Abstract

Daytime sky radiance can lead to quantum-bit-error rates (QBER) sufficiently high to preclude quantum key distribution over satellite-to-Earth downlinks. For circular orbits, sky radiance and propagation losses are both pointing-angle-dependent quantities. This dependence makes it possible to map the sky as a function of the QBER in certain protocols. Sky radiance distributions are generated by libRadtran software with aerosol values representative of summer and winter. Hemispherical maps of the QBER are created for orbit altitudes of 400 and 800 km. Sunrise-to-sunset simulations are presented for a system with commercial optical components and compared to a case employing an atomic-line spectral filter.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2013 (4)

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

A. Tomaello, C. Bonato, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Link budget and background noise for satellite quantum key distribution,” Adv. Space Res. 47(5), 802–810 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22333–22340 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045007 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Acker and G. Leptoukh, “Online analysis enhances use of NASA Earth science data,” Eos Trans. AGU 88(2), 14–17 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Shan, X. Sun, J. Luo, Z. Tan, and M. Zhan, “Free-space quantum key distribution with Rb vapor filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191121 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

E. Miao, Z. Han, S. Gong, T. Zhang, D. Diao, and G. Guo, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations - description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(7), 1855–1877 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W.-Y. Hwang, “Quantum key distribution with high loss: toward global secure communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(5), 057901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and Future Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

N. Lütkenhaus, “Security against individual attacks for realistic quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 61(5), 052304 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1990 (1)

E. P. Shettle, “Models of aerosols, clouds, and precipitation for atmospheric propagation studies,” Atmospheric Propagation in the UV ,Visible, IR and MM-Wave Region and Related Systems Aspects (AGARD-CP-454) 15, 1–13 (1990).

1988 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and J.-M. Robert, “Privacy amplification by public discussion,” SIAM J. Comput. 17(2), 210–229 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299(5886), 802–803 (1982).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

H. T. Friis, “Introduction to radio and radio antennas,” IEEE Spectr. 8(4), 55–61 (1971).
[Crossref]

Acharya, P. K.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[Crossref]

Acker, J. G.

J. G. Acker and G. Leptoukh, “Online analysis enhances use of NASA Earth science data,” Eos Trans. AGU 88(2), 14–17 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adler-Golden, S. M.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[Crossref]

Anderson, G. P.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[Crossref]

Armengol, J. M. P.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baister, G.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barbieri, C.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and J.-M. Robert, “Privacy amplification by public discussion,” SIAM J. Comput. 17(2), 210–229 (1988).
[Crossref]

Berk, A.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, L. S.

A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
[Crossref]

Black, J. P.

M. T. Gruneisen, B. A. Sickmiller, M. B. Flanagan, J. P. Black, K. E. Stoltenberg, and A. W. Duchane, “Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925404 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonato, C.

A. Tomaello, C. Bonato, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Link budget and background noise for satellite quantum key distribution,” Adv. Space Res. 47(5), 802–810 (2011).
[Crossref]

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W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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A. Tomaello, C. Bonato, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Link budget and background noise for satellite quantum key distribution,” Adv. Space Res. 47(5), 802–810 (2011).
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C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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Frick, S.

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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
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M. T. Gruneisen, B. A. Sickmiller, M. B. Flanagan, J. P. Black, K. E. Stoltenberg, and A. W. Duchane, “Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925404 (2014).
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E. Miao, Z. Han, S. Gong, T. Zhang, D. Diao, and G. Guo, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005).
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T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
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E. Miao, Z. Han, S. Gong, T. Zhang, D. Diao, and G. Guo, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
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Higgins, B. L.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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Ho, C.

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045007 (2009).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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Holloway, C.

T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
[Crossref]

Horwath, J.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air to ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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Hudson, D.

T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and Future Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002).
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R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
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Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jia, J.-J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Jiang, H.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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Kedia, S.

S. Ramachandran, R. Srivastava, S. Kedia, and T. A. Rajesh, “Contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to optical properties and radiative effects over an urban location,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7(3), 034028 (2012).
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Knight, P.

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koyama, Y.

Kumar, B.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kunimori, H.

Kurtsiefer, C.

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045007 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations - description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(7), 1855–1877 (2005).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045007 (2009).
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Lamoreaux, S. K.

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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Leeb, W.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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J. G. Acker and G. Leptoukh, “Online analysis enhances use of NASA Earth science data,” Eos Trans. AGU 88(2), 14–17 (2007).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Lo, H.-K.

X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
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H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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H.-K. Lo, X. Ma, and K. Chen, “Decoy state quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(23), 230504 (2005).
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X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
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B. Mayer and A. Kylling, “The libRadtran software package for radiative transfer calculations - description and examples of use,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5(7), 1855–1877 (2005).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Hübel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of low Earth orbit satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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Moll, F.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air to ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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Morgan, G. L.

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and Future Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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A. Tomaello, C. Bonato, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Link budget and background noise for satellite quantum key distribution,” Adv. Space Res. 47(5), 802–810 (2011).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air to ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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Nordholt, J. E.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
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J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and Future Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Pan, J.-W.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Peev, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045007 (2009).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Perdigues, J.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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Peterson, C. G.

R. J. Hughes, J. E. Nordholt, D. Derkacs, and C. G. Peterson, “Practical free-space quantum key distribution over 10 km in daylight and at night,” New J. Phys. 4, 43 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and Future Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfennigbauer, M.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
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Qi, B.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rajesh, T. A.

S. Ramachandran, R. Srivastava, S. Kedia, and T. A. Rajesh, “Contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to optical properties and radiative effects over an urban location,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7(3), 034028 (2012).
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S. Ramachandran, R. Srivastava, S. Kedia, and T. A. Rajesh, “Contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to optical properties and radiative effects over an urban location,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7(3), 034028 (2012).
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Rarity, J.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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Rarity, J. G.

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rau, M.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air to ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dušek, N. Lütkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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Scheidl, T.

T. Scheidl, E. Wille, and R. Ursin, “Quantum optics experiments using the International Space Station: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043008 (2013).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Manderbach, T.

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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Seeds, A. J.

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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X. Shan, X. Sun, J. Luo, Z. Tan, and M. Zhan, “Free-space quantum key distribution with Rb vapor filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191121 (2006).
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Shaw, J. A.

Shen, Q.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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E. P. Shettle, “Models of aerosols, clouds, and precipitation for atmospheric propagation studies,” Atmospheric Propagation in the UV ,Visible, IR and MM-Wave Region and Related Systems Aspects (AGARD-CP-454) 15, 1–13 (1990).

Shoji, Y.

Sickmiller, B. A.

M. T. Gruneisen, B. A. Sickmiller, M. B. Flanagan, J. P. Black, K. E. Stoltenberg, and A. W. Duchane, “Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925404 (2014).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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S. Ramachandran, R. Srivastava, S. Kedia, and T. A. Rajesh, “Contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to optical properties and radiative effects over an urban location,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7(3), 034028 (2012).
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M. T. Gruneisen, B. A. Sickmiller, M. B. Flanagan, J. P. Black, K. E. Stoltenberg, and A. W. Duchane, “Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925404 (2014).
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X. Shan, X. Sun, J. Luo, Z. Tan, and M. Zhan, “Free-space quantum key distribution with Rb vapor filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191121 (2006).
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Takayama, Y.

Takenaka, H.

Tan, Z.

X. Shan, X. Sun, J. Luo, Z. Tan, and M. Zhan, “Free-space quantum key distribution with Rb vapor filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191121 (2006).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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A. Tomaello, C. Bonato, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Link budget and background noise for satellite quantum key distribution,” Adv. Space Res. 47(5), 802–810 (2011).
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C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
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T. Scheidl, E. Wille, and R. Ursin, “Quantum optics experiments using the International Space Station: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043008 (2013).
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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66(1), 1–16 (1998).
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A. Tomaello, C. Bonato, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Link budget and background noise for satellite quantum key distribution,” Adv. Space Res. 47(5), 802–810 (2011).
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C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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Weinfurter, H.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air to ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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T. Scheidl, E. Wille, and R. Ursin, “Quantum optics experiments using the International Space Station: a proposal,” New J. Phys. 15(4), 043008 (2013).
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J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and Future Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002).
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W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299(5886), 802–803 (1982).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Yin, J.

J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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Zee, R.

T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
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J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fürst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J. G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, and H. Weinfurter, “Experimental Demonstration of Free-Space Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution over 144 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(1), 010504 (2007).
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Zhan, M.

X. Shan, X. Sun, J. Luo, Z. Tan, and M. Zhan, “Free-space quantum key distribution with Rb vapor filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191121 (2006).
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J.-Y. Wang, B. Yang, S.-K. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X.-F. Hu, J.-C. Wu, S.-J. Yang, H. Jiang, Y.-L. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W.-Y. Liu, Y.-H. Hu, Y.-M. Huang, B. Qi, J.-G. Ren, G.-S. Pan, J. Yin, J.-J. Jia, Y.-A. Chen, K. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground–satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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X. Ma, B. Qi, Y. Zhao, and H.-K. Lo, “Practical decoy state for quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 72(1), 012326 (2005).
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W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299(5886), 802–803 (1982).
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Acta Astronaut. (1)

J. M. P. Armengol, B. Furch, C. J. de Matos, O. Minster, L. Cacciapuoti, M. Pfennigbauer, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, T. Schmitt-Manderbach, G. Baister, J. Rarity, W. Leeb, C. Barbieri, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum communications at ESA: Towards a space experiment on the ISS,” Acta Astronaut. 63(1-4), 165–178 (2008).
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Adv. Space Res. (1)

A. Tomaello, C. Bonato, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Link budget and background noise for satellite quantum key distribution,” Adv. Space Res. 47(5), 802–810 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. Shan, X. Sun, J. Luo, Z. Tan, and M. Zhan, “Free-space quantum key distribution with Rb vapor filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191121 (2006).
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Environ. Res. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran, R. Srivastava, S. Kedia, and T. A. Rajesh, “Contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to optical properties and radiative effects over an urban location,” Environ. Res. Lett. 7(3), 034028 (2012).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air to ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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Nature (1)

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E. Miao, Z. Han, S. Gong, T. Zhang, D. Diao, and G. Guo, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7, 215 (2005).
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C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
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J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, P. M. Gorman, and P. Knight, “Ground to satellite secure key exchange using quantum cryptography,” New J. Phys. 4, 82 (2002).
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W. T. Buttler, R. J. Hughes, S. K. Lamoreaux, G. L. Morgan, J. E. Nordholt, and C. G. Peterson, “Daylight quantum key distribution over 1.6 km,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(24), 5652–5655 (2000).
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Proc. SPIE (5)

T. Jennewein, J. P. Bourgoin, B. Higgins, C. Holloway, E. Meyer-Scott, C. Erven, B. Heim, Z. Yan, H. Hübel, G. Weihs, E. Choi, I. D’Souza, D. Hudson, and R. Laflamme, “QEYSSAT: a mission proposal for a quantum receiver in space,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 89970A (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Jennewein, C. Grant, E. Choi, C. Pugh, C. Holloway, J.-P. Bourgoin, H. Hakim, B. Higgins, and R. Zee, “The NanoQEY Mission: Ground to Space Quantum Key and Entanglement Distribution Using a Nanosatellite,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925402 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. E. Nordholt, R. J. Hughes, G. L. Morgan, C. G. Peterson, and C. C. Wipf, “Present and Future Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution,” Proc. SPIE 4635, 116–126 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. T. Gruneisen, B. A. Sickmiller, M. B. Flanagan, J. P. Black, K. E. Stoltenberg, and A. W. Duchane, “Adaptive spatial filtering for daytime satellite quantum key distribution,” Proc. SPIE 9254, 925404 (2014).
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A. Berk, G. P. Anderson, P. K. Acharya, L. S. Bernstein, L. Muratov, J. Lee, M. Fox, S. M. Adler-Golden, J. H. Chetwynd, M. L. Hoke, R. B. Lockwood, J. A. Gardner, T. W. Cooley, C. C. Borel, P. E. Lewis, and E. P. Shettle, “MODTRAN 5: 2006 update,” Proc. SPIE 6233, 62331F (2006).
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Supplementary Material (8)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: AVI (8286 KB)      Visualization 1: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 5(a)
» Visualization 2: AVI (8286 KB)      Visualization 2: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 5(b)
» Visualization 3: AVI (8286 KB)      Visualization 3: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 5(c)
» Visualization 4: AVI (8286 KB)      Visualization 4: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 5(d)
» Visualization 5: AVI (11836 KB)      Visualization 5: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 6(a)
» Visualization 6: AVI (11836 KB)      Visualization 6: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 6(b)
» Visualization 7: AVI (11836 KB)      Visualization 7: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 6(c)
» Visualization 8: AVI (11836 KB)      Visualization 8: Time-sequenced QBER sky map for Fig. 6(d)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustrating key components of a QKD optical receiver including a primary optic of diameter DR and focal length f, a field stop of diameter d that defines the solid angle field of view (FOV), ΩFOV, and linear angle FOV, Δθ, a non-polarizing 50/50 beam splitter (BS), a half-wave plate (λ/2), polarizing beam splitters (PBS), spectral filters with bandpass Δλ, and Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (APD) with gate duration Δt.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Color density maps of the calculated sky radiance in Albuquerque, NM on (a) December 21 at 12:00 local time and (b) June 21 at 13:00 along with overlays of simulated satellite passes.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sky radiance vs time for the 400-km altitude satellite passes shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated secure key rate (a) as a function of μ for a 400-km altitude orbit at 0°, 30°, 45°, and 55° from zenith and (b) as a function of Eμ for 400-km and 800-km altitude orbits at 0° and 75° from zenith.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Time-sequenced hemispherical maps of the daytime QBER, Eμ, calculated for December 21. Single-frame excerpts show QBER zones near sunrise. The frames in the animations are calculated in 30 minute increments between sunrise and sunset. The region near the sun is occulted by a black disk. Regions of QBER are shown in color. Results calculated for a 0.2-nm bandpass spectral filter are shown for (a) a 400-km circular orbit (see Visualization 1) and (b) an 800-km circular orbit (see Visualization 2). Results for a 0.004-nm bandpass ALF are shown for (c) a 400-km circular orbit (see Visualization 3) and (d) an 800-km circular orbit (see Visualization 4). The visualizations illustrate the times of day and regions of the sky where satellite QKD could be possible.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Time-sequenced hemispherical maps of the daytime QBER, Eμ, calculated for June 21. Single-frame excerpts show QBER zones near sunrise. The frames in the animations are calculated in 30 minute increments between sunrise and sunset. The region near the sun is occulted by a black disk. Regions of QBER are shown in color. Results calculated for a 0.2-nm bandpass spectral filter are shown for (a) a 400-km circular orbit (see Visualization 5) and (b) an 800-km circular orbit (see Visualization 6). Results for a 0.004-nm bandpass ALF are shown for (c) a 400-km circular orbit (see Visualization 7) and (d) an 800-km circular orbit (see Visualization 8). The visualizations illustrate the times of day and regions of the sky where satellite QKD could be possible.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Aerosol Parameters at 780-nm Wavelength for the Albuquerque, NM region

Equations (8)

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N b = H b Ω FOV π R 2 λΔλΔt hc ,
Rq{ Q μ f( E μ ) H 2 ( E μ )+ Q 1 [ 1 H 2 ( e 1 ) ] },
Q μ = Y 0 +1 e ημ ,
Q 1 = μ 2 e μ μν ν 2 ( Q ν e ν Q μ e μ ν 2 μ 2 μ 2 ν 2 μ 2 Y 0 ),
e 1 = E ν Q ν e ν e 0 Y 0 Y 1 ν ,
Y 1 = μ μν ν 2 ( Q ν e ν Q μ e μ ν 2 μ 2 μ 2 ν 2 μ 2 Y 0 ).
E μ = e 0 Y 0 + e detector ( 1 e ημ ) Y 0 +1 e ημ ,
Y 0 = N b η receiver η spectral η detector +4 f dark Δt,

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