Abstract

We demonstrate how the optical transmission by a directly illuminated, sub-wavelength slit in a metal film can be dynamically controlled by varying the incident beam’s phase relative to that of a stream of surface plasmon polaritions which are generated at a nearby grating. The transmission can be smoothly altered from its maximum value to practically zero. The results from a simple model and from rigorous numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with our experimental results. Our method may be applied in all-optical switching.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  2. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. S. B. Raghunathan, C. H. Gan, T. van Dijk, B. EaKim, H. F. Schouten, W. Ubachs, P. Lalanne, and T. D. Visser, “Plasmon switching: observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by selective mode excitation in a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 20, 15326–15335 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  12. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single sub-wavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239, 61–66 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-λ metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453–469 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1995).
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  21. H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Creation and annihilation of phase singularities near a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 11, 371–380 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-λ metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453–469 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single sub-wavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239, 61–66 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

’t Hooft, G. W.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Creation and annihilation of phase singularities near a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 11, 371–380 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1995).

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, A. M.

M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single sub-wavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239, 61–66 (2004).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

EaKim, B.

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single sub-wavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239, 61–66 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Eliel, E. R.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gan, C. H.

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gbur, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Creation and annihilation of phase singularities near a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 11, 371–380 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hecht, B.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2012).
[Crossref]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-λ metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453–469 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kato, J.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, I.-M.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leitner, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. F. Schouten, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, D. Lenstra, and H. Blok, “Creation and annihilation of phase singularities near a sub-wavelength slit,” Opt. Express 11, 371–380 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single sub-wavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239, 61–66 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. T.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-λ metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453–469 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, R.

R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moreno, E.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2012).
[Crossref]

Ota, S.

R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Porto, J. A.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

Raghunathan, S. B.

Schouten, H. F.

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheldon, M. T.

M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Turunen, J.

J. Turunen, “Diffraction theory of microrelief gratings,” in Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and ApplicationsH. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor and Francis, 1997).

Ubachs, W.

van de Groep, J.

M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Dijk, T.

Visser, T. D.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-λ metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453–469 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1995).

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Won, J.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, N.

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single sub-wavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239, 61–66 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, 273–279 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

R. Ma, S. Ota, Y. Li, S. Yang, and X. Zhang, “Explosives detection in a lasing plasmon nanocavity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 600–604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460, 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Optical transmission properties of a single sub-wavelength aperture in a real metal,” Opt. Commun. 239, 61–66 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779–6782 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 103901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. ’t Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white-light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Sheldon, J. van de Groep, A. M. Brown, A. Polman, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmoelectric potentials in metal nanostructures,” Science 346, 828–831 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, H. T. Liu, and B. Wang, “A microscopic view of the electromagnetic properties of sub-λ metallic surfaces,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 64, 453–469 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, 1988).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 2012).
[Crossref]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1995).

J. Turunen, “Diffraction theory of microrelief gratings,” in Micro-optics: Elements, Systems and ApplicationsH. P. Herzig, ed. (Taylor and Francis, 1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of plasmon-controlled light transmission through a metallic nano-slit. Beam A is normally incident onto the slit, whereas beam B illuminates the grating under an angle θi and produces SPPs that travel towards the slit. This creates a coherent superposition of two TM0 modes within the slit. A tunable phase between the two beams leads to a varying phase difference δ between the two modes and modifies their interference, and thereby controls the intensity of the transmitted field C.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Simulation of the field intensity |E|2 in a plane at a distance 400 nm behind the exit of the slit. The lowest curve (blue) shows the zero field that occurs when beams A and B are out of phase (δ = π) and their interference is destructive. The middle curve (black) is the field due to either beam A or beam B alone. The highest curve (red) represents the field when the interference is constructive (δ = 0).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Poynting vector near a subwavelength slit. (a) Only the normally incident beam A is present. (b) Only the plasmon-generating beam B is present. (c) Constructive interference (δ = 0) leads to enhanced optical transmission. (d) Destructive interference (δ = π) leads to a near-zero transmission. In these figures the Poynting vector is shown as arrows whose color indicates their magnitude. The black lines define the metallic film and the TiO2 layer with the slit, deposited on top of a silica substrate. For clarity, the Poynting vectors within the metal plate are not shown.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic diagram of the setup and the parameters of the slit-grating system. A grating with period d = 951 nm and a slit with width a = 170 nm are etched on an aluminum layer on top of a silica substrate. A protective 10 nm TiO2 layer is deposited on the aluminum. The layer depth z = 400 nm, the binary grating height h = 130 nm, and the slit-to-grating distance r = 25 μm. The path lengths of beams A and B are set approximately equal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized total intensities, set to I = 1 at rb = 0 μm, of the field transmitted through the slit when the tilted beam B is focused at different distances rb from the slit. (a) The grating is present, and there is a sudden rise of the intensity at the position of the grating. (b) No grating is present, and the intensity keeps dropping as the center of beam-to-grating distance rb is increased.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental demonstration of SPP-controlled transmission. The intensity transmitted through the slit (solid black line) varies as a function of the glass-plate rotation angle θ. The angle-averaged intensities of the two individual beams, IA and IB, are shown as blue and red dashed lines, respectively. The average peak value, Iavg, is plotted as a green dashed line. When the mode fields produced by the two beams are in phase, the total transmission rises approximately fourfold, when they are out of phase the intensity is nearly zero. (a) Experiment with rotation range 0°–3° with starting angle ~2°, and (b) a second experiment with range 0°–1.7° with starting angle 1°. The standard deviations of the individual beam intensities are about 6% in case (a) and 4% in case (b).

Equations (1)

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I = | A A | 2 + | A B | 2 + 2 | A A | | A B | cos δ ,

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