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
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H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
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Shin, D. S.

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sonoda, J.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Soukoulis, C. M.

Speck, J. S.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stockman, S. A.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tamada, K.

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Highly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tateishi, K.

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Highly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tu, C. G.

Verzellesi, G.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

Watanabe, S.

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wierer, J. J.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yang, C. C.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, Y. He, L. Liu, and X. Hu, “Practicable alleviation of efficiency droop effect using surface plasmon coupling in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” GaN-based light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yariv, A.

Yeh, J. H.

Zakheim, D. A.

I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of processes limiting quantum efficiency of AlGaInN LEDs at high pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zanoni, E.

G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(14), 141101 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. S. Meyaard, G.-B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. Fred Schubert, H. Shim, M.-H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
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B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181103 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Hader, J. V. Moloney, and S. W. Koch, “Density-activated defect recombination as a possible explanation for the efficiency droop in GaN-based diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221106 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, X. Zhou, M. Calciati, G. Ghione, M. Matsubara, and E. Bellotti, “Looking for Auger signatures in III-nitride light emitters: a full-band Monte Carlo perspective,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(6), 061112 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, D. S. Shin, and J. I. Shim, “Analysis of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes by the reduced effective volume of InGaN active material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(13), 131109 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. F. Lu, C. H. Liao, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Reduction in the efficiency droop effect of a light-emitting diode through surface plasmon coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(26), 261104 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Tateishi, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, K. Okamoto, and K. Tamada, “Highly enhanced green emission from InGaN quantum wells due to surface plasmon resonance on aluminum films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(12), 121112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Choi, M. Iza, E. Matioli, G. Koblmüller, J. S. Speck, C. Weisbuch, and E. L. Hu, “2.5λ microcavity InGaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by a selective dry-etch thinning process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061120 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, H. S. Kim, and J. I. Shim, “Rate equation analysis of efficiency droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 081114 (2009).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Tanaka, Y. Zhao, I. Koslow, C. C. Pan, H. T. Chen, J. Sonoda, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Droop improvement in high current range on PSS-LEDs,” Electron. Lett. 47(5), 335 (2011).
[Crossref]

GaN-based light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Yang, Y. He, L. Liu, and X. Hu, “Practicable alleviation of efficiency droop effect using surface plasmon coupling in GaN-based light emitting diodes,” GaN-based light emitting diodes Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241111 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

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G. Verzellesi, D. Saguatti, M. Meneghini, F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “Efficiency droop in InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diodes: physical mechanisms and remedies,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(7), 071101 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-Y. Ryu and W. J. Choi, “Optimization of InGaN/GaN superlattice structures for high-efficiency vertical blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(17), 173101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

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H. Y. Ryu, G. H. Ryu, S. H. Lee, and H. J. Kim, “Evaluation of the internal quantum efficiency in blue and green light-emitting diodes using the rate equation model,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 63(2), 180–184 (2013).
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H. Y. Ryu, “Strong modification of spontaneous emission rate in nanorod light-emitting diode structures,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 14(11), 8377–8381 (2014).
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A. Avrutin, S. Hafiz, F. Zhang, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, and A. Matulionis, “InGaN light-emitting diodes: efficiency-limiting processes at high injection,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31(5), 050809 (2013).
[Crossref]

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K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
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J. Iveland, L. Martinelli, J. Peretti, J. S. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of Auger electrons emitted from a semiconductor light-emitting diode under electrical injection: identification of the dominant mechanism for efficiency droop,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(17), 177406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. V. Rozhansky and D. A. Zakheim, “Analysis of processes limiting quantum efficiency of AlGaInN LEDs at high pumping,” Phys. Status Solidi A 204(1), 227–230 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Chen, M. Craven, A. Kim, A. Munkholm, S. Watanabe, M. Camras, W. Götz, and F. Steranka, “Performance of high-power III-nitride light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 205(5), 1086–1092 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 FDTD computational domain of the simulated LED structures. (a) Reference LED having a thick p-GaN layer, (b) flip-chip (FC) LED having an Ag reflector, and (c) epi-up LED encapsulated by epoxy. The simulated LED structures are surrounded by PML boundaries. The yellow dotted area represents the power detection plane.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Purcell factor (FP) of flip-chip and epi-up LED structures as a function of the p-GaN thickness.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Modified IQE as a function of the p-GaN thickness when the IQE of the reference LED (η0) is 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. (a) FC LED, (b) epi-up LED
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Relative IQE modification for the FC LED as a function of the p-GaN thickness when η0 is 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8. (b) Relative IQE modification for the FC LED as a function of η0 when the p-GaN thickness is 110 and 150 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) IQE curve, IQE versus current, for the reference LED and the FC LEDs with the p-GaN thickness of 110 and 150 nm. IQE curves are calculated assuming that the peak IQE of the reference LED is 0.8 and the current at the peak IQE is 2 mA. (b) IQE curves of (a) are normalized to their peak values.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Average IQE as a function of the number of QWs when the distance from the Ag reflector to the center of MQWs, d is 130 and 170 nm. The IQE of the reference LED is 0.7 and the period of QWs is assumed to be 10 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) FDTD computational domain of a FC LED structure for the LEE simulation. (b) LEE (red) and FP (black) are plotted as a function of the p-GaN thickness

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η j I q V = R r + R n r ,
η 0 = R r R r + R n r .
η j I q V = R r + R n r ,
η = R r R r + R n r ,
R r = F P R r .
I = [ 1 + ( F P 1 ) η 0 ] I ,
η = F P η 0 ( F P 1 ) η 0 + 1 .
R r = B N 2 and R n r = A N + C N 3 ,
a I 2 + b I + c = 0 ,
Droop ratio = peak IQE - IQE at 1000 mA peak IQE

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