Abstract

Surface grating couplers are fundamental components in chip-based photonic devices to couple light between photonic integrated circuits and optical fibers. In this work, we report on a grating coupler with sub-decibel experimental coupling efficiency using a single etch process in a standard 220-nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform. We specifically demonstrate a subwavelength metamaterial refractive index engineered nanostructure with backside metal reflector, with the measured peak fiber-chip coupling efficiency of −0.69 dB (85.3%) and 3 dB bandwidth of 60 nm. This is the highest coupling efficiency hitherto experimentally achieved for a surface grating coupler implemented in 220-nm SOI platform.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

A Bozzola, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimising apodized grating couplers in a pure SOI platform to −0.5 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16289–16304 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing polarization-diversity couplers for Si-photonics: reaching the −1 dB coupling efficiency threshold,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14769–14781 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, Ch. Peucheret, H. Ou, and K. Yvind, “Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with −0.58 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5348–5350 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina- Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Li, K. S. Chee, J. Tao, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Silicon photonics packaging with lateral fiber coupling to apodized grating coupler embedded circuit,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24235–24240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

B. Snyder and P. OBrien, “Packaging process for grating-coupled silicon photonic waveguides using angle-polished fibers,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. 3(6), 954–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Broadband focusing grating couplers for suspended-membrane waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5181–5183 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nanophotonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), S67–S72 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. 2, 466–475 (1956).

Abdalla, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Absil, P.

Alduino, A.

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Andreani, L. C.

Ayre, M.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baets, R. G.

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bakir, B. B.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bedard, D.

Benedikovic, D.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bernabé, S.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berroth, M.

Bock, P.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bozzola, A

Burghartz, J.

Butschke, J.

Can, Z.

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Carroll, L.

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina- Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir, “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15189–15200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chee, K. S.

Chen, K. K.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Broadband focusing grating couplers for suspended-membrane waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5181–5183 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z.

Cristiani, I.

Dado, M.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Dobbelaere, P. M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Densmore, A.

Ding, Y.

Duan, N.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Fang, Q.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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Gerace, D.

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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

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C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir, “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15189–15200 (2010).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
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Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of a high-efficiency polarization splitter based on a one-dimensional grating with a Bragg reflector underneath,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1568–1570 (2010).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

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R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
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Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
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M. Fan, M. Popović, and F. X. Kartner, “High directivity, vertical fiber-to-chip coupler with anisotropically radiating grating teeth,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Keyvaninia, S.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
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Kunze, A.

Lapointe, J.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
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Letzkus, F.

Li, C.

Li, L.

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Li, Y.

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
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Liang, Y.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Lim, A.-J.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liow, T.-Y.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Ma, R.

Mack, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

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Molina-Fernández, I.

Nedeljkovic, M.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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B. Snyder and P. OBrien, “Packaging process for grating-coupled silicon photonic waveguides using angle-polished fibers,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. 3(6), 954–959 (2013).
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Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
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D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina- Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5351–5354 (2014).
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L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res 123, 447–465 (2012).
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C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir, “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15189–15200 (2010).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

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Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

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M. Fan, M. Popović, and F. X. Kartner, “High directivity, vertical fiber-to-chip coupler with anisotropically radiating grating teeth,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

Porte, H.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
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D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Schmid, J. H.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina- Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schrank, F.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Selvaraja, S.

Selvaraja, S. K.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
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Sharp, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Snyder, B.

B. Snyder and P. OBrien, “Packaging process for grating-coupled silicon photonic waveguides using angle-polished fibers,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. 3(6), 954–959 (2013).
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Song, J.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
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Sun, P.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tan, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Tang, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of a high-efficiency polarization splitter based on a one-dimensional grating with a Bragg reflector underneath,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1568–1570 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tao, C.

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
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Tao, J.

Tekin, T.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tern, R.-C.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tian, B.

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tsang, H. K.

Tu, X.

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van Thourhout, D.

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Verheyen, P.

Vermeulen, D.

Verslegers, L.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nanophotonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), S67–S72 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vogel, W.

Wang, S.

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of a high-efficiency polarization splitter based on a one-dimensional grating with a Bragg reflector underneath,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1568–1570 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wanguemert-Pérez, J. G.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei-Min, S.

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Welch, B. P.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Wong, C. Y.

Wosinski, L.

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of a high-efficiency polarization splitter based on a one-dimensional grating with a Bragg reflector underneath,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1568–1570 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xi, X.

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xiao-Jun, Z.

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, D.-X.

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina- Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, K.

Yokoyama, K.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Yu, M.

Yu, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Yu-De, Y.

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

Zaoui, W. S.

Zavargo-Peche, L.

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir, “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15189–15200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Zimmermann, L.

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chinese Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Can, S. Jing-Hua, X. Xi, S. Wei-Min, Z. Xiao-Jun, C. Tao, Y. Jin-Zhong, and Y. Yu-De, “High efficiency grating coupler for coupling between single-mode fiber and SOI waveguides,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 30(1), 014207 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Y. Vlasov, “Silicon CMOS-integrated nanophotonics for computer and data communications beyond 100G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(2), S67–S72 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

A.-J. Lim, J. Song, Q. Fang, C. Li, X. Tu, N. Duan, K. K. Chen, R.-C. Tern, and T.-Y. Liow, “Review of silicon photonics foundry efforts,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 405–416 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ch. Kopp, S. Bernabé, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fédéli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: On-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 498–509 (2011).
[Crossref]

D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, and S. K. Selvaraja, “Silicon photonic integration platform Have we found the sweet spot,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(4), 189–205 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Micro (1)

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Nanoholes grating couplers for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 184–190 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Wang, Y. Tang, L. Wosinski, and S. He, “Experimental demonstration of a high-efficiency polarization splitter based on a one-dimensional grating with a Bragg reflector underneath,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(21), 1568–1570 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic Tech L (1)

Y. Li, L. Li, B. Tian, G. Roelkens, and R. G. Baets, “Reflectionless tilted grating couplers with improved coupling efficiency based on a silicon overlay,” IEEE Photonic Tech L 25(13), 1195–1198 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. (1)

B. Snyder and P. OBrien, “Packaging process for grating-coupled silicon photonic waveguides using angle-polished fibers,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. 3(6), 954–959 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Light-wave Technol. (1)

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, “Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides,” J. Light-wave Technol. 25(1), 151–156 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon Rev (2)

D. Benedikovic, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, J. Lapointe, S. Wang, R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, S. Janz, and M. Dado, “High-efficiency single etch step apodized surface grating coupler using subwavelength structure,” Laser Photon Rev 8(6), L93–L97 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, and S. Janz, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon Rev 9(1), 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Rickman, “The commercialization of silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 579–582 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

A Bozzola, L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimising apodized grating couplers in a pure SOI platform to −0.5 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16289–16304 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “CMOS-compatible high efficiency double-etched apodized waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7868–7874 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. S. Zaoui, A. Kunze, W. Vogel, M. Berroth, J. Butschke, F. Letzkus, and J. Burghartz, “Bridging the gap between optical fibers and silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1277–1286 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Carroll, D. Gerace, I. Cristiani, and L. C. Andreani, “Optimizing polarization-diversity couplers for Si-photonics: reaching the −1 dB coupling efficiency threshold,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14769–14781 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, L. Zavargo-Peche, and R. Halir, “Efficient fiber-to-chip grating coupler for micrometric SOI rib waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15189–15200 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, K. S. Chee, J. Tao, H. Zhang, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Silicon photonics packaging with lateral fiber coupling to apodized grating coupler embedded circuit,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24235–24240 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

X. Chen and H. K. Tsang, “Polarization-independent grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 796–798 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, K. Xu, Z. Cheng, C. K. Fung, and H. K. Tsang, “Wideband subwavelength gratings for coupling between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3483–3485 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Cheng, X. Chen, C. Y. Wong, K. Xu, and H. K. Tsang, “Broadband focusing grating couplers for suspended-membrane waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5181–5183 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ding, Ch. Peucheret, H. Ou, and K. Yvind, “Fully etched apodized grating coupler on the SOI platform with −0.58 dB coupling efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(18), 5348–5350 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, R. Ma, D. Bedard, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, J. Lapointe, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler with refractive index engineered sub-wavelength structure,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3243–3245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alonso-Ramos, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, and I. Molina- Fernández, “Fiber-chip grating coupler based on interleaved trenches with directionality exceeding 95%,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5351–5354 (2014).
[Crossref]

Prog. Electromagn. Res (1)

L. Zavargo-Peche, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wanguemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, “Fourier based combined techniques to design novel sub-wavelength optical integrated devices,” Prog. Electromagn. Res 123, 447–465 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. 2, 466–475 (1956).

Other (3)

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, M. Sharp, P. Sun, D. Tan, L. Verslegers, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, S. Yu, and P. M. De Dobbelaere, “A CMOS photonics platform for high-speed optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 356–357.

Optiwave [Online]., Available: http://www.optiwave.com/ .

M. Fan, M. Popović, and F. X. Kartner, “High directivity, vertical fiber-to-chip coupler with anisotropically radiating grating teeth,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuDD3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of metamaterial index engineered grating coupler with a metal reflector. (a) Side view, (b) top view.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Power radiated upwards as a function of BOX thickness and coupling angle for a uniform fiber-chip grating coupler. (b) Diffracted power as a function of wavelength for uniform grating couplers with a nominal coupling angle of 10° and optimized coupling angle of 27° for a SOI wafer with BOX thickness of 3 μm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Calculated coupling efficiency for an apodized grating coupler as a function of number apodized periods, for different ranges of SWG effective refractive indexes. (b) Calculated coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for uniform grating couplers with 10° and 27° coupling angles, and for apodized grating couplers with and without bottom mirror.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for a continuously apodized surface grating coupler with aluminum mirror. Inset: a magnified view of Fabry-Perot ripple near the peak wavelength. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the apodized coupler region. Optical micrographs of (c) layout with different grating couplers and (d) detail view of four grating couplers with the aluminum bottom mirror.

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