Abstract

We present, for the first time, a detailed investigation of the impact of second order co-propagating Raman pumping on long-haul 100G WDM DP-QPSK coherent transmission of up to 7082 km using Raman fibre laser based configurations. Signal power and noise distributions along the fibre for each pumping scheme were characterised both numerically and experimentally. Based on these pumping schemes, the Q factor penalties versus co-pump power ratios were experimentally measured and quantified. A significant Q factor penalty of up to 4.15 dB was observed after 1666 km using symmetric bidirectional pumping, compared with counter-pumping only. Our results show that whilst using co-pumping minimises the intra-cavity signal power variation and amplification noise, the Q factor penalty with co-pumping was too great for any advantage to be seen. The relative intensity noise (RIN) characteristics of the induced fibre laser and the output signal, and the intra-cavity RF spectra of the fibre laser are also presented. We attribute the Q factor degradation to RIN induced penalty due to RIN being transferred from the first order fibre laser and second order co-pump to the signal. More importantly, there were two different fibre lasing regimes contributing to the amplification. It was random distributed feedback lasing when using counter-pumping only and conventional Fabry-Perot cavity lasing when using all bidirectional pumping schemes. This also results in significantly different performances due to different laser cavity lengths for these two classes of laser.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M. F. C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, P. Harper, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M3C.1.
    [Crossref]
  2. M. F. C. Stephens, M. Tan, I. D. Phillips, S. Sygletos, P. Harper, and N. J. Doran, “1.14 Tb/s DP-QPSK WDM polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11840–11848 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. Ania-Castañón, “Quasi-lossless transmission using second-order Raman amplification and fibre Bragg gratings,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4372–4377 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Long-haul Transmission Performance Evaluation of Ultra-long Raman Fiber Laser Based Amplification Influenced by Second Order Co-pumping,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper ATh1E.
    [Crossref]
  5. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, and R. J. Mears, “Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1140–1148 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Bromage, J.-C. Bouteiller, H. J. Thiele, K. Brar, L. E. Nelson, S. Stulz, C. Headley, R. Boneck, J. Kim, A. Klein, G. Baynham, L. V. Jorgensen, L. Gruner-Nielsen, R. L. Lingle, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “WDM transmission over multiple long spans with bidirectional Raman pumping,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(1), 225–232 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. D. Mermelstein, K. Brar, and C. Headley, “RIN transfer measurement and modelling in dual-order Raman fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(6), 1518–1523 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Cheng, M. Tang, A. P. T. Lau, C. Lu, L. Wang, Z. Dong, S. M. Bilal, S. Fu, P. P. Shum, and D. Liu, “Pump RIN-induced impairments in unrepeatered transmission systems using distributed Raman amplifier,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11838–11854 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. W. L. Zhang, Y. J. Rao, J. M. Zhu, Z. X. Yang, Z. N. Wang, and X. H. Jia, “Low threshold 2nd-order random lasing of a fiber laser with a half-opened cavity,” Opt. Express 20(13), 14400–14405 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Alcón-Camas and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “RIN transfer in 2nd-order distributed amplification with ultralong fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23569–23575 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).
  12. T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended Reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK Transmission Using Random DFB Fiber Laser Based Raman Amplification and Bidirectional Second-order Pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online)(Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.
    [Crossref]
  14. J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. B. Bristiel, S. Jiang, P. Gallion, and E. Pincemin, “New model of noise figure and RIN transfer in fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 980–982 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).
  17. S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. D. Chang, W. S. Pelouch, S. Burtesv, P. Perrier, and H. Fevrier, “Unrepeatered High-speed Transmission Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.3.

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

M. F. C. Stephens, M. Tan, I. D. Phillips, S. Sygletos, P. Harper, and N. J. Doran, “1.14 Tb/s DP-QPSK WDM polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11840–11848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

B. Bristiel, S. Jiang, P. Gallion, and E. Pincemin, “New model of noise figure and RIN transfer in fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 980–982 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

M. D. Mermelstein, K. Brar, and C. Headley, “RIN transfer measurement and modelling in dual-order Raman fiber amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(6), 1518–1523 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

2001 (1)

Alcón-Camas, M.

Ania-Castañón, J.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

M. Alcón-Camas and J. D. Ania-Castañón, “RIN transfer in 2nd-order distributed amplification with ultralong fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23569–23575 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

Babin, S. A.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baynham, G.

Bilal, S. M.

Boneck, R.

Bouteiller, J.-C.

Brar, K.

Bristiel, B.

B. Bristiel, S. Jiang, P. Gallion, and E. Pincemin, “New model of noise figure and RIN transfer in fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 980–982 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bromage, J.

Chen, X.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

Churkin, D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Dong, Z.

Doran, N. J.

Ellingham, T. J.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

El-Taher, A. E.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fludger, C. R. S.

Fu, S.

Gallion, P.

B. Bristiel, S. Jiang, P. Gallion, and E. Pincemin, “New model of noise figure and RIN transfer in fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 980–982 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Handerek, V.

Harper, P.

M. F. C. Stephens, M. Tan, I. D. Phillips, S. Sygletos, P. Harper, and N. J. Doran, “1.14 Tb/s DP-QPSK WDM polarization-diverse optical phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 22(10), 11840–11848 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hayamizu, N.

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

Headley, C.

Ibbotson, R.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

Irino, S.

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

Jia, X. H.

Jiang, S.

B. Bristiel, S. Jiang, P. Gallion, and E. Pincemin, “New model of noise figure and RIN transfer in fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 980–982 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jorgensen, L. V.

Kablukov, S. I.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karalekas, V.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Klein, A.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lingle, R. L.

Liu, D.

Lu, C.

Mears, R. J.

Mermelstein, M. D.

Mezentsev, V. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, L. E.

Nikulin, M.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

Ohki, Y.

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

Phillips, I. D.

Pincemin, E.

B. Bristiel, S. Jiang, P. Gallion, and E. Pincemin, “New model of noise figure and RIN transfer in fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 980–982 (2006).
[Crossref]

Podivilov, E. V.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, Y. J.

Shimizu, H.

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

Shum, P. P.

Stephens, M. F. C.

Stulz, S.

Sygletos, S.

Tan, M.

Tang, M.

Thiele, H. J.

Tsukiji, N.

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

Turitsyn, S. K.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vatnik, I. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

Wang, L.

Wang, Z. N.

Yang, Z. X.

Yoshida, J.

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

Zhang, L.

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W. L.

Zhu, J. M.

Furukawa Rev. (1)

Y. Ohki, N. Hayamizu, S. Irino, H. Shimizu, J. Yoshida, and N. Tsukiji, “Pump laser module for co-propagating Raman amplifier,” Furukawa Rev. 24, 6–12 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Bristiel, S. Jiang, P. Gallion, and E. Pincemin, “New model of noise figure and RIN transfer in fiber Raman amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(8), 980–982 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

T. J. Ellingham, J. D. Ania-Castañón, R. Ibbotson, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Quasi-lossless optical links for broad-band transmission and data processing,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(1), 268–270 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rep. (1)

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, D. Churkin, I. D. Vatnik, M. Nikulin, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre lasers,” Phys. Rep. 542(2), 133–193 (2014).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, and S. K. Turitsyn, “Simultaneous spatial and spectral transparency in ultralong fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(12), 123903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Turitsyn, J. D. Ania-Castañón, S. A. Babin, V. Karalekas, P. Harper, D. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, A. E. El-Taher, E. V. Podivilov, and V. K. Mezentsev, “270-km ultralong Raman fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(13), 133901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

D. Chang, W. S. Pelouch, S. Burtesv, P. Perrier, and H. Fevrier, “Unrepeatered High-speed Transmission Systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.3.

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Extended Reach of 116 Gb/s DP-QPSK Transmission Using Random DFB Fiber Laser Based Raman Amplification and Bidirectional Second-order Pumping,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online)(Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W4E.1.
[Crossref]

I. D. Phillips, M. Tan, M. F. C. Stephens, M. McCarthy, E. Giacoumidis, S. Sygletos, P. Rosa, S. Fabbri, S. T. Le, T. Kanesan, P. Harper, S. K. Turitsyn, N. J. Doran, and A. D. Ellis, “Exceeding the nonlinear Shannon limit using Raman fibre based amplification and optical phase conjugation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M3C.1.
[Crossref]

M. Tan, P. Rosa, I. D. Phillips, and P. Harper, “Long-haul Transmission Performance Evaluation of Ultra-long Raman Fiber Laser Based Amplification Influenced by Second Order Co-pumping,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper ATh1E.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup of DP-QPSK WDM transmitter, recirculating loop using Raman fibre laser based amplification technique, and coherent receiver. AOM: Acousto-optic modulator; GFF: Gain flattening filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a).Second order co-propagated, counter-propagated pump power, and co-pump power ratio used in the experiments; (b). Raman gain spectra using different pump power ratios.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a). Simulations (dot line) and experimental data (solid line) of signal power profiles with different co-pump power. (b). Simulated noise distributions with different co-pump powers. (c). Simulated Q factors versus launch power per channel at 1666 km using 1545.32 nm channel assuming that the system performance is limited by ASE noise and fibre nonlinearity only. (d). Measured Q factors versus launch power per channel at 1666 km using 1545.32 nm channel. (e). Co-pump power ratios versus signal power variations (SPVs) and Q factor penalties.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a). Q factors of the central channel at 1545.32 nm versus transmission distances using different pump powers. (b). Q factors for all ten channels and received spectra measured at 7082 km with counter-pump only. (c). Q factors for all ten channels and received spectra measured at 5832 km with 27.6% co-pump power ratio.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental setup of the measurement of Raman fibre laser at 1455 nm and output signal.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Measured RIN of the Raman fibre laser and the output signal after 83 km span. (b) Measured mode spacing of the Raman fibre laser.

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