Abstract

A polarization-resolved beam deflection technique is used to separate the bound-electronic and molecular rotational components of nonlinear refractive transients of molecular gases. Coherent rotational revivals from N2, O2, and two isotopologues of carbon disulfide (CS2), are identified in gaseous mixtures. Dephasing rates, rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of each species are measured. Polarization at the magic angle allows unambiguous measurement of the bound-electronic nonlinear refractive index of air and second hyperpolarizability of CS2. Agreement between gas and liquid phase second hyperpolarizability measurements is found using the Lorentz-Lorenz local field correction.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

Matthew Reichert, Peng Zhao, Jennifer M. Reed, Trenton R. Ensley, David J. Hagan, and Eric W. Van Stryland, "Beam deflection measurement of bound-electronic and rotational nonlinear refraction in molecular gases: erratum," Opt. Express 24, 19122-19122 (2016)
http://proxy.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-24-17-19122

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References

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2015 (1)

G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

U. Steinitz, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Optics of a gas of coherently spinning molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 013004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular gas hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, and V. Milner, “Coherent spin–rotational dynamics of oxygen superrotors,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 093038 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Effects of ultrafast molecular rotation on collisional decoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 043005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ni, W. Chu, H. Zhang, B. Zeng, J. Yao, L. Qiao, G. Li, C. Jing, H. Xie, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Impulsive rotational Raman scattering of N2 by a remote “air laser” in femtosecond laser filament,” Opt. Lett. 39(8), 2250–2253 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Reichert, H. Hu, M. R. Ferdinandus, M. Seidel, P. Zhao, T. R. Ensley, D. Peceli, J. M. Reed, D. A. Fishman, S. Webster, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Temporal, spectral, and polarization dependence of the nonlinear optical response of carbon disulfide,” Optica 1(6), 436–445 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. R. Ferdinandus, H. Hu, M. Reichert, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Beam deflection measurement of time and polarization resolved ultrafast nonlinear refraction,” Opt. Lett. 38(18), 3518–3521 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Korech, U. Steinitz, R. J. Gordon, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Observing molecular spinning via the rotational Doppler effect,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Floss, T. Grohmann, M. Leibscher, and T. Seideman, “Nuclear spin selective laser control of rotational and torsional dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(8), 084309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043820 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, “Linear refractive index and absorption measurements of nonlinear optical liquids in the visible and near-infrared spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(11), 1588–1611 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “High Field Optical Nonlinearity and the Kramers-Kronig Relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(11), 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 103901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, and S. Stagira, “Optical propagation in molecular gases undergoing filamentation-assisted field-free alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023827 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: High-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: high-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. F. Lee, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, “Phase control of rotational wave packets and quantum information,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Samoc, “Dispersion of refractive properties of solvents: Chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6167–6174 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. A. Smith and S. R. Meech, “Optically-heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE): Applications in condensed phase dynamics,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21(1), 75–100 (2002).

2001 (1)

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

H. Stapelfeldt, E. Constant, H. Sakai, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging: A method to measure structure and dynamics of molecular nuclear wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 426–433 (1998).

1997 (2)

Y. Sato, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Study on ultrafast dynamic behaviors of different nonlinear refractive index components in CS2 using a femtosecond interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 4A), 2109–2115 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Ohta, T. Sakaguchi, K. Kamada, and T. Fukumi, “Ab initio molecular orbital calculation of the second hyperpolarizability of the carbon disulfide molecule: electron correlation and frequency dispersion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 274(1–3), 306–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, “Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 3–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

L. Martinsson, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti‐Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(4), 2466–2477 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, “Problems in the comparison of theoretical and experimental hyperpolarizabilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(10), 7590–7599 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

R. K. Raj, D. Bloch, J. J. Snyder, G. Camy, and M. Ducloy, “High-frequency optically heterodyned saturation spectroscopy via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44(19), 1251–1254 (1980).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

M. P. Bogaard, A. D. Buckingham, R. K. Pierens, and A. H. White, “Rayleigh scattering depolarization ratio and molecular polarizability anisotropy for gases,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 74(0), 3008–3015 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (2)

J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, and C. H. Lin, “Observation of coherent transient birefringence in CS2 vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(21), 1299–1302 (1975).
[Crossref]

L. C. Hoskins, “Pure rotational Raman spectroscopy of diatomic molecules,” J. Chem. Educ. 52(9), 568 (1975).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, and T. K. Gustafson, “Susceptibility echoes in linear molecular gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(10), 397–400 (1971).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

N. J. Bridge and A. D. Buckingham, “The polarization of laser light scattered by gases,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 295(1442), 334–349 (1966).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

D. Agar, E. K. Plyler, and E. D. Tidwell, “High resolution investigation of some infrared bands of carbon disulfide,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A 66A(3), 259–268 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

1942 (1)

G. Herzberg, “l-type doubling in linear polyatomic molecules,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 14(2–3), 219–223 (1942).
[Crossref]

Agar, D.

D. Agar, E. K. Plyler, and E. D. Tidwell, “High resolution investigation of some infrared bands of carbon disulfide,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A 66A(3), 259–268 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aldén, M.

L. Martinsson, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti‐Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(4), 2466–2477 (1993).
[Crossref]

Antonsen, T.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Averbukh, I. S.

O. Korech, U. Steinitz, R. J. Gordon, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Observing molecular spinning via the rotational Doppler effect,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013).
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C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
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C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 103901 (2011).
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H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
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S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
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Cheng, Y.

Cheng, Y. H.

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043820 (2012).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “High Field Optical Nonlinearity and the Kramers-Kronig Relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(11), 113904 (2012).
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J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 103901 (2011).
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H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
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Chin, S. L.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
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Dubois, J.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
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R. K. Raj, D. Bloch, J. J. Snyder, G. Camy, and M. Ducloy, “High-frequency optically heterodyned saturation spectroscopy via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44(19), 1251–1254 (1980).
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J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
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Ensley, T. R.

Fallahkair, A.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
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G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
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Fishman, D. A.

Floss, J.

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D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: High-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: high-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).
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K. Ohta, T. Sakaguchi, K. Kamada, and T. Fukumi, “Ab initio molecular orbital calculation of the second hyperpolarizability of the carbon disulfide molecule: electron correlation and frequency dispersion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 274(1–3), 306–314 (1997).
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C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gershnabel, E.

G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
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Gissibl, T.

Gordon, R. J.

O. Korech, U. Steinitz, R. J. Gordon, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Observing molecular spinning via the rotational Doppler effect,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013).
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Greene, C. H.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2001).
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Grohmann, T.

J. Floss, T. Grohmann, M. Leibscher, and T. Seideman, “Nuclear spin selective laser control of rotational and torsional dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(8), 084309 (2012).
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C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
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J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, and C. H. Lin, “Observation of coherent transient birefringence in CS2 vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(21), 1299–1302 (1975).
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C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, and T. K. Gustafson, “Susceptibility echoes in linear molecular gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(10), 397–400 (1971).
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Hartmann, J. M.

G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
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A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Effects of ultrafast molecular rotation on collisional decoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 043005 (2014).
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C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
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J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, and C. H. Lin, “Observation of coherent transient birefringence in CS2 vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(21), 1299–1302 (1975).
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C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, and T. K. Gustafson, “Susceptibility echoes in linear molecular gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(10), 397–400 (1971).
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G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
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Jhajj, N.

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
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Jing, C.

Kamada, K.

K. Ohta, T. Sakaguchi, K. Kamada, and T. Fukumi, “Ab initio molecular orbital calculation of the second hyperpolarizability of the carbon disulfide molecule: electron correlation and frequency dispersion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 274(1–3), 306–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karras, G.

G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
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Kedenburg, S.

Kenney-Wallace, G. A.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
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Korech, O.

O. Korech, U. Steinitz, R. J. Gordon, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Observing molecular spinning via the rotational Doppler effect,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013).
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Korobenko, A.

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Effects of ultrafast molecular rotation on collisional decoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 043005 (2014).
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A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, and V. Milner, “Coherent spin–rotational dynamics of oxygen superrotors,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 093038 (2014).
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Kröll, S.

L. Martinsson, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti‐Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(4), 2466–2477 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kummli, D. S.

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: high-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: High-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).

Lavorel, B.

G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

K. F. Lee, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, “Phase control of rotational wave packets and quantum information,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leibscher, M.

J. Floss, T. Grohmann, M. Leibscher, and T. Seideman, “Nuclear spin selective laser control of rotational and torsional dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(8), 084309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leutwyler, S.

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: High-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: high-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levis, R. J.

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, W.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, and C. H. Lin, “Observation of coherent transient birefringence in CS2 vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(21), 1299–1302 (1975).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, and T. K. Gustafson, “Susceptibility echoes in linear molecular gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(10), 397–400 (1971).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Lock, R.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lotshaw, W. T.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Marceau, C.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martinsson, L.

L. Martinsson, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti‐Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(4), 2466–2477 (1993).
[Crossref]

McCole, E. T.

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

McMorrow, D.

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

McTague, J. P.

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
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Meech, S. R.

N. A. Smith and S. R. Meech, “Optically-heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE): Applications in condensed phase dynamics,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21(1), 75–100 (2002).

Milchberg, H.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H. M.

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular gas hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043820 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “High Field Optical Nonlinearity and the Kramers-Kronig Relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(11), 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 103901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Chen, S. Varma, A. York, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot, space- and time-resolved measurement of rotational wavepacket revivals in H2, D2, N2, O2, and N2O,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11341–11357 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milner, A. A.

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Effects of ultrafast molecular rotation on collisional decoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 043005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, and V. Milner, “Coherent spin–rotational dynamics of oxygen superrotors,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 093038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Milner, V.

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, and V. Milner, “Coherent spin–rotational dynamics of oxygen superrotors,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 093038 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Effects of ultrafast molecular rotation on collisional decoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 043005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morita, R.

Y. Sato, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Study on ultrafast dynamic behaviors of different nonlinear refractive index components in CS2 using a femtosecond interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 4A), 2109–2115 (1997).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ni, J.

Odhner, J. H.

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ohta, K.

K. Ohta, T. Sakaguchi, K. Kamada, and T. Fukumi, “Ab initio molecular orbital calculation of the second hyperpolarizability of the carbon disulfide molecule: electron correlation and frequency dispersion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 274(1–3), 306–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Palastro, J.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Palastro, J. P.

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R. E.

Peceli, D.

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Pierens, R. K.

M. P. Bogaard, A. D. Buckingham, R. K. Pierens, and A. H. White, “Rayleigh scattering depolarization ratio and molecular polarizability anisotropy for gases,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 74(0), 3008–3015 (1978).
[Crossref]

Plyler, E. K.

D. Agar, E. K. Plyler, and E. D. Tidwell, “High resolution investigation of some infrared bands of carbon disulfide,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A 66A(3), 259–268 (1962).
[Crossref]

Prior, Y.

G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Steinitz, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Optics of a gas of coherently spinning molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 013004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Korech, U. Steinitz, R. J. Gordon, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Observing molecular spinning via the rotational Doppler effect,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L.

Rahn, L. A.

Raj, R. K.

R. K. Raj, D. Bloch, J. J. Snyder, G. Camy, and M. Ducloy, “High-frequency optically heterodyned saturation spectroscopy via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44(19), 1251–1254 (1980).
[Crossref]

Ramakrishna, S.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reed, J. M.

Reichert, M.

Rice, J. E.

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, “Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 3–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, “Problems in the comparison of theoretical and experimental hyperpolarizabilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(10), 7590–7599 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, E.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, E. W.

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, T.

K. Ohta, T. Sakaguchi, K. Kamada, and T. Fukumi, “Ab initio molecular orbital calculation of the second hyperpolarizability of the carbon disulfide molecule: electron correlation and frequency dispersion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 274(1–3), 306–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sakai, H.

H. Stapelfeldt, E. Constant, H. Sakai, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging: A method to measure structure and dynamics of molecular nuclear wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 426–433 (1998).

Samoc, A.

A. Samoc, “Dispersion of refractive properties of solvents: Chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6167–6174 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Study on ultrafast dynamic behaviors of different nonlinear refractive index components in CS2 using a femtosecond interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 4A), 2109–2115 (1997).
[Crossref]

Seidel, M.

Seideman, T.

J. Floss, T. Grohmann, M. Leibscher, and T. Seideman, “Nuclear spin selective laser control of rotational and torsional dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(8), 084309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, E. A.

K. F. Lee, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, “Phase control of rotational wave packets and quantum information,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shelton, D. P.

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, “Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 3–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, “Problems in the comparison of theoretical and experimental hyperpolarizabilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(10), 7590–7599 (1992).
[Crossref]

Smith, N. A.

N. A. Smith and S. R. Meech, “Optically-heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE): Applications in condensed phase dynamics,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21(1), 75–100 (2002).

Snyder, J. J.

R. K. Raj, D. Bloch, J. J. Snyder, G. Camy, and M. Ducloy, “High-frequency optically heterodyned saturation spectroscopy via resonant degenerate four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 44(19), 1251–1254 (1980).
[Crossref]

Stagira, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, and S. Stagira, “Optical propagation in molecular gases undergoing filamentation-assisted field-free alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023827 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stapelfeldt, H.

H. Stapelfeldt, E. Constant, H. Sakai, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging: A method to measure structure and dynamics of molecular nuclear wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 426–433 (1998).

Steinitz, U.

U. Steinitz, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Optics of a gas of coherently spinning molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 013004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Korech, U. Steinitz, R. J. Gordon, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Observing molecular spinning via the rotational Doppler effect,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013).
[Crossref]

Terazima, M.

Théberge, F.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tidwell, E. D.

D. Agar, E. K. Plyler, and E. D. Tidwell, “High resolution investigation of some infrared bands of carbon disulfide,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A 66A(3), 259–268 (1962).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Varma, S.

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Chen, S. Varma, A. York, and H. M. Milchberg, “Single-shot, space- and time-resolved measurement of rotational wavepacket revivals in H2, D2, N2, O2, and N2O,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11341–11357 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vieweg, M.

Villeneuve, D. M.

K. F. Lee, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, “Phase control of rotational wave packets and quantum information,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vozzi, C.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, and S. Stagira, “Optical propagation in molecular gases undergoing filamentation-assisted field-free alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023827 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wagner, N.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlstrand, J. K.

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular gas hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043820 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “High Field Optical Nonlinearity and the Kramers-Kronig Relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(11), 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 103901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.-J.

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Webster, S.

Weinacht, T. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, A. H.

M. P. Bogaard, A. D. Buckingham, R. K. Pierens, and A. H. White, “Rayleigh scattering depolarization ratio and molecular polarizability anisotropy for gases,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 74(0), 3008–3015 (1978).
[Crossref]

Willetts, A.

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, “Problems in the comparison of theoretical and experimental hyperpolarizabilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(10), 7590–7599 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

Xu, H.

Xu, Z.

Yamashita, M.

Y. Sato, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Study on ultrafast dynamic behaviors of different nonlinear refractive index components in CS2 using a femtosecond interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 4A), 2109–2115 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

York, A.

Zahedpour, S.

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular gas hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, B.

Zhang, H.

Zhao, P.

Zheltikov, A. M.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, and T. K. Gustafson, “Susceptibility echoes in linear molecular gases,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 19(10), 397–400 (1971).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Ohta, T. Sakaguchi, K. Kamada, and T. Fukumi, “Ab initio molecular orbital calculation of the second hyperpolarizability of the carbon disulfide molecule: electron correlation and frequency dispersion,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 274(1–3), 306–314 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

D. P. Shelton and J. E. Rice, “Measurements and calculations of the hyperpolarizabilities of atoms and small molecules in the gas phase,” Chem. Rev. 94(1), 3–29 (1994).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. McMorrow, W. T. Lotshaw, and G. A. Kenney-Wallace, “Femtosecond optical Kerr studies on the origin of the nonlinear responses in simple liquids,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(2), 443–454 (1988).
[Crossref]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

N. A. Smith and S. R. Meech, “Optically-heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (OHD-OKE): Applications in condensed phase dynamics,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21(1), 75–100 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Samoc, “Dispersion of refractive properties of solvents: Chloroform, toluene, benzene, and carbon disulfide in ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 6167–6174 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Chem Phys. (1)

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: High-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).

J. Chem. Educ. (1)

L. C. Hoskins, “Pure rotational Raman spectroscopy of diatomic molecules,” J. Chem. Educ. 52(9), 568 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (4)

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, “Problems in the comparison of theoretical and experimental hyperpolarizabilities,” J. Chem. Phys. 97(10), 7590–7599 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Floss, T. Grohmann, M. Leibscher, and T. Seideman, “Nuclear spin selective laser control of rotational and torsional dynamics,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(8), 084309 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. S. Kummli, H. M. Frey, and S. Leutwyler, “Femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing of carbon disulfide: high-accuracy rotational constants,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(14), 144307 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Martinsson, P. E. Bengtsson, M. Aldén, S. Kröll, and J. Bonamy, “A test of different rotational Raman linewidth models: Accuracy of rotational coherent anti‐Stokes Raman scattering thermometry in nitrogen from 295 to 1850 K,” J. Chem. Phys. 99(4), 2466–2477 (1993).
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J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. (1)

M. P. Bogaard, A. D. Buckingham, R. K. Pierens, and A. H. White, “Rayleigh scattering depolarization ratio and molecular polarizability anisotropy for gases,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 74(0), 3008–3015 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A (1)

D. Agar, E. K. Plyler, and E. D. Tidwell, “High resolution investigation of some infrared bands of carbon disulfide,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stan. A 66A(3), 259–268 (1962).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Sato, R. Morita, and M. Yamashita, “Study on ultrafast dynamic behaviors of different nonlinear refractive index components in CS2 using a femtosecond interferometer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 1, No. 4A), 2109–2115 (1997).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

O. Korech, U. Steinitz, R. J. Gordon, I. S. Averbukh, and Y. Prior, “Observing molecular spinning via the rotational Doppler effect,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, and V. Milner, “Coherent spin–rotational dynamics of oxygen superrotors,” New J. Phys. 16(9), 093038 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Marceau, S. Ramakrishna, S. Génier, T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, T. Seideman, and S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond filament induced birefringence in argon and in air: Ultrafast refractive index change,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2732–2736 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Plasmas (1)

H. M. Milchberg, Y.-H. Chen, Y.-H. Cheng, N. Jhajj, J. P. Palastro, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Varma, J. K. Wahlstrand, and S. Zahedpour, “The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation,” Phys. Plasmas 21(10), 100901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interactions between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127(6), 1918–1939 (1962).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

J. K. Wahlstrand, J. H. Odhner, E. T. McCole, Y. H. Cheng, J. P. Palastro, R. J. Levis, and H. M. Milchberg, “Effect of two-beam coupling in strong-field optical pump-probe experiments,” Phys. Rev. A 87(5), 053801 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Stapelfeldt, E. Constant, H. Sakai, and P. B. Corkum, “Time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging: A method to measure structure and dynamics of molecular nuclear wave packets,” Phys. Rev. A 58(1), 426–433 (1998).

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, and S. Stagira, “Optical propagation in molecular gases undergoing filamentation-assisted field-free alignment,” Phys. Rev. A 79(2), 023827 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. Palastro, A. Fallahkair, E. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. Milchberg, “Molecular quantum wake-induced pulse shaping and extension of femtosecond air filaments,” Phys. Rev. A 86(2), 023850 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, and J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarizability anisotropy of molecules in collisionless gases,” Phys. Rev. A 13(2), 813–829 (1976).
[Crossref]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Absolute measurement of the transient optical nonlinearity in N2, O2, N2O, and Ar,” Phys. Rev. A 85(4), 043820 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, and H. M. Milchberg, “High Field Optical Nonlinearity and the Kramers-Kronig Relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(11), 113904 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. K. Wahlstrand, Y. H. Cheng, Y. H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Optical nonlinearity in Ar and N2 near the ionization threshold,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 103901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Milner, A. Korobenko, J. W. Hepburn, and V. Milner, “Effects of ultrafast molecular rotation on collisional decoherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(4), 043005 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Steinitz, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Optics of a gas of coherently spinning molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(1), 013004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Karras, E. Hertz, F. Billard, B. Lavorel, J. M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Prior, and I. Sh. Averbukh, “Orientation and alignment echoes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(15), 153601 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase modulation of ultrashort light pulses using molecular rotational wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(1), 013903 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, W. Li, N. Wagner, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Molecular recollision interferometry in high harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(7), 073902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and E. A. Shapiro, “Phase control of rotational wave packets and quantum information,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(23), 233601 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, “Quantum control of molecular gas hydrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143601 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, and C. H. Lin, “Observation of coherent transient birefringence in CS2 vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34(21), 1299–1302 (1975).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Excitation and probe irradiance distributions at the sample plane where the probe is displaced horizontally to the maximum irradiance gradient. (b) The excitation and probe crossing geometry in the yz-plane, and (c) displacement in the xz-plane resulting in a deflection in the x-direction at the segmented photodiode.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) (black) Measured BD signal from air and (violet) fit, which is a sum of both the contribution of N2 and O2. (b) and (c) show the first 12 ps of delay, which includes the first full revival periods, along with fits of N2 (red) and O2 (blue), respectively. The circled feature at about 6 ps highlights the combined effect of the ¾ revival of N2 and ½ revival of O2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured (black) and fit (violet) BD signal of air out to 300 ps of delay where inset shows revival signal and fit about 197 ps. (b) Fourier transform of the BD signal for air (black) and fit for N2 (red) and O2 (blue). Zoomed in plots for (c) low and (d) high rotational states along with fits both neglecting (dashed) and including (solid) centrifugal distortion.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measurements (circles) of ΓJ,J-2 versus J, for both N2 (red) and O2 (blue), and with exponential fits (curves).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (points) Measured and (curves) fit polarization dependence of NLR of air, including (black) parallel, (red) perpendicular, and (blue) magic angle polarizations. Inset shows zoomed in region about 6 ps of delay.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured (circles) BD signal from gaseous CS2 and fit (red curve) including C32S34S and the ground and first excited rotational states of C32S2. (b) ¼, and (c) ½ revival C32S2. (d) shows the ½ revival from C32S34S. In (b) both the black and blue curves neglect centrifugal distortion, and the black curve also assumes only ground state C32S2.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) BD (circles) measurements of CS2 about zero delay with (curves) fits for (black) parallel, (red) perpendicular, and (blue) magic angle polarizations. (b) Zoomed in measurement at the magic angle.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Measured rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of N2 and O2

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Table 2 Measured n2,el and weighted average value γ of air.

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Table 3 Measured rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of CS2

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Table 4 Comparison of γ of CS2 from gas and liquid measurements.

Equations (11)

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Δ n rot (t)= NΔα 2 ε 0 n 0 ( cos 2 θ(t) 1 3 ),
Δn(t)=2 n 2,el I e (t)+ cN 4 ( Δα ) 2 J T J - t I e (t')sin( ω J,J2 ( tt' ) ) e Γ J,J2 ( tt' ) d t ,
T J = 2 15 J(J1) 2J1 ( ρ J,J ( 0 ) ρ J2,J2 ( 0 ) )
μ= μ (0) +αE+β E 2 +γ E 3 ,
n 2,el = 3N 4 ε 0 2 c n 0 n 0,e f (3) Re γ ,
ΔE( τ ) E = 2 2 eπ w 0,p w e k 0,p L Δn( τ ) ,
Δn( τ ) = Δn(t) I p (tτ)dt / I p (t)dt ,
Δ n el Δ n rot γ (Δα) 2 .
Δn( 0 )=Δ n el,// +Δ n rot,// ,
Δn( 90 )= 1 3 Δ n el,// 1 2 Δ n rot,// ,
Δn( 54.7 )= 5 9 Δ n el,// .

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